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Book No. 



G. A. A. , . G. A. AITKKN. 
J. G. A. , . J. G. AwJKn. 


W. A. J. A. . W. A. J. ARCHBOLD, 


P, H. B. . . P. H. 
11. B-L. , BlCHAUD 






H. R. D. 13. Tna BMV. H. E. D* BLAKISTON* 

G. 0. B. . . G. 0, BOASK* 


A. B. B. , . THE BKV* A. B. BtroKLAND. 

E. I. 0. * * . E, IKVING CAIITALK. 



J, W* O.K. . J. WILLIS GLA&K. 

E. M. 0. . . Miss OLBKW. 

A, M* C. . . MIBB A. M. CLWIIKE, 


W. 1*. C. . . W. P. Corowwr. 
L. 0. . . LIONBL OUST, F.S.A. 
J. C. P. . , J. 0. DHMMW. 


G. T. D. . , G, TKOKN DUUB*. 


0. H. F. . . 0. H. FIHTH. 

W. G. B. F. THB Bicvr. \V. G. D 




B. G BicHAtti) GAKNKTT, LL.D., C.B. 

J. T. G, . . J. T. Gtt&Mtt, IjL.D., F.S.A. 


B. E G. . . B. E. GIIAVBS. 
J. A. H. . , J, A. HAMH/CON. 


P. J. H, . . P. J. HAATOO. 

E. G, H. . . E. G. HAWKK. 
T, F. H. . . T, F* HHNDBRHOW. 
\V. A. 8. H. W. A, S- HwviNS. 


\V. H. H, . THB Bav. W H, HUTTON, B,D. 


B, 0. J. , . PROPEHBOR B. C. JHITO, M.P, 

T. B. J* , . THE BRV. T. B. 

B. J. J. . . . THB RKV. JISNKIN 


List 'of Writers, 

0. It, K. . . 
J. K 

J. K. L. *. . 

E. L, . 
S. L. 
H. H. Li. . 
JE. M. L. . . 
J. E. L. 
J* H. L. . 
M. MAC!).. . 
2E. M. 

P. L. M, . . 
L. M. M. . . 
A. H. M. . . 

C. M 

N. M 

G. P. M-Y.. 
G. LE G. N. 

C. N 

D. J. O'D. . 

F. M. O'D. , 


J. H. O 
J. !F. P.. , . 















J. F. PAYNE, M.D. 

A. F P. . 
S. L.-P.. . 
D'A, P. .. 

B. B. P. . 
J. M, B. . 
T. S 

W. A. S. . 

C. F. S. . 

B. H. S, * 
G. W. S. . 
L. S 

C. W. S. . 
J. T-T. . . 
H. B. T. . 
S. T 

T. F. T. . 

D. H, T. . 

E. V 

B. H. V. . 
H. M. V. . 

F. W-N. , 
E. T. W. . 
B* B. W. , 


. D'ARCY POWMH, F.Xb.0.8. 
. J. M. BKXU 

. W. A. SHAW. 

* Mtss C. FELL SMITH* 
. B. H. SotJLHDY. 

. THIS Bwv. G. W. SJPUOTT, D..D. 

. H. B, Twira, F.S.A. 

. riwwBHHOU T. F. TOUT. 

. Tim LATH P. ITAOK Tmtw, M,D, 


* OoiOMxti B, H. VTO, H.B., C.B, 
, COLON JSL H. M. Vmiwv 

. B. B. 






POCOCK, SIR GEORGE (1706-1792), 
admiral, bom on March 170U, was son of 
Thomas Pocock, F.R.S., cliaplain in the 
navy, by his wife, a daughter of James 
Master of East Langdon in Kent, and sister 
of Margaret, wife of George Byng, viscount 
Torringt;on [q. v.l In 1718 he entered the 
navy under the charge of his uncle, Streyn- 
sham Master [q, v.], on board the Superbo, in 
which ho was present in the battle of Cape 
Passaro. He was afterwards for three years 
in the Looe, with Captain George Prothero, 
for a year in the Prince Frederick, and 
another in the Argyle ; and passed his ex- 
amination on 19 April 1725, From 7 Doc. 
1726 to May 1728 he was lieutenant of the 
Burford, with the lion. Charles Stewart; 
afterwards in the Romney, with Charles 
Brown Jq. v.] ; in the Canterbury, with Ed- 
mund Hook, in the fleet in the Mediter- 
ranean, under Sir Charles Wager [q. v.l ; in 
the Namur, carrying Wager's flagj ami, on 
20 Feb. 1 783-4, ho was promoted to be com- 
mander of the Bridgwater firesWp. On 
1 Aug, 1738 he was posted to, the Aldborough 
frigate, attached to the fleet in the Medi- 
terranean under Rear-admiral Nicholas Had- 
dock [q. v.] The Aldborough was paid off 
at Deptford in December 1741, and early in 
the following year Pocock was appointed to 
the Woolwich of 40 guns, which he com- 
manded in the Channel during the year. In 
January 1742-3 he was moved mto the 
80-ffwn ship Shrewsbury, much against his 
will, tho smaller ship being, he considered, 
more advantageous in time of war, During 
the few weeks he was in the Shrewsbury ho 
occupied himself in pointing out her defects 
in writing to his cousin, Lord Torrington, 
and complained of being moved, against his 

will, into a large ship, His interest pre- 
vailed ; he was appointed to the Sutherland, 
of 50 guns, and sent for a cruise in the Bay 
of Biscay and on the north coast of Spain. 

In 1744 he convoyed the African trade to 
Cape Coast Castle, and brought home tho 
East India ships from St. Helena. In 1745 he 
again took out the African trade, and, cross- 
ing over to the West Indies, joined Com- 
modore Fitzroy Henry Lee [q. v.l, with whom, 
and afterwards with Commodore Edward 
Leggo [q. v.], he continued on the Leeward 
Islands station. On Legge's death, on 
18 Sept, 1747, he succeeded to the chief 
command. Shortly afterwards, a letter from. 
Sir Edward (afterwards Lord) Hawke [q. v.] 
giving him tho news of the victory over 
L' JKtonduore on 14 Oct., warned him to 
look out for the convoy which had escaped 
(BtmBOWS, Life of JSf<m>&?, p. 185). This 
he did with such good effect that about 
thirty of the ships toll into his hands, and 
some ten more wore picked up by the priva- 
teers. Early in May 1748 he was relieved 
by Rear-admiral Henry Osborne or Osbom 
j"q. v,], and returned to England in the fol- 
lowing August. For tho next four years ho 
resided in St. James's Street, and in July 
1752 was appointed to the Cumberland oa 
the home station. In January 1784 he 
commissioned tho Eagle, and in March sailed 
for the East Indies, with the squadron under 
the command of Itear-admiral Charles^ Wat- 
son [q. v.] The squadron put into ICmsalo, 
where, in a violent gale, the Eagle parted 
her cables, fell on board the Bristol, and was 
only saved from going on shore by cutting 
away her masts* The two ships were con- 
sequently left behind when the squadron 
sailed, and Pocock was ordered to take them 




to Plymouth to refit. He was not ablo to 
reach. Plymouth till 15 April, and afow days 
later he and his ship's company wore turnod 
over to the Cumberland, in. which ho wont; 
nut to the East Indies. 

On 4 Feb. 1755 he was promoted to too 
rear-admiral of the white, and, hoisting' his 
flag onboard the Cumberland, remained with 
"Watson as second in command. On 8 iJec. 
1756 he was advanced to the rank of vice- 
admiral, and, on Watson's death on 1(5 Aug. 
1757, succeeded to the chief command, At 
Madras, in March 1758, ho was joined by 
Commodore Charles Steevens [q.v.], anu^ 
having moved his flag to the Yarmouth of 
64 guns, he put to sea on 17 April, his 
squadron now consisting of seven small ships 
of the line, ships of 64, 60, or 50 guns. On 
the 29th, off Fort St. David, he fell in with 
the French squadron of about the same 
nominal force, all being French East India 
company's ships, except the one 74-ptm ship 
which carried the broad-pennant of Com to 
d'Ache 1 . Pocock led the attack as presorilxstl 
by the English ' Fighting Instructions,' An 
indecisive action followed, the French prac- 
tising the familiar manoeuvre of withdrawing 
in succession and reforming their line to loo- 
ward. Battles fought in this manner novor 
led to any satisfactory result. It generally 
happened that some of the English ships woro 
unable to get into action in time; and on 
this occasion, as on many others, the cap- 
tains of the rearmost ships were accused of 
misconduct. Three were tried by court-- 
martial, found guilty of not using all possi- 
ble means to bring their ships into action, and 
severally sentenced to bo dismissed from thu 
ship, to lose one year's seniority, and to bo 
cashiered. The court failed to recognifio 
that the manoeuvre required of them was 
practically impossible (Minutes of the Court-- 
martial, vol. xxxviii.) 

On 1 Aug. the two squadrons were again 
in sight of each other off Tranquebar, the 
French, with two 74-gun ships, having a 
considerable nominal superiority. It was 
not, however, till the 3rd that Pocock suc- 
ceeded in bringing them to action, and then 
in the same manner and with the same 
indecisive result. The French then went 
to Mauritius, and Pocock, having wintered 
at Bombay, returned to the Coromandel 
soast in the following spring. The French 
fleet of eleven ships did not come on the 
coast till the end of August, and on 2 Sept. 
it was sighted by the English, After losing 
it in a fog, and finding it again on the 
8th, off Pondicherry, on the 10th Pocock 
brought it to action, but again in the manner 
prescribed by the < Fighting Instructions,' 

and with unsatisfactory results. The iijjlit- 
ing was morn severe than in the previnus 
ar.tiotiH ; on both sides uwny men wn* Killed 
tui wounded, and the whips were much 
shattered, but no aclvnutn^e was gained by 
either party. That- the pmo of victory 
finally rtwiained with the ttnjjlish wns tluo 
not. to I'ocoek and the Mist Indwn squadron, 

but. to tho course of the war in 
waters. In the following year 1'ocorK re* 
turned to I0ti^ln<l, arrhinjy in tho I>O\VIIH 
oniWSwit. On (t May I7<1 IHMVHS notni- 
nated a kuitfht of the* Hath, mid about the, 
samo time was promoted to bo admiral of 
tho bluo. 

in February I70i* he, was nppoiuted com- 
eiMU-uhiof of *a secret- expedition/ 
, in fact, for the reduction of Ita- 
vaua, i wbu'.li Hailed from Spit bend on f Murclu 
tho land forces being' under the command of 
the Kurl of Albeiarle|se Ki-Jl'i'Ml., (Hjoitiii}, 
third KAun ow Aiiin-iMAHi.HL <>u ^0 April it, 
arrival at. Martinique, suiletl ugiitn onU Mny, 
and, taking t,ho shorter thoitgb dmuioroiw 
routo on the north side of (-ulm, uiuier Urn 
oilici(nt. pilotnjjo of < 1 pt-ain Inhn Mlpbin- 
Htoti [<J. v,J, landed Allietimrbul tl trooprt 
nix imhw'to the (Mist. wit nl of llnvana on 
7 June, undiT thn imniciliuto nnuliirt of 
Commodore Keppel, Albertiarle's Itrolher 
fseo KBi'Pwr,, AUGUSTUS, \'fsrot'NT KI-U'IMJI,). 
Tho siogc-works were, at onco ctunnienci't], 
A hirtfo body of seamen won* put on nho, 
and ' v/ruxtrouHiy UHofut itt tninliu^ tho 
cannon and ordnmuw Hton*s of all kiiuls, 
manniTi^ trho batt^rlon, inuluii^ iWines, nml 
inHUp|)lyinf(thearnjy with water *(lUiATwm 
ii. 547).' By lUu Jft)th Mm batteries wem 
ready, and on 1 July <petted a beitvy lire, 
Rtipportwl by three ships of the line, wider- 
tho iimnediato ctm\nuuul <f (Captain Ilervey 
of the Dragon, Tho Muro was mign^i't), 
but, after Hotna six hours, the ships WITH 
obliged to haul out of action, two of them 
tho Oambridgtv and thu Dmjftm- having 
BUBtained hoavy loss and muc?)i tiiumttfu |,wm 
HHUVMY, AuoirsTtm JOHN, third KAUI, o^ 
BHIBTOI,], Aft^r this ttw work of the ileet* 
wa mainly limittut to jwtvwitititf any uiove- 
mont oix tho part, ol the Spaniwlt whips 
which might; otWwiiw liavt* efMH*tuaily hin- 
dered tho English works, Tho Knglwh 
batteries gradually Hitbduod Jho enemy V tire. 
though the Spaniard* wtm* jnatenallyttMHisttnl 
by the climati^ which rtrnderwi tluu^xpostirt* 
and fatiffue very deadly. By ij July mom 
than half of thts army, and w thw* t.hju* 
and floamen, -wra down with Hiukm*sH 
Under all diftjcultii*fi, hoivevur,tho wm^o wim 
persevered with, Tho IVloro wan taken by 
etorm on JiO July, aud on 13 Aug, thu town, 


~-r~1 -TT^TMJI nn-.-rn i-irXu-QL. r . .- "_^-___r u. i_ _ . _ -"i," 11 m -~r-__ii rm-m"i_imunmtTwiTH___ui-L___ 

with all its dependencies and the men-of- 
war in the harbour to the number of twelve 
ships of the line, besides smaller vessels 
surrendered by capitulation. The money 
value of the prize was enormous. The share 
of Pocock alone, as naval commander-in- 
chief, was 122,697 10$. 6d. ; that of Albe- 
marle was the same. In November Pocock 
delivered over the command to Keppel, who 
had iust been promoted to flag rank, and 
sailed for England with five ships of the 
line, several of the prizes, and some fifty of 
the transports. The voyage was an unfor- 
tunate one. Two of the line-of-battle ships, 
worn out and rotten, foundered in the open 
sea, though happily without loss of life. 
Two others had to throw all their guns over- 
board, and with great difficulty reached Kin- 
sale. Twelve of the transports went down 
in a gale ; many were wrecked in the Chan- 
nel, with the loss of most of their crews; 
and, in those ships which eventually got 
safe in, a large proportion of the men died, 
worn out with fatigue, hunger, thirst, and 
cold. Pocock, in the Namur, arrived at 
Bpithead on 13 Jan. 1763. 

He had no further service, and in a letter 
to the admiralty, dated 11 Sept. 1766, stated 
that * the king had been pleased to grant his 
request of resigning his flag,' and desired 
that ' his nanio might be struck off the list 
of admirals/ which was accordingly done. 
It was generally believed that this was in 
disgust at the appointment of Sir Charles 
Saundors [q, v.], his junior, to bo first lord of 
the admiralty. Although Saundera's patent, 
which was dated 1/3 Sept., may have been the 
deciding reason, the prospect of continued 
peace, his large fortune, and a wish not to 
stand in the way of his poorer friends doubt- 
less had their weight, lie died at his house 
011 Ourzon Street, Mayfair, on 3 April 1792, 
and was buried at Twickenham. A monu- 
numt to his memory is in Westminster 

Pocock married in November 1703 Sophia 
Pitt, daughter of George Francis Drake, 
graud daughter of Sir Francis Drake of Buck- 
land Monachorum, Devonshire, third baronet, 
and widow of Commodore Digby Dent, and 
"by her left issue a daughter and one son, 
(ieorge (1765-1840), created a baronet at 
the coronation of George IV. A portrait 
belongs to the family. The face is that of a 
young man, and it would soem probable that 
the ribbon of tho Bath was painted in many 
years after the portrait was taken. Two en- 
gravings, one by J. S, Miller, are mentioned 
by Bromley. 

[Glwnock's Biogr. Nar. iv- 383 ; Naml 
^witli portrait),, via, 441, xxi. 49 1; 


Beatson's Nav. and Mil. Memoirs, vol. ii.; 
Grent. Mag. 1866, ii. 546; Burke's Peerago and 
Baronetage ; Official Letters and other docu- 
ments in tho Public Record Office ; La Marino 
fran^aise sous le Kegne de Louis XV, par H. 
Riviere ; Batailles navales de lu Prance, par 0. 
Ti-oude, vol. ij J. K. L, 

POCOCK, ISAAC (1782-1835), painter 
and dramatist, born in Bristol on 2 March 
1782, was eldest son of Nicholas Pocock 
[a. v.], marine painter, by Ann, daughter of 
John Evans of Bristol. William Innes Pocock 
[ft. v.] was his brother. Isaac inherited his 
lather's artistic talents, and about 1798 be- 
came a pupil of Romney. After Bonmey's 
death he studied under Sir AVilliamBeechey 
[q. vj He acquired something of the dis- 
tinctive style of each of his masters. William 
Hayley 's son, Thomas Alphonso Hayley, was 
a fellow student under Romney, and in 
February 1799 Pocock accompanied Romney 
on a month's visit to the elder Hayley at 
Eartham. During this visit Romney made 
drawings of his two pupils, and Hayley ad- 
dressed a sonnet to Pocock, beginning ' In- 
genious son of an ingenious sire' (Life of 
jRownci/, p. 292). 

Between 1800 and 1805 Pocock exhibited 
subject-pictures and portraits at the Royal 
Academy, and occasionally sent portraits 
during the next fifteen years. In 1807 his 
'Murder of St. Thomas a Becket' was 
awarded the prize of 100/. given, by tho 
British Institution. In 1812 Pocock be- 
came a member of the Liverpool Academy, 
and sent to their exhibitions paintings in 
both oils and water-colours. His last his- 
torical painting was an altar-piece for the 
now chapel at Maidenhead. Tho Garrick 
Club has a portrait by him of Hartley as 

In 1818 Pocock inherited from his uncle, 
Sir Isaac Pocock, soxne property at Maiden- 
head, and thenceforth he mainly do voted 
himself to the drama. For some time he 
lived in London, and served in the Royal 
"Westminster Volunteers, in which he was 
raised to the rank of major l by tho suffrage 
of its members/ He afterwards became a 
J,P, and D.L. for Berkshire, and was an 
active magistrate. Pocock died at Ray 
Lodge, Maidenhead, on 23 Aug. 1885, and 
was buried in the family vault at Oookham. 
He married, on 24 Aug. 1812, Louisa, 
daughter of Henry Hime of Liverpool, and 
loft three daughters and a son (see below). 

Pocock's first piece was a musical farce in 
two acts, entitled ' Yes or No/ It was pro- 
duced at the Hay market on 81 Aug, 1808, 
and acted ten times. Gexiest calls it a poor 
piece, but Oultoxx says it had some effective 


broad humour (GENEST, viii. 109-10; OUL- 
TON, London Theatres, iii. 77). It was fol- 
lowed by numerous similar productions. 

Of tho musical farces, ' Hit or Miss/ 
with music by 0. Smith,, first given at the 
Lyceum on 26 Feb. 1810, was by far the 
most successful, being acted ' at least thirty- 
three times ' (GENTSST, viii. 160-7). A fourth 
edition of the printed work appeared in 1811 . 
It is printed in Dibdin's ' London Theatre/ 
vol.xxiv.,as well as in Cumberland's 'British 
Theatre/ vol. xxxiv. According to the * Dra- 
matic Censor/ it produced 'on an average 
100 guineas at half-price on every evening 
that it is given/ Its success was chiefly due 
to the playing of Mathews as Dick Cypher 
(cf. OXBBRBT, Dramatic Biography, v. 5, 6). 
In 1815 Mathews rendered like service to 
Pocock's ' Mr. Farce- Writer ' at Covent Gar- 
den (GENEST, viii. 540). The piece was not 
printed. * Twenty Years Ago/ a melodra- 
matic entertainment, was given at the Ly- 
ceum in 1810, 'Anything New/ with over- 
ture and music by C. Smith, given on 1 July 
1811, had some lively dialogue (Dramatic 
Censor; OTTETON, iii. 125); but the 'Green- 
eyed Monster/ produced on 14 Oct. with 
Dowton, Oxberry, and Miss Mellon in the 
cast, was denounced by the ' Dramatic Cen- 
sor' * as a last experiment which should be 

quite final to Mr. Pocock/ It was, however, 
revived at Drury Lane in 1828, when Wil- 
liam Farren [q, v.] and Ellen Tree acted in 
it. The music was composed by T. Welsh. 
A burletta, called ' Harry Le Roy/ by Pocock, 
was also given in 1811. Pocock's 'Miller 
and his Men/ a very popular melodrama, 
with music by Bishop, which attained a 
second edition in 1813, was still played in 
1835 (cf. British Drama, 1864, vol. U M - 
CTTMBBELAIO), Collection; DICK, Standard 
Plays, 1883 ; GENEST, viii. 441, 444, 472). 
' For England Ho I ' a melodramatic opera, 
produced at Oovent Garden on 15 Dec. 
1813, and acted ' about eleven times/ had, 
according to Genest, 'considerable merit 7 
(ib. viii. 420-1). It was published in 1814 

(cf^CUMBEBLiNT), vol. XXXix,) 'John of 

Paris/ a comic opera adapted from the 
French, was produced at Oovent Garden on 
12 Oct. 1814, and acted seventeen times. 
Liston played an innkeeper. When revived 
at the Haymarket in 1826, Madame Vestris 
was in the cast (GBNEST, viii. 475-7). It was 
again played at Covent Garden in 1835 (cf. 
CFMBBRLiOT), vol. xxvi.) < Zembuca, or the 
Net-maker/ first given, at Oovent Garden, as 
' a holiday piece/ on 27 March 1815, was 
pkyed twenty-eight times (GBNEST, viii. 
479). The ' Maid and the Magpie/ a drama 
in three acts, a second edition of which 

t Pocock 

pearecl in 1 816, was adapted from I hn Frouch 
of L, C. Gaignios! and J, M. Bawlouiii. hi 
was first printed in 1814 (>.f. Umv, vol. 
Ixxxvii. ; (Jmni.Tmr.ANn, vol. xxviii.) '.Ro- 
binson Oniaoo, or tho Bold HuonuuwH/ a 
romantic drauiu in two arts, was produced MM 
an Eastor plows at Covont (Union in IS 1 7, 
with Farley in tho v-rolu, and ,1. S, 
Grimaldi as Friday. l<< wan published, wil-U 
'remarks/ by Unorgo Daniel, and is printed 
in Laey's and Dick's 'Collodions.' It WUH 
revived in 1820. , 

'Pocock subsequently aimed at a higher 
species of composition, and converted sonw 
of the Wavorloy novels into operatic dramas* 
On 1:3 March 1818 his Mtob Roy Martfi'Pjyfor, 
or Auld Lang Syne/ an operatic drama iti 
three acts, was first played at Oovent ( (iirden, 
Macready took the title-role, 'which first* 
brought him into play' (OxtiHR'itY, v. -11); 
Liston played Bailliu JSTicol Jurvie, and MISM 
Stephens Di Veruon, It was aetod t-hirty- 
four times (GHNBHT, viti, (J57X It was playetl 
at Bath, for Farron'e bcmtmt;, on 15 April 
1815, when Warcle was vftry successful ,H 
Rob Roy (/;, p. 072), In tho revival of tho 
following year Farron took Listen's pluco 
as tho Baillie (ib, ix. 41), This play and 
Pocock r B ' John of Pans * wt^e ffiv<m together 
at Bath OH the occasion of Warde's lure- 
well to the Btapfo, on 5 June 1820 {//, ix, 
74), Wallack play<!tl in 'Uob Roy* at Drury 
Lane in January ,18^0; and Madame Vest 
impersonated I)i Vornon at tlui Havmarlteti 
in October 1834. The piny was published in 
1818, and is in Oxberry's ' Mow English 
Drama/ vol. x, ; * The British 1 )ruma/ vnl ii. ; 
Lacy, voi iii., and in DieVs <Htuntlunl 
Plays/ * Moatmso, or thn Ohildnm of thu 
Mist/ threo acts, produced at Oovtmt harden 
on 14 Fob. 1HSJ2, was not RO successful, 
though, it was played xiinetenn or twenty 
times. Liston appeared aa Dtiirald DnkettV 
(i*. ix ; 157, 158, 670). ' Woodstock/ iive- 
acts, first acted on $0 May iKiM/waft a com- 
parative failure, though the cast included 
Charles Komblo and Farren, < Ptsveril of t-ho 
Peak/ three acts, produced on S2L Oct. <r 
the same year, wa acted nino timea. ' Tlu> 
Antiquary' was alo unBiiccesfifuL i ITornt,*, 
Sweet Home, or the llanjs dus Vaohw/ a 
musical entertainment, was produced at 
Covent Garden on 19 March \m\ with 
Madame Yestris and Koeley in the east (#>* 
ix. 481), 

Besides the plays mentioned, PoaoeTfi 
wrote The Hoir of Veroni ' and Tho F.ihor* 
tine/ operas, 1817; ' Husbands and Wivn*/ 
a farce, 1817; *Tho Eoblw'w Wifo/ a nn 
mantic drama in two acts, adapted from 1.1m 
German, 1829 (OUAUIJBWLANJ), voL autviii.j 



LA.CY, vol. Ixix,), music by F. Hies; 'The 
Corporal's Wedding/ a farce, 1830; 'The 
Omnibus/ an interlude, 1831 ; ' Country 
Quarters' and 'The Clutterbucks/ farces, 
183^ ; ' Scan Mag/ farce, 1833 ; < The Ferry 
and the Mill/ melodrama, 1833; 'King 
Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table/ 
a Christmas equestrian spectacle, 1834-5. 
'The Night Patrol!/ a fa?ce, and * Cavaliers 
and Roundheads/ an adaptation of *01d 
Mortality/ were posthumous. 

(1819-1886), born on 28 July 1819, was 
educated at Eton, and Merton College, Ox- 
ford (B.A. in 184:2), and was called to the 
bar, 19 Nov. 1847, In 1872 he printed pri- 
vately ' Franklin, and other Poems.' lie 
married, on 4 April 1850, Louisa, second 
daughter of Benjamin Currey. lie died on 
28 May 1886. 

[Berry's Genealogies of Berkshire, pp. 1 16-22 ; 
Cent. Mag. 1835, ii. 657-8; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Artists ; Bryan's. Diet, of Painters and En- 
gravers, 1880 ; Memoirs of T. A. Hayley, ed. J. 
Johnson, pp. 421, 449-50; W. Hay ley's Life of 
Romney, pp. 201-4 ; Baker's Biogr. Drnmatica, 
K 675, 787 ; 6-onest's Account of the English 
Stage, vol. viii. ix. passim ; Brit. HUB. Out. ; 
Pocock's Christian name is erroneously given as 
James in Diet, of Living Authors, mid some 
other places. See also Poster's Alumni Oxon. 
and Mon at the Bar.] G. L CK N. 

POCOCK, LEWIS (1808-1882), art 
amateur, born in South London on 17 Jan, 
1808, was the third and youngest son of 
Thomas Pocock, by his wife Margaret Ken- 
nedy. . He was educated partly in England 
and partly at Tours in France* lie was 
through life a great lover of art, and in 
1887 took the leading part in founding the 
Art Union of London. Ho acted as one 
of its honorary secretaries (George Godwin 
[S' v *] being his first colleague) from that 
time till his death, and in the early years of 
the union devoted much time and labour to 
his duties. In 1844 Pocock and Godwin 
brought out, in connection with the Art 
Union, an edition of the 'Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress/ illustrated by H. C, Soloiis. Pocock 
contributed a bibliographical chapter, 

Pocock was for many years a director of 
the Argus life-assurance office, and in 1842 
published 'A familiar Explanation of the 
Nature of Assurances upon Lives . . . with an 
extensive Bibliographical Catalogue of Works 
on the Subject.' In 1862 he patented a scheme 
for electric lighting, Pocock was an extensive 
collector of Johnsoniana of all descriptions. 
His collection was sold before Ms death. Ho 
was for some time treasurer of the Graphic 
Society, and an active member of tho Society 

for the Prevention of Cruelty to A nimals. He 
died at 70 Gower Street, London, on 1 7 Oct. 
1882, and was buried at Highgate. He mar- 
ried, on G Sept. 1 838, Eliza, dau ghter of George 
Barrett, esq., and left twelve children. 

[Private information ; Report of the Art 
Union of London for 1883; Times, 21 Oct. 
18S2 ; Builder, 28 Get, 1882; Academy, 28 Oct. ; 
Graphic, 23 Dec. 1882 (with portrait).] 

GK LB G. N. 

POCOCK, NICHOLAS (1741 P-1821), 
marine painter, the eldest son of Nicholas 
Pocock, a Bristol merchant, by Mary, one of 
the daughters and coheiresses of William 
limes ot Leuchars, Fifeshire, was born at 
Bristol about 1741. His mother was left a 
widow with three sons, the support of whom 
devolved on Nicholas. He had little edu- 
cation, and must have gone to sea early* 
Before 1707 he was in the employ of Kichard 
Champion, a merchant, who was undo of 
Richard Champion [q. v.l the ceramist, and 
in 1767 lie left Bristol for South Carolina 
in command of the Lloyd, one of Cham- 
pion's ships. He afterwards commanded the 
Minerva, another of Champion's ahipa. His 
talent for art showed itself m his aeajournalR, 
which are illustrated by charming 1 Ara wings 
in Indian ink of the principal incident of each 
clay. Six volumes of these journals wore in 
the possession of his {grandsons, George and 
Alfred Fripp, painters in water-colo urs. IV 
cock was on friendly terms with the Cham J 
pions, by whom he was much esteemed, 

In 1780 Pocock sent a sea piece (his first 
attempt in oil painting) to tho Royal Aca- 
demy. It arrived too late for exhibition, 
but Sir Joshua Reynolds wrote him an en- 
couraging letter, with advice as to future 
practice, and recommended him to 'unite 
landscape to ship painting/ In 1782 he ex- 
hibited at the Koyal Academy for the first 
time. His subject was ' A View of Kedoliif 
Church from the Sea Banks/ and ho con- 
tinued to exhibit (sea and battle piecos 
mainly) at the Royal Academy and the 
British Institution till 1816. In those works 
he turned to account many of his sketches in 
South Carolina and tho "West Indies, 

In 1789 he left Bristol and settled in Lon- 
don, where he rose to distinction as a painter 
of naval engagements. In 1 796 he was living 
at 12 Groat George Street, Westminster, 
where his visiting circle included many ad- 
mirals and other officers of tho navy, and 
some theatrical celebrities, including the 
Kembles and Mrs. Siddons^ 

In 1804 he took part in founding the 
"Water-colour Society (now the Hoyai So- 
ciety of Painters in Water-colours), of which 



he subsequently refused the presidency; and 
though he withdrew on the temporary dis- 
solution of the society in 1812, he continued 
to contribute to its exhibitions till 1817. 
He exhibited altogether 3^0 works, 3 82 at 
the Water-colour Society, 113 at the Koyal 
Academy, and twenty-five at the British 
Institution. In 1817 he left London for 
36 St, James's Parade, Bath, and he dial 
at Maidenhead, Berkshire, on 19 March 1821, 
at the age of eighty. 

Pocock married Ann, daughter of John 
Evans of Bristol, His sons Isaac and Wil- 
liam Innes are noticed separately. 

Though Pocock earned his reputation 
mainly by his pictures of naval engagements 
(for which the wars of his time s applied 
ample material) and other sea pieces, he also 
painted landscapes in oil and water-colour. 
As an artist he had taste and skill, but his 
large naval pictures, though accurate and 
careful, are wanting in spirit, and in water-* 
colours he did not get much beyond tho 
'tinted' drawings of the earlier draughts- 


There are two of his sea-fights at Hamp- 
ton Court, and four pictures by him at 
Greenwich Hospital, including tho <Ko- 
jmlse of the French under Do Grasso by Sir 
Samuel Hood's Fleet at St. Kitts in January 
1782.' The Bristol Society of Merchants 
possess a picture of the defeat of the samo 
French admiral in the West Indies, 12 April 
1782. This was engraved in line by Francis 
Chesham, and published 1 March 1784, the 
society subscribing ten guineas towards the 
expense. Many others at his marine subjects 
Lave been engraved. 

Four of his water-colours, two dated 1790 
and one 1795, are at the South Kensington 
Museum. Three of these are of Welsh 
scenery. Other drawings by him are in tho 
British Museum and the Whitworth Insti- 
tute at Manchester. He illustrated Fal- 
coner's < Shipwreck/ 1804, and Clarke and 
M< Arthur's Life of Napoleon/ 3809. The 
engravings (eight in the former and six in 
the latter) are by James Fittler. 

A portrait of Nicholas Pooock by his eldest 
son Isaac [q. v,l was exhibited at the lloyal 
Academy m 1811, and there is a caricature 
of him in A. E. Chalon's drawing of 'Artists 
in the British Institution' (see Portfolio, No- 
vember 1884, p. 219), 

[Redgrave's Diot; Bryan's Diet. (Graves 
and Armstrong); Owen's Two Centuries of 
Ceramic Art at Bristol ; Rogtfs < Old ' Water- 
colour Society ; Notes and Queries, 4th ser, x.L 
331 and 8th sw. iv. 108, 197, and 291 ; Loslio 
and Taylor's Life <rf Sir Joahiia Keynolck] 


f y v - i - - *- 

and antiquary, born at (iravcscnd, Kent, on 
21 l<V.b. ,17(10, \va,s tho second son of John 
Pocock (17iK)~ 177:4), grocer, ,11 e wan edu- 
cated at tho free school, and, after a short 
experience ofhi father's business, established 
himaelf us a printer in IHH native town, 1 lo 
married in 1770 his first wife, Ann Stillard 
(d. 17U1), by whom he had throe children. 
In "1780 ho'ibundod tho lirst circulating li- 
brary and printingr>nice at Hravesend ( IN)* 
COOK, G/trotioltH/y, J7iK>, p, M). II m first 
literary productions \vere some children's 
books. In 17iW lie married hi,s Hoe.ond wife, 
a daughter of Jolm Himln (tt. l8lS), \vlu> 
boro him Movtm children, Ho puhltNhed au 
excellent history of ({raveMoiuI (1707), m 
well as other contrihutitnM to the topogra- 
phical and family history of Kent, He nlwo 
wroto a history of Dartfonl, and noniti otlttjr 
works, which wore never printed, 

Pocook was a man of great v*rwitiJity lint; 
imperfect biiHiiwHH cupacity, and cowl'mied 
tho occupations of lujokMefler, jn'inter, pub- 
lisher, naturaliHt, botanist, and local anti- 
quary, Ho WIIH proud of IUM collect ioius 
(HOC Journal* ap, AKNOI.O), hut was ohli^ed 
occanionally to H(ll Hperimcns. HIM latter 
yuarw were pulsed in coniparutive poverty, 
lie died on 2(i Oct. ICT), and was Inirind at 

PocockV chief puhlinitionn were: 1, < IN)- 
cock's OliildV First Book, or llewiim.? tnttdo 
easy/ n,d,, and * Child's Second Booh,' ti.d. 
(the two weru bouiul up and Hold m i IV 
cock's Spelling Book),* & * A Ohnmolo^y 
of tho moat Komarlwble ICvettts that Imv'o 
occtirrod in tlii> Turishes of OmveMeml, 
Milton, and J)nton, in Kent. 1 UravoNomL 
1700, 8vo, , 'Tim' History of the Incor- 
porated Town and 1'umhes of drnvwemi 
and Milton in Kent,* (Jravwnl f 17i7, >ltt 
platon, 4. * Kent isli Kraguientn/ UraveHfnd, 
18013, 8vo, f>, < Memoirs of tho Family of 
Tuftcw, Barls of Thimet/ (Imvcseud, 1H1H), 
8vo. 0* 'PnooukV* (Iravesetid Water (fnm- 
panion, flocribing all the Towns, OlnuvheH, 
Villngee, Parishes, and UontJemen's Si'iits, 
as^cun from tho Thnin< ht^twcen Ltwdun 
Bridge and (kavoMerul/ (3ravisend, iHOiJ, 
am, Svo, 7, *Pocodk*H MargaUs WaUr (?*- 
panion/ Gravestmd, 180^, sm, Hvo, (No, (I 
continued to Margate). H. * Pocock's Kvti'- 
lasting Songster, containing a vSele(!t,ion of 
the most approved Honga/ Orawsend, 1804, 
am, 8vo S), Pouock^s Hea Captains 1 ANHIH- 
+. fl . n f TI\I, Intolligenne ior Salt-water 


Pocock \ 

E. Knatchbull, Bart., and Filmer Honey- 
wood/ Gravesend, 1802, 8vo. 

[Or. M. Arnold's Robert Pocock, the Gravesend 
Historian, 1883, 8vo, which contains Pocock's 
Journals for 1812, 1822, and 1823.] H. ft. T. 

1849), architect, the son of a builder, was born 
in 1779 in the city of London. He was 
apprenticed to his father, and then entered 
the olllce of 0. Boassloy* His first essays in 
art were landscape-paintings ; but at the age 
of twenty he had begun to work as an archi- 
tect. From 1799 to 1827 he exhibited de- 
signs of minor works at the Royal Academy, 
the most ambitious of which was a * Design 
lor a Temple of Fame.' In 1820-2 he de- 
signed the hall of the Leathersellors' Com- 
pany in ftt. Helen's Place, and in 1827 the 
priory at llornsey. The headquarters of the 
London militia, Bunhill Row, were designed 
by him ; the Wesleyan Centenary Hall m 
3 lisliopHgato Street Within (1840) ; Christ 
Church, Virginia Water; and a great imrnber 
of smaller works. Pocock died on 29 Oct. 
1 849 in Trevor Terrace, Knightsbridge, Lon- 

He published : 1. 'Architectural Designs 
for Rustic Cottages,' London, 1807, 4lo ; of 
which new editions were published in 1819 
and J 823. 2. * Modern Finishings for Rooms/ 
London, 18Ll,4to; also ropublishud in 1823. 
8. ' Designs for Churches and Chapels/ Lon- 
don, 1819, 4to. 4. 'Observations on Bond 
of Brickwork' (1639), written for the In- 
stitute of British Architects, of which so- 
ciety he was an early member* 

[Diet, of Architecture; Itodgravo's Diet, of 
Artists; Q-ont. Mag. 1849, ii. 604.] L. B. 

18JJ6), lieutenant in the navy and author, 
second son of Nicholas Pocock Tq. v.], marine 
painter, and younger brother of Isaac Pocock 
[q.v .], artist and dramatist, was born at Bristol 
in June 1783, He entered the navy in 1795, 
served more especially in the Bast and West 
Indies, and from 1807 to 1810, in the St. 
Albans , made three several voyages to the Cape 
of Good lloptt, St. Helena, and China. In the 
last of these the convoy was much shattered 
in a storm oil' the Cape of Good Hope, and 
was detained at St. llelena to refit, .During 
this time Pocock made several sketches of 
the island, which, with some account of its 
history, he published as ' Five Views of the 
Island of St. Helena' in 1815, when public 
interest was excited in the island as the resi- 
dence allotted to Bonaparte. On 1 Aug. 1811 
Pocock was promoted to be lieutenant of the 
ICagle, with Captain (afterwards Sir Charles) 
'Uowley [q,.v.], and in her saw muck active 


boat-service in the Adriatic, She was paid 
off in 1814, and Pocock had no further em- 
ployment afloat, lie appears to have amused 
his leisure with reading, writing, and paint- 
ing ; he is described as a good linguist, and 
is said to have published in 1815 ' Naval 
Ilecords : consisting of a series of Engravings 
from Original Designs by Nicholas Pocock, 
illustrative of the principal Engagements at 
Sea since the Commencement of the War in 
1703, with an Account of each Action' 
(WATT, BibL Brit.) There is no copy in the 
British Museum. lie is also said to have 
written some pamphlets on naval subjects, 
none of which seem now accessible. He has 
been confused with William Fuller Pocock 
[q. v.], architect and artist. He died at Bead- 
ing on 13 March 1836. Ho was twice mar- 
ried, and left issue. 

[Gent. Mag. 1835 ii. 657, 1836 ii. 324 ; Navy 
Lists.] J, K. L. 

orientalist, was born in 1604 at Oxford, in a 
house near the Angel Inn {HBA.BNB, Col- 
lections, Q&. Doble, ii. 125 w.),in the parish of 
St. Peter-in-the-East, and there baptised on 
8 Nov. 1004 (register of baptisms; WOOD, 
Athena, ed. Bliss, iv, 318 ; I^OSTJDB, AluwwA 
Oxo7i. s.v.) His father, Edward Pocock, 
matriculated (as { pleb. fit.' of Hampshire) at 
Magdalen College in 1586, was demy from 
1585 to 1591, held a fellowship from 1501 
to 1004, proceeded B.A. 1588, M.A. 1592, 
and B.D. 1602 (BLOXAM, lieyixter Mayd. 
Coll iv. 225 ; CiAttic, Register Univ. of Oa~ 
ford t vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 147), and was ap- 
pointed vicar of Clueveley, Berkshire, in. 
1604 (TwBLLS,Life prefixed to the Thwluyical 
Works of the Learned 2)r. Pocock, 2 vols., 
London, 1740, i. 1). The son was educated 
at the free school at Thame, Oxfordshire, then, 
under Kichard Butcher, and matriculated at 
Magdalen Hall, Oxford, on 4 June 1619 
(CLAEK, Register, vol. ii, pt. ii. p. 375). In 
the following year he migrated to Corpus 
Christi College, whore te was admitted 
' discipulus ; (i.e. scholar) on 11 Bee. 1 020, 
and where his tutor was Gamaliel Chase. 
Pococke graduated B.A. on 28 Nov. 1022, 
and M.A. on S8 March 1626 ($. vol, ii. pt. iii. 
p. 412), and was elected a probationer fellow 
of Corpus on 24 July 1628 (KoginterC.C.O.) 
He received priest's orders on 20 Dec. 1620 
from Bishop Richard Corbet [c[.v."t, in ac- 
cordance with the terms of his fellowship 
(TwELXiS, 1. c. i. 18). He had already boguir 
to devote bis attention to oriental studies, 
and had profited, iirst at Oxford, by the lec- 
tures of the German Arabist, Mattuias Paso* 

, v.], and later, near London, by the i 



struction of the learned vicar of Tottenham 
High Cross, William Bedwell [q. v.], the 
father of Arabic studies in England. The 
first result of these preparations was an 
edition of those parts of tl^e Syriac version of 
the New Testament which were not included 
in the previous editions of 1555 and 1627. 
Pococke discovered the four missing catholic 
epistles (Pet. ii., John ii., iii,, and Jude) in a 
manuscript at the Bodleian Library, and tran- 
scribed them in Syriac and Hehrew charac- 
ters, adding the corresponding Greek text, a 
Latin translation, and notes. Gerard John 
Vossius, professor at Leyden, canon of Can- 
terbury, and f dictator in the commonwealth 
of learning/ after seeing Pococke's manu- 
script, on a visit to Oxford (MACRAY , Ann, 
HodL p, 74), warmly encouraged him to 
publish it, and, by the influence of Vossius 
and under the supervision of Ludoyicus de 
I)ieu, the work appeared at Leyden in 1630, 
with the title of ' Versio et notse ad quatuor 
epistolas Syriace/ 

In the same year the chaplaincy to the 
English 'Turkey Merchants' at Aleppo 
became vacant by the retirement of Charles 
Eobson [q. v.] of Queen's College. Pococke 
was appointed to the vacancy in 1629, and , 
in October 1630 arrived at Aleppo, where he 
resided for over five years. During this time 
he made himself master of Arabic, which he 
not only read but spoke fluently, studied 
Hebrew, Samaritan, Syriac, and Ethiopic, 
and associated on friendly terjns with learned 
Muslims and Jews, who helped him in col- 
lecting manuscripts, which was one of the 
chief ends he had in view when accepting 
the post, and in which he was extraordinarily 
successful. Pusey remarked that of all the 
numerous collector of manuscripts whose 
treasures have enriched the Bodleian Library, 
Pococke alone escaped being deceived and 
cheated in his purchases (PusEY, Cat. M8& 
BodL ii. prsef. iv.) Besides acquiring a large 
number of Arabic, Hebrew, Ethiojnc, and Ar- 
menian manuscripts, arid a Samaritan penta* 
teuch (BEBNAKD, Cat Zibr. MS8. pp. 274-8), 
1 * ^ brought back a copy of Mey dam's collection 
of 6,013 Arabic proverbs, which he translated 
in 1635 (Bodl. MS, PQC. 392), but never- 
published, though a specimen was printed 
by Schultens in 1773 and another part in 
1775, For travel and exploration he con- 
fessed ha had no taste (TwEixs, i. 4), but his 
observation of eastern manners ana natural 
history served him in good stead as a comT 
mentator on the Old Testament (cf. his 
famous correction of ' wailing like the dra- 
gons ' in Micah i, 8, into 'howling like the 
jackals*). As a pastor he was devoted and 
indefatigable (TwEiis, i. 4) ; and when th.0 


plague raged at Aleppo in 1034, and many 
of the merchants fled to the mountains, 
Pococke remained at his post. Though per- 
sonally a stranger to him, he had attracted 
the notice of Laud, then bishop of London, 
who wrote to him several times with com- 
missions for the purchase of ancient Greek 
coins and oriental manuscripts (id. i. 6) ; and, 
after becoming archbishop of Canterbury and 
chancellor of the university, Laud offered 
to appoint liim the first professor of the 
Arabic 'lecture 7 which ho was about to found 
at Oxford, Accordingly, Pococke returned 
to England, probably early in 1C36, and on 
8 July of that year he was admitted, after 
the necessary exercises, to the degree of RD. 
(CLAKK, Jfap. Univ. O.rford, ii. pt. iii. p. 412; 
cf. WOOD, Annals, ed. Gutch, i. 842). The 
professorship was worth 40/. a year ( WOOD, 
Athena, ed. Bliss, iv. 318), and Pococko was 
to lecture on Arabic literature and grammar 
for one hour at eight A.M. every WedneHduy 
in Lent and during the vacations (i.e. when 
the arts course did not fully occupy the time 
of the students, who in those day a commonly 
resided during vacation as well as in term 
time), under penalty of a fine, and all bacliel ors 
were required to attend tho lecture (GiUF- 
iFiTirs, Zaud?s Statutes 0/H>36, pp. 317, 318, 
ed. 1888). On 10 Aug. the new professor 

* opened his lecture 1 with a Latin disserta- 
tion on the nature and importance of the 
Arabic language and literature (a small part 
of which was published as an appendix to 
his Lamiato 'lAjam, 1601), and then began 
a course of lectures on the sayinga of the 
caliph <Ali (Twnixs, i. 9, 10). 

In 1637, at Laud's instance (WQOD,Atkwi& t 
ed. Bliss, iv. 318), Pococke again set sail for 
the east, for the purpose of further study 
tinder native teachera, and to collect more 
manuscripts. This time he travelled with 
his 'dear friend J John Greaves [q. v.] Po- 
cocke, besides his fellowship, now possessed 
private means by the recent death of his 
father, and probably received somo further 
assistance from Laud, or, through Greaves, 
from Lord Artmdel. Thomas Greaves [q. v,], 

* lector humunitatis ' (Latin reader; at 
Corpus, was appointed nis deputy in the 
Arabic lecture during his absence. Front 
December 1637 to August 164-0 Pococke re- 
sided at Constantinople, chiefly at the British 
embassy, where he acted as temporary chap- 
lain to Sir Peter Wyche and Sir Sackville 
Crow, He enjoyed the friendship, and doubt- 
less used the flue library, of the learned 
patriarch, Cyril Lucaris, until his assassina-* 
tion in 1638*; he studied with Jacob Eomano 
' Judieorum, quos mihi nosse contigit, 

vel doctrintt vel ingonuitato secundus* 



COCKE, Porta Mosis, not. mise,, 90), and was 
assisted in his researches, among others, by 
Georgio Cerigo and by Nathaniel Canopius 
the protosyncellus, who afterwards resided 
in Balliol and Christ Church ( WOOD, Athena, 
ed. Bliss, ii. 657). He left Constantinople in 
August 1640, and after a pause at Paris after 
Christmas, where he met Gabriel Sionita and 
Hugo Grotius, he reached London in the 
spring of 1641. Laud was then in the Tower, 
where Pococke visited him (TwELis, i. 19). 
He found that the archbishop had placed the 
endowment of the Arabic chair beyond the 
risk of attainder by settling (6 June 1C40) 
certain lands in Bray, Berkshire, for its per- 
petual maintenance. In November 1641 
Laud presented a further collection of manu- 
scripts to the university, many of which 
were doubtless the fruits of Pococke's and 
Greaves's travels. 

After a brief residence at Oxford, which 
was now disturbed by the civil war, Pococke 
was presented by his college in 1642 to the 
rectory of Childrey in Berkshire (Living- 
book of Corpus Christi College). He is repre- 
sented as a devout and assiduous parish priest ; 
but his connection with Laud and his royalist 
convictions, coupled with an over-modest 
manner and lack of ' unction/ did not re- 
commend him to his parishioners. They 
cheated him of his tithes and harassed him 
by quartering soldiers at the rectory (T WELLS, 
i. 22, 23). The sequestrators of Laud's es- 
tates, moreover, illegally laid hands on the 
endowment of the Arabic lecture, but were 
compelled to restore it under pressure from 
Dr. Gerard Langbaine [q.v.J, provost of 
Queen's, John Greaves, and John Selden 
[q. v.] Selden, as burgess of the university, 
also procured for Pococke a special protection 
under the hand of Fairfax dated 6 Dec. 1647, 
against the exactions of the parliamentary 
troops (ib. i. 24). The committee appointed 
(1 May 1647) for 'the visitation and reforma* 
tion of the university of Oxford and the 
several colleges and halls thereof brought 
fresh troubles. At first it seemed as if 
Pococke was to be taken into favour by the 
visitors ; for they appointed him to the pro- 
fessorship of Hebrew, vacant by the deatvh, of 
Dr. John Morris on 21 March 1647-8 (Fos- 
trBE 1 , Alumni Oxon. s.v.), together with the 
canonry of Dr. Payne, whom they had 
ejected. The king, then a prisoner at Caria- 
brooke, had already nominated Pococke for 
the professorship and canonry (Wool), An- 
nals, ed. Gutch, ii, 556 ; TWELIB, I.e. 27, 28). 
Pococke was one of the twenty delegates 
appointed by the committee of visitation, on 
19 May 1648, to answer ' do omnibus quco ad 
rem Academic publicain pertinent' 

Convoc. T.y apud BTTBROWS, Reputer of the 
Visitors to Oxford, p. 102, Camden Soc.), 
but, apparently under the advice of John 
Greaves, he omitted to appear before the visi- 
tors, or to reply to their summons (TwHUiS, 
i. 28). "When lie also failed to take the ' en- 
gagement' of 1649 he was dismissed from his 
canonry (24 Oct. 1650, TWBLIS, i. 31 ; 1051 
ace. to WOOD, Annals, ed, Gutch, ii. 029) ; 
Peter French, Cromwell's brother-in-law, 
was appointed in his place. On BO Nov. 
1660 Pococke wrote to Horn of Guoldrea: 
* I have learnt, and made it the unalter- 
able principle of my soul, to keep peace, 
as far as in me lies, with all men ; to pay- 
due reverence and obedience to the higher 
powers, and to avoid all things that are 
foreign to my profession or studios ; but to 
do anything that may ever so little molest 
the quiet of my conscience would be more 
grievous than the loss, not only of my for- 
tunes, but even of my life' (TWELLS, i. i). 
Accordingly he was deprived of the two ' lec- 
tures/ probably in December 1650; for in 
that month a petition was addressed to tho 
visiting committee on his behalf, signed not 
only by his friends, but by many of the nuw 
men appointed by the visitors (BimucrwB, Jt<*~ 
ffifter of Visitors, p. Ixxxiii .), including' tho 
vice-chancellor, proctors, several hoadti of 
houses, and numerous follows, maatorH of 
arts, and bachelors of law, who begged that 
the ' late vote, as to the Arabic, at 
least,' should be suspended in view of Po- 
cocke's great learning and peaceable conduct, 
Strongly seconded liy Semen, this remon- 
strance was succeBsful, and Pococko continued 
to hold both lectures, without the canonry, 
and resided at Balliol when he came to Ox- 
ford in the vacations to deliver his couwos 
(Woop, Athena, ed. Bliss, iv. 8 1 9), t In 1 055, 
at the instance of a few fanatical parishioners, 
he was cited before tho commisHionm at 
Abingdon under the new act for (footing 
'ignorant, scandalous, insuiliciont, and negli- 
gent ministers/ Tho loading Oxford acholurfl, 
headed by Dr. John Owen (1 6KM 6853) [q , v.],, 
warned the commission of the contempt they 
would draw upon themselves if thay j*scl*d 
for * ignorance and insufficiency* a man whoso* 
learning was the admiration of Enrols ; and, 
after several months of examination and 
hearing witnesses on both aidoa, tho charge* 
was finally dismissed (see Twi3iTa, i, 5*5 -42). 
In spite of such interruptions PocQftlw con* 
tinued his studies at Childroy. Ho had 
married about 1 640 Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Burdet,esq., of West worldham, Hampshire, 
by whom lio had six sons and thren daughters 
At tho end of H549 (Twm,, i, i$) tin pub- 
Ushod at Oxford, and dedicated to Golden, hi 




' Specimen histories Arabum/ in which an 
excerpt from tlie * Universal History ' (Mukh- 
tasar fi-d-duwal) of Abu-1-Faraj '(Bar He- 
brseus) is used as a peg whereon are hung a 
series of elaborate essays on Arabian history, 
science, literature, and religion, based upon 
prolonged researches in over a hundred Arabic 
manuscripts, and forming an epoch in the 
development of eastern studies. All later 
orientalists, from Reland and Ockley to S. de 
Sacy, have borne their testimony to the im- 
mense erudition and sound scholarship of this 
remarkable work, of which a second edition 
was edited by Joseph White [q. v.] in 1806. 
The ' Specimen' is interesting also for the 
history of printing, for T wells asserts (i, 44), 
it is believed correctly, that Pococke's ' Spe- 
cimen' and John Grreaves's 'Bainbrigii Cani- 
cularia/ 1648, were the first two books in 
Arabic type which issued from the Oxford 
University press. (The first title-page of the 
* Specimen' bears the imprint 'Oxonise ex- 
cudebat H. Hall impensis Humph. Robin- 
son in Cemeterio Paulino, ad insigne trium 
Columbarinn, 1650 ; ' but the ' notae ' appended 
to it have a distinct title, ' Oxonise excudebat 
Hen. Hall, 1648,' which is doubtless the date 
at which the whole work was first set up). 
Similarly the 'PortaMosis,' or edition (Arabic 
in Hebrew characters) of the six prefatory 
discourses of Maimonides on the Mishna, 
with Latin translation and notes (especially 
on Septuagint readings), on which Pococke 
had been engaged since 1650, but which was 
not published till 1655, is believed to be the 
first Hebrew text printed at Oxford from 
type specially founded by the university at 
]3r. Langbaine's instance for Pococke's use 
(DWELLS, ib. The title-page of the * Porta 
Mosis' has the imprint of H. Hall Academic 
Typographic, 1655, but the title-page of the 
Appendix is dated 1654). In 1658 (MiGKB, 
Patrol. Curs, iii. 888) another work of Po- 
cocke's appeared, the 'Contextio Gemma- 
rum,' or Latin translation of the ' Annals' 
of Eutychius, which he had begun, somewhat 
reluctantly, in 1662 at the urgent request of 
Selden (who did not, as has been imagined, 
take any share in the labour; TWELLS, i. 42, 
&c.) The great event for oriental learning 
in 1657 was the publication by Dr. Brian 
Walton [q.v.1 of his 'Biblia Sacra Poly- 
glotta,' in which Pococke had taken a constant 
interest for five years, advising, criticising, 
lending manuscripts from his own collection, 
collating the Arabic version of the Penta- 
teuch, and contributing a critical appendix 
to vol. vi. (' De ratione variantium in Pent. 
Arab, lectionum'). He translated and pub- 
lished in 1659 a treatise * on the nature of 
the drink Kauhi or coffee , . . described Tby 

an Arabian physician/ This was his last 
work completed at Childrey. The Restora- 
tion brought him into permanent residence at 
Christ Church; and, though he retained his 
rectory till his death, he appointed a curate 
to perform its duties. His memory is still 
preserved by a magnificent cedar in the rec- 
tory garden, said to have been imported and 
planted by him (information from the Rev. 
T. Fowler, president of Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Oxford, and the Rev. C. J. Cornish, rec- 
tor of Childrey), Two cedars at Higliclere, 
in Hampshire, are also believed to have been 
raised from cones brought from Syria by 
Pococke (LoTTDON, Arboretum, p. 2-1S20). 

In June 1660 Pococke attended the vice- 
chancellor of Oxford when he waited upon 
Charles II with felicitations on his happy 
restoration ; and on the 540th of the same 
month his Hebrew professorship, together 
with the canonry and lodgings at Christ 
Church properly assigned thereto, was for- 
mally granted him by letters patent, lie 
was installed on 27 'July, and received the 
degree of D.D. by royal letters on 20 Sept. 
(CLARK, Life and Times of A. Wood, i. 338). 
Henceforward he lived in studious ease at 
Christ Church in the lodgings of the Hebrew 
professor, in the garden, of which is still soon 
the fig-tree, the i'anious * Arbor Pococlciana/ 
imported by the professor from Syria, * prima 
sui generis,' according to Dr. White's eu- 
gravmg preserved at Christ Church, and cor- 
tainly the only ancient fig-tree on record still 
existing in England (Baxter in Trans, Jtortio.. 
Soc. iii. 433 ; LOTTDON, Arbor, p. 1367), In 
1660 he published (at the cost of the lion, 
Robert Boyle) an Arabic translation (with 
emendations and a new preface) of Grotiua's 
tract, 'Be veritate religionis Christian io/ 
undertaken in the hope of converting Mus- 
lims (WooD, Athena, ed. Blis, iv, #2 1). 
In 1001 appeared the text and translation 
of the Arabic poem, * Lamiato 1 Ajam, Car- 
men , . Tograi/ with grammatical and ex- 
planatory notes, produced at the Oxford prwss 
under the superintendence of Samuel Clarke 
[a. v.], architypog'raphus to the univerwity, 
who appended a treatise of his own on Arabic 
prosody (separate pagination and title 1001) ; 
and in 1663 Pococke brought out the Arabic 
text and Latin translation of the ' Historic, 
compendiosa dynastiarum* of Abu-l-Faraj 
(Bar HebrtBus), of which an excerpt had 
formed the text of the ' Specimen* thirteen 
years before. Though dedicated to tho king, 
this memorable work attracted little notice 
at the time. A severe illness in 1663 loft him 
permanently lame, but did not long arrest Iris 
energy. He lent Castell Ethiopia manuscripts 
for his great 'Lexicon Ileptaglottou/ pub- 



,i K 



listed in 1669, and translated the cate- 
chism (1671) and the principal parts of the 
liturgy of the church of England into Arabic 
(' Partes praecipuse liturgise Eccl. Angl. ling. 
Arab.' 1674; later editions 1826, 1837) ; but 
his chief work in these later years was his 
elaborate and comprehensive commentary on 
the minor prophets, which issued at intervals 
from the university press : Micah and Malachi 
in 1677, Hosea in 1685, and Joel in 1691. 

Pococke shared in the cathedral and college 
work at Christ Church. He was censor theo- 
logise in 1662, treasurer in 1665, and several 
times held proxies to act for the dean or other 
authority. He was present at chapters as 
late as July 1688. When James II visited 
Oxford in 1687, Pococke was the senior doctor 
present (CLA.BK, Life and Times of Wood, 
lii. 231, 234), and he was long a delegate of 
the university press. John Locke (1032-1704) 
,[q.v.], who was long intimate with him at 
Christ Church, wrote of him to Humphrey 
Smith (23 July 1703) : < The Christian world is 
a witness of his great learning, that the works 
he published would not suiferto be concealed, 
nor could his devotion and piety be hid, and 
be unobserved in a college, where his constant 
and regular assisting at the cathedral service, 
never interrupted by sharpness of weather, 
and scarce restrained by downright want, of 
health, shewed the temper and disposition of 
his mind ; but his other virtues and excellent 
qualities had so strong and close a covering 
of modesty and unaffected humility' that 
they were apt to be overlooked by the un- 
observant. Though 'the readiest to com- 
municate to any one that consulted him/ ' he 
had often the silence of a learner where he 
had the knowledge of a master. . , . Though 
a man of the greatest temperance in himself, 
and the farthest from ostentation and vanity 
in his way of living, yot he was of a liberal 
mind, ana given to hospitality. , , . II is name, 
which was in great esteem beyond sea, and 
that deservedly, drew on him visits from all 
foreigners of learning who came to Oxford. 
. . . He was always unaffectedly cheerful. , , . 
His life appeared to me one constant calm ' 
(WooD, ed. Bliss, iv. 322). 

Pococke died on 10 Sept. 1691, at one 
o'clock in the morning (CiAUK, Life and 
Times of Wood, iii. 371) ; * his only distemper 
was groat old age' (T WEILS, i. 81). Ilo was 
buried in the north aisle of the cathedral, 
near his soti Bichard (who had died in KttiO), 
but his monument, a bust erected by his 
widow, which was originally on the east of 
the middle window in the north aisle of the 
nave, was removed during the roBtonitions 
about thirty years ago to the south aislo of 
the navo, Two portraits arc prcsorvod in, tho 

Bodleian Library : one, in the gallery, repre- 
sents a man. in the prime of life, with light 
hair, moustache, and tuft on chin, dark eyes, 
and mild expression ; the other, on the stair- 
case, belongs to his old age, and shows white 
hair and pointed board (llEAKNE, ed. Doble, 
ii. 66, says * the Master of University Collide 
has the picture of Dr. Pococke '). An en- 
graving, after a portrait by W. Groon, ia pre- 
fixed to the 1740 edition of his works (Bitow* 
LEY). His valuable collection of 420 oriental 
manuscripts was bought by the university in 
1693 for G00,, and ia in the Bodleian (cata- 
logued in BERNARD, Cat. Lib>\ MSS. pp. S274- 
278, and in later special catalogues), and nomw 
of his printed books were acquired by the 
Bodleian in 1822, by bequest from the llov. 
0. Francis of Brasenose (MA.OIUY, Annalx of 
the odl. Libr. p. 361). His own annotated 
copy of the ' Specimen' is among 1 these. Three 
letters from Pococke are printed ia the cor- 
respondence of Gerard J. Voasins (Ify. <v,L 
virvrum nempe $, J, Vow. !Noa. cvii, coxxxix, 
and cccxxxvi, dated 1630, .1036, 1042, all 
from Oxford), in the second of which ho 
refers to his collection of Arabic proverbs 
and to his project of editing Alm-1-Favaj 
(whom he doos not name, but cloarly indi- 
cates), while in the third he refers to Olrotiun's 
'Do Veritate' and to his own mUmtion of 
translating the church catechiHmiu to Arabic 
for the instruction of his Syrian friends a 
project not realised till nearly thirty years 
later. The same collection contains two 
letters from VOBSIUS to Pococko in KttJO 
and 1641 (pp. 159, #83). There ant also 
letters of Pococko in the British MuHtwrn. 
lllarl. 37G, fol. US, Addit. 4270, BSKKM, 
the last two to Saimicl Clarke, dated 

Of hia six sons, the eldest, EFWAKT) Po~ 
COOK13 (1G48 -17537), baptised on 13 Oct. 1648, 
matriculated at Christ Church in 3(501, was 
elected student, became chaplain to the Karl 
of Pembroke (Ci.Aiuc ; Z?/ and n>mof WWH},, 
iii. #73), canon of Salisbury, 1075, and rector 
of Mimill (MUdenhall),WiUKhiTO, 1 im (Few- 
TDK, Alumni Ovon*) lie followed h IB lath or in 
oriental studios, and publiwhodiu ,I(>71 (with 
a preiaco Tby his fathtjr) a Latin trail H Jut; ion 
of Ibn al Tufail, which Oekloy aftwwavda 
turnod into ICnpflish (1708). ]'To ulso 
an pclitioii of the Arabic toxt, with Lati n i' 
lution, of *AbdolInt.i]>Ui HiHtoriw y1 
Compondium/incollaboratitm wii.Ii bis Cutluiir, 
who had diacovin-cd tho maiuiHcri pt in Syria, 
According to Hcarno (od, JJobln, i iS^l), 
l^cocko tlio father bopin this twlition and 
tronwlatiou of tlui colubmtud twi'li'tU-w^U-ury 
travo'lltsr and physician; butwlu'ii thu work 
hud boon partly pnntcd the Lathi typo waa 



wanted by Bishop Fell, who at this time 
was omnipotent at the University press, and 
the translation had to be stopped, ' which so 
vexed the good old man, Dr. Pocock, y fc he 
could never be prevailed to go on any farther.' 
This part is doubtless the printed copy which 
stops at p. 96, and has no title or date ; but 
it has generally been ascribed to Pococke 
the son, who appears to have completed a 
rough draft of the translation of the whole 
work (mentioned by Hunt in his ' Proposals,' 
dated 174G. See "White's edition, reprinting 
Pococke's to p. 99; and S. DE SA.CY, Relation 
de l'E(/ypte,parAbd-allatif) xii). He was ex- 
pected to succeed to his father's Arabic pro- 
fessorship (CLARK, Life and Times of Woody 
iii. 373). ' 'Tis said he understands Arabick 
and other oriental Tongues very well, but 
wante^ Friends to get him y e Professorships 
of Hebrew and Arabick at Oxford* (HEARNE, 
ed. Doble, ii. 63), and Dr. Thomas Hyde 
(1636-1703) [q. v.l, Bodley's librarian, was 
appointed. Pococke apparently abandoned 
further oriental researches, and died in 1727. 
Thomas Pococke, another son, baptised on 
21 April 1652, matriculated at Christ Church 
in 1667, became rector of Morwenstow, and 
afterwards of Peter Tavy, Devonshire, and 
published a translation of Manasseh ben 
Israel's ' De Termino Vita,' London, 1700. 
Henry was born on 9 May 1654. Richard, 
baptised on 4 Jan. 1655-6, died on 7 INTov, 
1666, and is buried in Christ Church Cathe- 
dral. Robert, baptised on 8 March 1657-8, 
was a "Westminster scholar at Christ Church. 
Charles (baptised on 22 Jan. 1660-1), was 
also at Christ Church, and became rector of 
Cheriton Bishop, Devonshire, in 1690(FosTEE, 
Alumni Oxon. ; Childrey baptismal register). 

[The Life of Dr. Pococke -was begun by 
Humphrey Smith of Queen's College, Oxford, 
vicar of Townstalland St. Saviour's, Dartmouth, 
assisted by Edyard Pococke the younger, and 
Hearne (Collections, ed. Doble, ii. 4) expected 
its completion by midsummer 1707; but Smith 
never finished the work. It appears also that Mr. 
Eichard Pococke had a manuscript ' Life of Po- 
cock the Orientalist ' (HEAHNE, I.e. ii. 1 0),while Dr. 
Arthur CharlettTq. v.], master of University Col- 
lege, had Pococke s letters, and meant to write his 
life(Id.,ib. iii. 77), Smith's materials, including a 
consecutive memoir completed to 1663, together 
with Charlett's letters, were then entrusted by 
the Rev. John Pocoeke, grandson of the profes- 
sor, to Leonard Twellsj, rector of St. Matthews, 
Friday Street, and St. Peter's, Cheap, London, 
and the latter prefixed a full biography to his 
edition of * The Theological Works of the learned 
Dr. Pocock,' 2 vole. fol. London, 1740, where 
the particulars of his sources are given. This bio- 
graphy was reprinted in The Lives of Dr. Ed- 
ward Pocoek . . , Dr. Zachary Petirce,' &c., 2 vols. 

1816, and is the chief authority for the pre- 
ceding article, in which th references aroto the 
original edition. The spelling of the name Po- 
cocke or Pocock varies nob only in the contem- 
porary authorities and in the records of tho 
chapter-house at Christ Church (according to the 
taste of the clerks), but also in the baptismal 
registers at Childrey, and on the title-pageH find 
prefaces of Pococke's own books. His Micah 
and Malachi of 1677 have no final e to his name, 
but Hosea, 1685, and Joel, 1691, spell the name 
Pococke. His monument in the cathedral has 
no e. It is not unlikely that he spelt it indif- 
ferently both ways, but the only two signatures 
observed in his own handwriting have the final 
e : one is in his manuscript collection of Arabic 
proverbs (Poc. 392, in the Bodleian), and was 
written on 10 April 1637 ; the othor is signed in 
the Christ Church chapter-book, 28 Juno 1086. 
In addition to the other authorities cited above, 
information must be'ncknowledgod from the liev, 
T. Fowler, president of Corpus; the Rev. S. K, 
Driver, canon of Christ Church; the Chnptor 
books, Christ Church ; D* S. Margoliouth, Lau- 
dian professor of Arabic ,- F. Mudan, sub-libra- 
rian of the Bodleian ; W. T. Thiselton-Dywr, 
C.M.G-. ; Rev. J. Q-. Cornish, who examined tho 
registers at Childrey.} S. L.-P. 

POCOCKE, RICHARD (1704-1765), 
traveller, was born ut Southampton in 1704. 
He was the son of Richard Pococke, LL.B. 
(1660-1710). His grandfather, also Richard 
Pococke, LL.B,, was rector of Colmor, Hamp- 
shire, from 1600 to his death in 1719. His 
father was headmaster of the King Edward VI 
Free Grammar School, and curate, under 
sequestration, of All Saints' Church in 
Southampton; his mother was Elizabeth, 
only daughter of the Rev. Isaac Milles [q, v.], 
rector of Highclere, "Hampshire, He was 
educated by his grandfather Milles, at his 
school atHighclere rectory. He matriculated 
at Corpus Christ! College, Oxford, 1.3 July 
1720, and graduated B.A. 1725, B.C.L. 1781, 
D.C.L 1733* In 1725 he was appointed to the 
precentorship of Lismore Cathedral by his 
uncle, Thomas Milles [q. v.], bishop of Water- 
ford and Lismore, of whose dioceses lie in 
1734 became vicar-general. From 1733 to 
1736 he made tours in France, Italy, and 
other parts of Europe, with his cousin Jere- 
miah Milles [q. v.], dean of Exeter. Imbued 
with a passion for travel, be planned a visit, 
to the East. On 29 Sept. 1737 he reached 
Alexandria, and proceeded to Bosetta, where 
he visited Cosmas, the Greek patriarch. He 
endeavoured to discover the site of Memphis, 
and visited Lake Moeria. In December he 
embarked for Upper Egypt, and on 9 Jan, 
1738 reached Dendereh. lie visited Thebes, 
but did not go up the Nile beyond Philno, The 
traveller Frederick LewisNorden [q, v J wont 



as far as Derr, and the two explorers passed 
one another hi the night, Norden going up 
the Nile and Pococke returning. Pococke 
reached Cairo in February 1738. He next 
visited Jerusalem, and bathed in the Dead 
Sea, to test a statement of Pliny's. He 
travelled in northern Palestine, and ex- 
plored Balbec. He also visited Cyprus, 
Candia (where he ascended Mount Ida), 
parts of Asia Minor, and Greece. ^ Leaving 
Cephalonia, he landed at Messina in Novem- 
ber 1740. He visited Naples, and twice as- 
cended Vesuvius. He passed through Ger- 
many, and on 19 June 1741, with an armed 
party, explored the Mer de Glace in the 
valley of Chamounix, where a boulder has 
been in remembrance inscribed by the Swiss 
' Richard Pococke, 1741.' As the travellers 
stood on the ice, they drank the health of 
Admiral Vernon. An account of the ex- 
pedition appeared in the ' Mercure de 
Suisse ' for 1743, and Pococke came to be 
regarded as the pioneer of Alpine travel. 
Pococke returned to England in 1742, and 
in 1743 published vol. i. of ' A Description 
of the East/ containing ' Observations on 
Egypt/ Vol. ii. of the * Description/ con- 
sisting of observations on Palestine, Syria, 
Mesopotamia, Cyprus, Candia, Asia Minor, 
Greece, and parts of Europe, was published 
in 1745, and dedicated to the Earl of Ches- 
terfield, lord lieutenant of Ireland, to whom 
Pococke was domestic chaplain. The work 
attained great celebrity, and Gibbon (De- 
cline and Fall, chap. li. note 69) described 
it as of ' superior learning and dignity/ 
though he objected that its author too often 
confounded what he had seen with what he 
had heard. 

In 1744 Pococke was made precentor of 
"Waterford, and in 1745 Philip Dormer Stan- 
hope, earl of Chesterfield [q[, v.J, gave him 
the archdeaconry of Dublin. In 1766 he 
was appointed to the bishopric of Ossory, 
and, on settling in the palace of Kilkenny, 
began the restoration of the cathedral church 
of St. Canice, then in a ruinous state. He 
personally superintended the workmen, 
sometimes from four o'clock in the morning 
(Ledwich in VAXLANOEY^ Collectanea, ii. 
460-2), He encouraged Irish manufactures, 
and about 1763 established the Lintown 
factory in the suburbs of Kilkenny for the 
instruction of boys, chiefly foundlings, in the 
art of weaving. Under the name of ' Po- 
cocke College/ the institution is still carried 
on, on a new system, by the Incorporated 
Society for Promoting English Protestant 
Schools in Ireland. In June 1765 Pococke 
was translated from Ossory to Elphin, 
Bishop Gore being then promoted to Moath. 

Gore, however, declined to take out his 
patent, on account of the expense, and Po- 
cocke was in July translated to the bishopric 
of Meath. In the demesne at Ardbniccau ho 
planted the seeds of cedars of Lebanon, still 

Pococke, at various periods of his life, 
made several tours in England, Scotland, 
and Ireland. Of these he wrote, nnd arranged 
for publication, full descriptive accounts, 
sometimes illustrated by his own drawings. 
These manuscripts have only been printed 
in recent years, or Pococke, rather than 
Thomas Pennant [q, v,], would have been 
reputed the first systematic explorer of com- 
paratively unknown regions of Groat Britain. 
His tours in England were made dually 
from 1760 to 1757 and in later years, and 
the descriptions are simply written and ox- 
act in detail. He made an Irish tour in 
1752, the account of which is valuable as, 
illustrating the social condition of Ireland, 
especially in Connaught. Starting from 
Dublin, he went north to the Giant's Cause- 
way, concerning which he published papers 
in the ' Philosophical Transactions * for 1748 
and 1758. He visited Donegal, Erris, A chilly 
and Belmullet, travelling as usual on his 
tours on horseback, with outriders. He 
had previously made an Irish tour in 1 749 
through Connau^ht, Clare, Kerry, and Cork, 
but the manuscript account has never boon 
published. Pococke made various observa- 
tions on the natural history of Ireland, and 
a paper by Mm on 'Irish Antiquities' was 
printed in the * Archueologia/ vol. ii. He gave 
assistance to Mervyn Archdall [<j. v,], hie 
chaplain, when bistop of Ossory, m tho pre- 
paration of his ' Monasticon Hiberwioum/ 

Pococke visited Scotland in 1747 and 
1750, and in April 1760 started for a six 
months' journey, during which ho visited 
lona and the Orkneys, Sutherland and Caith- 
ness. He was made burgess of Abordewi, 
Glasgow, and other Scottish cities, and re- 
turned to London on 29 Oct. 3760. 

Pococke died of apoplexy in Sftptombor 
1766 at Gharleyillo near Tullamoro, Ireland, 
while on a visitation. He was buried in 
Bishop Montgomery's tomb at Ardbraccan, 
and on the south side of tho monument is a 
small slab with a memorial inscription. 
There is also a monument to him in tho 
cathedral of St. Ganiee, Kilkenny. A por- 
trait of Pococke in oils han^fl in tho board- 
room in Bar-court Street, Dublin, of tlui In- 
corporated Society for Promoting English 
Protestant Schools, and i roproduoud in 
Kemp's edition of Pococke's * Tours in Scot- 
land * (frontispiece). A full-length portrait 
of him in Turkish dross, by Lioturd, was ouca 



in the possession of Milles, dean of Exeter. 
Pococke is described by Richard Cumber- 
land (Memoirs) as a man of solemn air, l of 
mild manners, and primitive simplicity.' In 
conversation lie was remarkably reticent 
about Ms travels. Mrs. Delany, whom Po- 
cocke entertained when archdeacon of Dub- 
lin, found her host and his entertainments 
dull. Bishop Forbes, however, speaks of his 
geniality when on one of his Scottish tours. 
Pococke was a member of the Egyptian Club 
(NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. v. 334) and of the 
Spalding Society, and was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society on 11 Feb. 1741. 

Pocoeke's collection of Greek, Roman, and 
English coins and medals was sold in London 
at auction by Longford on 27-28 May 1766. 
The 'Sale Catalogue' consists of 117 lots, in- 
cluding some ancient jewellery (priced copy in 
Department of Coins, Brit. Mus.) His col- 
lection of antiquities, and his minerals and 
fossils (partly collected in his Scottish travels) , 
were sold by Langford on 5-6 June 1766. 
By his will Pococke left his property (which 
consisted partly of an estate at Newtown, 
Hampshire) in trust to the Incorporated 
Society for Promoting English Protestant 
Schools in Ireland for the purpose of endow- 
ing the weaving-school at Lintown * for 
Papist boys who shall be from 12 to 16 years 
old . , . said boys to be bred to the Protestant 
Religion, and to be apprenticed to the Society 
for seven years/ His sister, Elizabeth Po- 
cocke, had a life interest in his property. 
Pococke left his manuscripts to the British 
Museum. Some of these were handed over 
on 9 May 1766, but several volumes were 
withheld and remained in private hands. 
The manuscript of the Scotch tours and two 
volumes of travels in England were bought 
by the British Museum at the sale of Dean 
Milles's library at Sotheby's on 15 April 
1843 for SSL Further volumes of travels 
through England were purchased by the mu- 
seum at the sale of Dawson Turner's library 
in 1859. The original manuscript of the 
* Tour in Ireland in 1752 > is at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. Among Pococke's manuscripts 
in the British Museum are the minutes 
and registers of the Philosophical Society 
at Dublin from 1683 to 1687 and in later 
years, with copies of the papers read. 
There are also manuscripts relating to his 
travels in Egypt (PRINCE lBltA,HiM-HiLMT, 
Lit. of Hgypt 9 li. pp. 124, 125). 

Pococke's published writings are as fol- 
lows: 1. 'A Description of the East and 
some other Countries/ 2 vols. London, 1748- 
1745 fol., with 178 plates. This is reprinted 
in Pinkerton's * General Collection of Voy- 
ages/ vols, x. and xv. There is a French 

translation, 7 vols. Paris, 1772-3, 12mo; a 
German translation, Erlangen, 1754-5, 4to; 
and a Dutch translation, Utrecht, 177l>~8(>. 
2. ' Inscriptionum antiquarum Grasc. et 
Lat. liber. Accedit Numismatiuu ... in 
^Egypto cusorum . . . Catalogus, c. By 
J. Milles and R. Pococke,' [London], 175:}, 
fol. 3. < Tours in Scotland, 1747, 1750, 1 7(50,' 
edited with biographical sketch by 1), W. 
Kemp, 1887 (Scottish Histowj Society Pub- 
lications, vol. i.) 4. 'The Tour of l)r. R. 
Pococke . . . through Sutherland and Caith- 
ness in 1760,' ed. D. W. Kemp, 1 888 (Suther- 
land Association Papers). 6. * The Travels 
through England of Dr. R. Pococke/ ed, 
J. J. Cartwright, 1888, 4to (Camden Soc. 
new ser. xlii.) 6. * Pococke's Tour in. Ireland 
in 1762,' ed, G. T. Stokes, Dublin, 1891, 

[Memoir in Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 157; Geor- 
gian Era, 1854, iii. 16 f.; Foster's Aluimii Oxon. ; 
Graves and Prim's Hist, of St. Canicc, 18f f >7, 
passim ; introductions to tho editions of l?ocodko'd 
Travels, by D. W. Kemp, J. J. Carfcwright, and 
G-. T. Stokes; Brit. Mus. Cut. and aut-horttios 
cited above.] "W. W. 

POE, LEONARD (d. 1031?), physician, 
whose family came originally, it is said, from 
the Rhenish Palatinate, was in 1/590 in tlio 
service of the Earl of Essex. Essex, after 
many vain appeals to the College of Phy- 
sicians, secured from that body on 13 July 
1696 a license enabling Poo to practise medi- 
cine (Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. pt. i. p. 2128)* 
Although he was thereby permitted to treat 
venereal, cutaneous, and calculous diseases, 
gout and simple tertian ague, in all other 
fevers and in all severe diseases he was re- 
quired to call to his assistance a member of 
the college (MuNK, Collwje of Physician^) i* 
149). On 30 June 1598 he was ordered to bo 
imprisoned and deprived of his license, but; 
soon made terms with the college. Despite 
the suspicion with which the profession re- 
garded him, his practice was large in fashion- 
able society, and his reputation stood fairly 
high. On 11 Dec. 1606, at the suggestion of 
the Earls of Southampton, Northampton, and 
Salisbury, all restrictions on his license were 
removed. On 12 Jan. 1609 he was made 
ordinary physician of the king's household 
(State Papers^ Dam. index to warrant book, 
p. 77), and on 7 July the persistent influence 
of his aristocratic patrons led to his election 
as fellow of the College of Physicians (Hist. 
MS. Comm. ubi supra). He had a mandate 
on 22 July 1615 to be created M.D,, and ap- 
parently obtained the degree at Cambridge. 
In April 1612 he was one of the three 
physicians in attendance on Lord-treasurer 
Salisbury (State Papers, Dom, James T, kviii. 



104), and was present at his death on 24 May 
following (Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Rep, 
part iv. p. 1C). On 6 June 1 625 he attended 
the death of Orlando Gibbons [q. v.], the 
musical composer, and made the post-mortem 
(ib. Car. I, iii. 37). He died on 4 April 1(331, 
when Sir Edward Alston [q. v.] was elected 
a fellow in his place. His son Theophilus 
matriculated from Broadgate Hall, Oxford, 
1023-4, 6 Feb., set. 15. 

[Hist. MSS. Comm. 10th Bop. pt. iv. p. 10, 
8th'28, 12th Rep. i. 198, 292,435; 
Hunk's Coll. of Phys. : Burko's Landed Gentry.] 

W. A. S. 

POEK. [See also TOOK and POWER.] 

POER,EOGER LE (d. 1186), one of the 
conquerors of Ireland, belonged to a family 
which is said to have derived its name from 
Poher, one of the ancient divisions of Brit- 
tany; other accounts make the name the 
equivalent of Puer, or, still less probably, of 
Pauper. In the reign of Henry II, William 
le Poer held lands in Oxfordshire, Hereford- 
shire, and Gloucestershire, and Bobert le 
Poer in Oxfordshire (Pipe Rolls, 18 Henry 
II. p. 32 ; SwBBTMAtf, i. 41, T29, 132). Itoger, 
Robert, William, and Simon le Poer are all 
said to have taken part in the conquest of 
Ireland. Roger Poer is first mentioned as a 
handsome and noble youth who took part in 
the invasion of Ulster under John de Courci 
[q. v.] in 1177, and won distinction at the 
battle of Down. Afterwards he obtained 
lands in Ossory, and was governor of Leighlin 
under Hugh de Lacy, first lord of Meath[q. v.] 
Payment was made for his expenses in going 
to Ireland in 118G (ib. i. 86). In the same year 
he was killed, with many of his followers, 
while fighting in Ossory (Gin. CAMBU. RK- 
pugnatio Hibernica, ap. Op. iv. 341, 354, 387 ; 
Book ofHowth, pp. 81-4). He had married 
a niece of Sir Amory de S. Laurence (ib. p. 88). 
There is a charter of his in the ' Chartulary of 
St. Mary, Dublin/ i. 252. 

EGBERT LE POEE (Jl. 1190) was one of the 
marshals in the court of Henry II. He ac- 
counts for lands in Yorkshire, 1166-7, and 
had charge of the forest of Galtris in that 
county in 1169 and 1172. He is mentioned 
in the royal service in 1171, and apparently 
accompanied Henry on his Irish expedition 
(Pipe Rolls, Henry II. esp. 18, pp. 3:2, 56). 
In 1174 he was in charge of Brabancon mer- 
cenaries who were being sent home from Eng- 
land (EYTON, Itinerary of Henry II, p. 1 83). 
In 1176 he was one of four knights sent into 
Ireland by the king, and was made custos of 
Waterford, his territory including all the 
land between Waterford and the water of 
Lismore, and Ossory, G iraldus, who calls him 

a marcher lord, blames him as 'tarn ignobilia, 
tarn strenuitatc careii8 ' ( Op. i v. 3/52-tf). J J o 
was still in charge of Waterford in 1179 (ib. 
iv. 65; SwEETMAff, i, 58). In 1188, when 
returning with Ralph Fraser from a pilgri- 
mage to St. James of Compostella, he was 
seized by Count Raymond of Toulouse. 
Richard, the future Mug, who was then Count 
of Poitou, would pay no ransom for the 
knights, declaring that Raymond's conduct 
in seizing pilgrims was an outrage. Philip 
Augustus ordered Raymond to surrender his 
prisoners, hut Raymond refused, and thus tho 
incident led to Richard's invasion of Toulouse 
in 118B (Qesta Jlcnnci, ii. 5). Robert 
occurs as witness to a charter in Ireland be- 
tween 1186 and 1194. Hois said to have been 
an ancestor of the Poors, barons of Dunoylo, 
of the Poers, barons le Poer and Corogl micro, 
and of Eustace le Poer, viscount IJaltinglas, 
in the time of Henry VIII. Ho may be Uie 
father of that Robert Poer who wan one of 
the great Irish nobles in 1221, and died before 
Kovember 1228, having a son and heir, John 
le Poer (SyrHBTM AH, U001 , 1 035, 2046, Ml 4). 
Of other members of the family, William 
and Simon le Poer were brothers (Chart. #tf. 
Man/, Dublin,i. 4,21). William wusgovenior 
of Waterford about 1180 (Urn OAMHK. iv. 
354), and is mentioned as crossing to Ireland 
in 1184-5, and his name occurs as late n 1 200 
(SwET-iTMAN, i. 75, 129, 132; Chart. St. Mary t 
i. 114, 116, 123, 120). Roger, Robert, Wil- 
liam, and Simon may all have been brothers, 
RANUI/P LE PORK (d. 1 182), who held hind iu 
Shropshire, and was killed by the Wolnh wluui 
sheriff of Gloucestershire iii 1182, may liavo 
been of an older generation ( Gwta llnirm, i. 
3/31 ; EYTON, Itinerary, pp. 186, 103). WAi/rm 
LT3 POBE ( t fl. 1220) wns another member of tho 
family, who was employed in various lumnumw 
in Warwickshire and Worcestershire iu 121 5, 
He was sheriff of Devonshire in 1222, and a 
collector of the fifteenth mWorceatorwlijro iu 
1226. In the last year ho waa a justice itine- 
rant in Gloucestershire, and in 1227 held tho 
same post for the counties of Oxford, I lore- 
ford, Stafford, and Salop (Pat. Ifalfa. p,128y 
Close Rolls, i. 226, 440, ii. 145, 151, 205). 

[Giraldxis CambrenwtH, Expugnatio ]libormca 
in vol iv. of tho Bolls edit.; Gowta llunrict, 
ascribed to Bonedict Abl>iifl ; Book of Hoivth iu 
Calendar of the Oarew MSS. ; Eytoi'B Court ami 
Itinerary of Henry II; Fipo Rolln for Honry II 
(Pipo Roll Soc.); Swootmau's Culcndiirof J)<um- 
monts relating to Ireluud, vol. i. ; FOSJH'H Jtulj 
of England, ii. 445 ; 0-. B. C.V Complotu IV 
age, vi. 269.] 0. L. K 

1 89 1 ) , aatronom er , son of G oorgo w en ] 
son. of Nottingham, was born in thut tovm 




on 23 March 1829. Acting under the advice 
of Mr. J. E. Hind, foreign secretary of the 
Royal Astronomical Society, Pogson, in 1847, 
at the age of eighteen, calculated the orbits 
of two comets, During the three following 
years several other comets and the recently 
discovered minor planet Iris, claimed his atten- 
tion. This led to his appointment as an assis- 
tant at the South Villa Observatory, London. 
After a short stay there he obtained the post 
of assistant at the Kadcliffe Observatory, Ox- 
ford, in 1852, and it was here that he began 
his course of discoveries, which, soon made 
him known as a first-class observer. "While at 
Oxford, between 1856 and 1857, he discovered 
four minor planets: Amphitrite, 2 March 
1854 ; Isis, 23 May 1856 ; Ariadne, 15 April 
1857; Hestia, 16 Aug. 1857, For the dis- 
covery of Isis he was awarded the Lalande 
medal of the French Academy. 

Much of his time at Oxford was devoted 
to variable stars, but the archives of the Had- 
cliflfe Observatory between 1852 and 1858 
show that the more ordinary work was in 
no way neglected. In 1854 he assisted at the 
famous experiments for determining the mean 
density of the earth, conducted by Sir George 
Airy, the astronomer-royal at the Harton 
Colliery. Airy accorded him his hearty 
thanks, and remained his cordial friend 
through life. 

In 1859 Pogson was appointed director of 
the Hartwell Observatory belonging to John 
Lee (1783-1866) [q. v.l There his time was 
spent in the study of variable and double 
stars, the search for asteroids, and the forma- 
tion of star charts. During the two years he 
remained at Hartwell the l Monthly Notices 
of the Royal Astronomical Society ' for 1859- 
1860 contain fourteen papers from his pen 
regarding variable stars and minor planets, 
while he communicated several papers to the 
British Association, and made some valuable 
contributions to the ' Speculum Hartwellia- 
num.' In October 1860 he was appointed by 
Sir Charles Wood, secretary of state for In- 
dia, government astronomer at Madras. Sir 
John Herschel wrote at this time of his ' con- 
spicuous zeal, devotion to and great success 
in the science of astronomy ; ' and C. Piazzi 
Smyth bore testimony to his * unwearied 
diligence, enthusiastic zeal, and signal suc- 

Pogson reached Madras early in 1861, full 
of high hopes as to the work he would ac- 
complish. He soon discovered another minor 
planet, which he named Asia, as being the 
first discovered by an observer in that con- 
tinent. Between 1861 and 1868 he discovered 
no less than five minor planets, and seven 
variable stars were added to his list of dis- 

coveries between 1862 and 18G5, and an 
eighth in 1877. The chief work carried on 
by Pogson at the Madras Observatory was 
twofold : first, the preparation of a star cata- 
logue, for which 51,101 observations wero 
made between 1862 and 1887 ; secondly, the 
formation of a variable star atlas, begun at 
Oxford in 1853, and carried on with remark- 
able perseverance. The catalogues, which 
were to accompany the atlas, contained the 
positions of upwards of sixty thousand stars, 
observed entirely by Pogson himself. Un- 
happily they are still unpublished. Pogson 
observed the total eclipse of the sun on 
18 Aug. 18C8 at Masulipatam, and was tho 
first to observe the bright line spectrum of 
the Corona. 

He remained for thirty years government 
astronomer at Madras and, during the whole 
of that time he took no leave. His devo- 
tion to his science and his anxiety to publish 
his works induced him to remain so long 
that his health at last failed, and he died at 
his post in June 1891 in his sixty-third year. 
He was a fellow of the Boyal Astronomical 
Society, and the Indian government nomi- 
nated him a companion of the Indian Empire. 

Pogson's chiet interest as an astronomer 
lay in observations with the equatoreal and 
meridian circle, and in the use of those in- 
struments h e had few equals. As an observer 
only one or two contemporaries could equal 
him. In all, he discovered nine minor planets 
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and 
twenty-one new variable stars. lie had an 
exhaustive knowledge of the literature of 
his subject. 

His first wife, whom he married in 1849 
at the early age of twenty, was Elizabeth 
Ambrose, who died in 1869, leaving a largo 
family. On 25 Oct. 1883 he married Edith 
Louisa Stopford, daughter of Lieutenant- 
colonel Charles W, Stbley of her majesty's 
64th regiment, and by her had three children, 
one of whom died in infancy, 

[Royal Astronomical Society's Transactions, 
1891 ; private information,] H. M. V* 

POIETGDESTRE, JEAN (1609-1691), 
writer on the laws and history of Jersey, 
born in the parish of St. Saviour in the island 
of Jersey, and baptised on 16 April 1609, was 
the eldest son of Edward Poingdestre, by Ida 
second wife, Pauline Ahier, He was among 
the first to obtain one of the scholarships 
founded at Oxford by Charles I on behalf of 
Jersey students, and in 1636 was elected a fel- 
low of Exeter College, Oxford. He was always 
considered an accomplished classical scholar, 
and held the fellowship till 1648, when he 
was ejected by the parliamentary party. 



Meanwhile he received an appointment 
under Lord Digby, and on the outbreak of 
the civil wars returned to Jersey, where he 
took part, under Sir George de Carteret, in 
the defence of Elizabeth Castle against the 
parliamentarians. After the capitulation of 
this fortress in 1651 he went into voluntary 
exile until the Restoration. In January 
1668-9 the bailiff of Jersey nominated him 
his lieutenant, and he also became jurat. 
In 1676, however, he resigned his appoint- 
ment of lieutenant-bailiff in deference to 
complaints which were made of the uncon- 
stitutional way in which he had been ap- 
pointed jurat, but he retained this latter 
post until his death. During the last years 
of his life he occupied himself chiefly in 
preparing various works relating to the 
history and laws of Jersey. He died in 

169L . 
Poingdestre's history of Jersey ('Ceesarea, 

or a Discourse of the Island of Jersey'), 
written in 1682, and presented by the author 
to James II, is one of the most accurate 
works on the island, and forms the basis of 
all that is trustworthy in Falle's 'History of 
Jersey.' But it is as a commentator on the 
laws and customs of Jersey that Poing- 
destre deserves chief commendation ; and his 
works on this subject are superior to those 
of Philip Le Geyt [q. v.] In so far as they 
relate to the law on real property his ' Com- 
mentaires sur 1'Ancienne Coutume de Nor- 
mandie/ and * Oommentaires sur la Coutume 
R6forme de Normandie,' are of the highest 
authority. In 1685 Poingdestre was nomi- 
nated one of the committee commissioned to 
draw up an abstract of the charters granted 
by various monarchs to the inhabitants of 
Jersey, and this work, known as ' Les Pri- 
vileges de Tile/ is still extant in manu- 

[Ahier's Tableaux Historiques de la Civilisa- 
tion a Jersey, p. 342 ; Le G-eyt's Works, Preface 
and vol. iv. p. 65 also MS,; Palle's Hist, of Jersey 
(Durell's ed.), p. 279 ; La Croix's Les Etats, p. 
58; Payne's Armorial of Jersey; Commissioners 1 
Report, Jersey, 1860; preface to 'C&sarea/ 
Soeie'te' Jersiaise, 1889.] P. L. M. 


POINTER, JOHN (1668-1754), anti- 
quary, born at Alkerton, Oxfordshire, on 
19 May 1668, claimed to be descended from 
Sir William Pointer of Whitchurch, Hamp- 
shire. His father, also called John, was 
rector of Alkerton from 1663 till his death in 
1710, and his mother was Elizabeth (d. 1709), 
daughter of John Hobel, a London merchant. 
He was educated first at Baiibury grammar 
school, and then at Preston school, North- 


amptonshire, and matriculated from Merton 
College, Oxford, on 24 Jan. 1686-7, He 
graduated B.A. 1691, and M.A. 1694. 

Pointer took holy orders, being ordained 
deacon on 24 Dec. 1693, and priest on 23 Sept. 
1694, and from 1693 until he resigned the 
office in 1722 he was chaplain to his college* 
He was instituted in September 1694 to the 
rectory of Slapton, Northamptonshire, which 
he. retained for his life. He was lord of the 
manor of Keresley in Warwickshire, and in 
December 1722 he came into other property 
in the parish. He died on 16 Jan. 1754 in 
the house of his niece, Mrs. Bradbome of 
Chesterton in Worfield, Shropshire, and was 
buried in the chancel of Worfield pariah, 
church on 19 Jan. A tablet, now in. the 
north aisle, was erected to liis memory. 

Pointer was author of: 1. 'An Account, 
of a Roman pavement lately found at Stuns- 
field, Oxfordshire/ 1713 ; dedicated to Dr. 
Holland, warden of Merton College. When 
it was censured as 'a mean performance/ 
Pointer vindicated it in an advertisement 
containing laudatory references to it from 
Bishop White Kennett, Dr. Musgrave, and 
others. 2. ' Chronological History of Eng- 
land/ 1714, 2 vols, very complete in de- 
scription of events occurring after 1600. It 
was intended that the narrative should end 
with the peace of Utrecht, and it was all 

Erinted, but the second volume was not pub- 
!shed until after the death of Queen Anne, 
when the history was brought down to her 
death, although the index only ran to the 
earlier date. Six supplements, each con- 
taining the incidents of a year, and the last 
two with the name of * Mr. Brockwel ' out 
the title-page, carried it on to the close 
of July 1720. For his share in this com- 
pilation Pointer received from Lintot, on 
24 Dec. 1713, the sum of Wl. 16*. (NICHOLS, 
Lit. Anecdotes, via. 299), 8. ' Miscellanea 
in usum juventutis Academics/ 1718. It 
contained the characters, chronology, and a 
catalogue of the classic authors with in- 
structions for reading them, pagan mytho- 
logy, Latin exercises, and the corrections of 
palpable mistakes by English historians* 

4. 'A Rational Account of the Weather,* 
1723; 2nd ed. corrected and much enlarged, 
1738. It was pointed out in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine/ 1748 (pp. 255-6), that tins 
volume supplied the groundwork of ' The 
Shepherd of Banbury*s Rules to judge of 
the Weather, by John Claridge, shepherd/ 

5. * Britannia Roraana, or Roman antiquities 
in Britain, viz., coins, camps, and public 
roads/ 1724. 6. 'Britannia Tnumphans, or an, 
Historical Account of some of the most signal 
Naval Victories obtained by the English over 




the Spaniards/ 1743. 7. * Oxoniensis Aca- 
deniia, or the Antiquities and Curiosities of 
the University of Oxford,' 1749 ; the manu- 
script is in Rawlinson MS. B. No. 405, at 
the Bodleian Library. It contains much 
curious detail on the history of the several 
colleges. Two gifts by him to the Bodleian 
Library are set out on page 143 (cf. MACRAY, 
Annals of Bodl. Libr. 2nd edit. pp. 222-3) 

[Some manuscripts by Pointer belonged to Mr. 
J. E. T, Loveday, who communicated portions 
from them to Notes and Queries, 6th ser, vii. 
326, 366. An extract from an old manuscript 
history of his family and connections, taken by 
himself from -wills and other documents, was 
inserted in that periodical (6th ser. x. 522) by 
3\lr. John Hamerton Crump of Malvern Wells, 
and was subsequently printed in extenso in the 
Genealogist (iii. 101-7, 232-40). Particulars of 
his life were given by Pointer to Dr. Richard 
Bawlinson, and are now at the Bodleian Library, 
Eawlinson MSS. J. 4to, 1, fol. 274, and J. fol. 4, 
fol. 2*24. See also Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Baker's 
Northamptonshire, ii. 102; Coxe's Catalogus 
MSS. in Collegiis Oxon. ; information from the 
Bey. E. P. Nicholas of Worfield.] W. P. C. 

POINTER, WILLIAM (/. 1624), poet. 

bishop of Durham. [See PHILIP.] 

1759), inventor of the musical glasses. [See 

POL (d. 573), Saint. [See PATTL.] 

1882), trader, and author of works on New 
Zealand, was born in London of Jewish 
parents on 28 March 1807. In early life he 
appears to have travelled both in Europe 
and America, to have done some work as 
an artist, and to have served under the war 
office in Africa in the commissariat and ord- 
nance departments. In 1831 he emigrated 
to New Zealand, and, after living for a year 
at Hokianga, moved to the Bay of Islands, 
a settlement still in its infancy. There he 
opened a ship-chandler's store in connection 
with a broker's business at Sydney. He paid 
long visits to Sydney, for four or five months 
at a time, and travelled much about New Zea- 
land. He learned the Maori language, gained 
the confidence of the natives, and purchased 
about eleven hundred acres of land. In May 
1837 he returned to London. Next year he 
was a prominent witness before the select 
committee of the House of Lords on New 
Zealand. But his veracity being impugned 
by a writer in the ' Times/ Polack brought 

an action against the ' Times/ and on 
2 July 1839 secured a verdict, with 100J. 

In 1838 Polack published ' New Zealand : 
a Narrative of Travels and Adventures.' It 
gained the notice of Robert Montgomery 
Martin [q. v.], editor of the ' Colonial Maga- 
zine/ who in 1838 proposed him as a member 
of the newly formed Colonial Society of Lon- 
don. A second and more ambitious work by 
Polack, ' Manners and Customs of the New 
Zealanders/ was published in London in 
1840 (2 vols.) This book furnishes one of 
the earliest accounts of the natives of New 
Zealand, and displays considerable erudition 
and capacity for observation; the illustra- 
tions were drawn by the author. 

Polack lived for a time with a sister in 
Piccadilly, but eventually went to the United 
States, and settled in San Francisco, where 
he married the widow of William Hart, who 
had also been a settler in New Zealand. 
He died in San Francisco on 17 April 

[PolacVs evidence beforo soloct committee of 
House of Lords on Now Zealand, 1838; prefaces 
of Polack's works; Times, 2 July 1839, report of 
Polaek v. Lawson ; information obtained through 
the agent-general for Now Zealand.] 0, A. H. 

POLDING, JOHNBEDE (1794-1877), 
first Roman catholic archbishop of Sydney, 
was born in Liverpool on 18 Nov. 1794. Loft 
an orphan early, lie was adopted by his re- 
lative, Dr. Brewer, president of tho English 
Benedictines. He was sent at eleven years old 
to be educated at Acton Burnell, the head- 
quarters of the Benedictines. On 16 July 
1810 he joined the Benedictine order, became 
a Driest m March 1819, and was at once ap- 
pointed tutor at St. Gregory's College, Down- 
side, in Ireland. Many of his pupils wore 
distinguished in later life. In hie devotion, 
to the work Polding declined the see of Madras 
in 1833. 

On the decision to erect the vicariate-apo- 
stolic of Australia into a bishopric, Polding 
was selected for the office, and consecrated 
bishop of Hiero-Caesarea on 29 June 1884* 
In September 1885 he arrived in Sydney and 
devoted himself to the organisation of the 
new diocese. In 1841 he revisited England, 
and thence went to Rome, where he was 
employed on a special missio.n to Malta, made 
a count of the holy Roman empire, and a 
bishop-assistant to the papal throne. He was 
appointed archbishop of Sydney on 10 April 
1842. * 

Folding's return as an archbishop roused 
a storm among members of the church of 
England in Australia, but his calm and con- 



dilatory demeanour gradually disarmed op- 

In 1846-8, in 1854-6, and again in 1865- 
1866, Folding visited Europe to further the 
interests of his see and bring out new helpers. 
He was constantly traversing the remotest 
parts of his diocese, which included Tas- 
mania, and won the admiration and devotion 
of clergy and laity. In 1871 he left for 
Europe to attend the oecumenical council, 
but his health broke down at Aden, and he 
returned to Sydney. He died on 16 March 
1877 at the Sacred Heart Presbytery, Dar- 
linghurst, Sydney. 

[Melbourne Argus, 17 March 1877 ; Heaton's 
Australian Dictionary of Dates.] C. A. H. 

POLE, ARTHUR (1531-1570?), con- 
spirator, born in 1531, was the eldest son of 
Sir Geoffrey Pole [q. v.] and his wife Con- 
stance, daughter of Sir John Pakenham. He 
has been commonly confused with his uncle 
Arthur, probably second son of Margaret Pole, 
countess of Salisbury [q. v.], and brother of 
Cardinal Pole. He was educated under the 
care of Gentian Hervet, a friend of Thomas 
Lupset [q. v.], and of Geoffrey and Reginald 
Pole. His father and his uncle the cardinal died 
within a few days of each other in November 
1558, and in December 1559 Arthur wrote, 
apparently to Cecil, complaining that his 
uncle had done nothing for him, and offering 
his services to Queen Elizabeth. This offer 
was not accepted, and Pole was soon en- 
tangled in treasonable proceedings. Before 
the end of the year the attentions paid to 
Pole by the English catholics irritated Eliza- 
beth, and in September 1562 De Quadra 
wrote to Philip that Pole was about to leave 
England on the pretext of religion, * but the 
truth is that he is going to try his fortune, 
and pretend to the crown. 7 He was persuaded 
that, as a descendant of Edward IV*s brother, 
the Duke of Clarence, his claim to the English 
throne was as good as that of Mary Queen 
of Scots. Through one Fortescue, who had 
married his sister, he proposed to De Quadra 
to enter the Spanish service, but the Spanish 
ambassador thought little of his capacity or 
his claims, and Pole next applied to the French 
ambassador, De Foix. But France was not 
likely to support a rival to Mary, and Pole 
agreed to forego his claim to the crown on 
condition that he was created Duke of Cla- 
rence. It was wildly suggested that Mary 
might marry his youngeirbrother Edmund 
(1541-1570 ?). 

Arthur and Edmund were encouraged in 
their project by the prediction of onePrestal, 
an astrologer, that Queen Elizabeth would 
die in 1563, and they plotted to raise a force 

in the Welsh marches to support Mary's claim. 
They also applied to the Duke of Guise for aid. 
He apparently held out hopes to them, and 
they were on the point of taking ship for France 
in October 1562 when they were arrested near 
the Tower. They were examined by the 
council, but no further steps were taken until 
after the meeting of parliament in the follow- 
ing January. On 26 Feb. 1562-3 they were 
found guilty of treason ; but, in consideration 
of their youth and the futility of the plot, 
they were not executed. They were impri- 
soned in the Beauchamp Tower, Edmund in 
the upper, and Arthur in the lower room. 
They both carved inscriptions on the walls, 
which still remain. Edmund's is signed 
' Mi. 21 E. Poole, 1562,' and Arthur's < A.D. 
1568, Arthur Poole, M suae 37, A. P.' Both 
died in the Tower, probably in 1670. They 
were alive in January of that year, but 
both are omitted from their mother's will, 
dated 12 Aug. 1570, where Thomas, the second 
son, is described as the eldest. Froude, on 
the authority of one of De Quadra's letters, 
states that Arthur married a daughter of the 
Earl of Northumberland, but no reference 
to this match is to be found in the peer- 

[Cal. of Papers preserved at Simancas, passim ; 
Oal. State Papers, Dom. 1 541-80, p. 146, For. 1562 
No. 970, 1563 No. 44; Harl. MS. 421 ; Strypo's 
Annals, i. i,546, 555; Eccl.Mem.n.ii.67; Wood's 
Athenae Oxon.i. 146; Sandford's Genealog. Hist, 
p. 445 ; Dugdale's Baronage ; Phillips's Life of 
Cardinal Pole; Bloxani's Keg. Magdalon Coll. 
Oxford, iv. 152; Aikm's Court of Eliss. i. 354 ; 
HepworthDixon's Her Majesty's Tower, ed. 1 869, 
pp. 2, 241-4; Pike's Hist, of Crime, ii. 37-9; 
Froude andLingard's Histories ; Sussex ArchosoU 
Collections, xxi. 86-7 ; Notes and Queries, 3rd 
ser. viii. 49.] A. V, P* 

1830), admiral of the fleet, born on 18 Jan, 
1757, was second son of Reginald Pole of 
Stoke Damerell in Devonshire, and great- 
grandson of Sir John Pole of Shute, third 
baronet, and of his wife Anne, daughter of 
Sir William Morice [q* Y.] In January 1770 
he entered the Royal Academy in Portsmouth 
Dockyard, and two years later was appointed 
to the Thames frigate, with Captain William 
Locker [q. v,1 In December 1773 he was 
moved into tne Salisbury, of 60 guns, going 
out to the East Indies with the oroad pen- 
nant of Commodore Sir Edward Hughes 
[q. v.], by whom he was promoted on. 26 July 
1777 to be lieutenant of the Seahorse. In the 
following vear he was moved to the Ripon- 
carrying the broad pennant of Sir Edward 
Vernon [q. v.], and in her took part in the 
rencounter with M, Tronjoly on 9 Aug. He 




afterwards commanded a party of seamen 
landed for the siege of Pondicherry, and on 
the surrender of the place, on 17 Oct. 1778, 
was promoted to the command of the Cor- 
morant sloop, in which he returned to Eng- 
land with Vernon's despatches, On 22 March 
1779, ten days after his arrival, he was ad- 
vanced to post rank, and appointed to the 
Britannia, with Rear-admiral George Darby 
[q. v.] In July 1780 he was moved into the 
Hussar frigate, which he took out to North 
America, pat she was lost, by the fault of 
the pilot, in endeavouring to pass through 
Hell Gate. Pole was fully acquitted by a 
court-martial, and was sent home with des- 
patches. He was then appointed to the 
Success, of 32 guns, and in March 1782 was 
sent out to Gibraltar, in charge of the 
Yernon store-ship. By the way, on the 16th, 
he fell in with the Spanish Santa Catalina, 
of 34 guns, said to have been the largest 
frigate then afloat. As she had also a poop, 
she was at first supposed to be a ship of the 
line ; it was only when Pole, determining at 
all risks to save the Vernon, gallantly closed 
with the Spaniard, that he discovered she 
was only a frigate, though of considerably 
superior force. He, however, engaged and, 
after two hours' close action, captured her. 
He had partly refitted her, in the hope of 
taking her in, when, on the 18th, a squadron 
of ships of war came in sight, and sooner 
than let her fall into the enemy's hands he 
set her on fire. "When too late it was found 
that the strange sail were English. During 
the peace Pole commanded the Crown guard- 
ship for three years. In 1788 he was ap- 
pointed groom of the bedchamber to the 
Duke of Clarence. In the Spanish armament 
of 1790 he commanded the Melampus fri- 
gate, stationed off Brest to report any move- 
ment of the French ships ; in 1791 he was 
moved to the Illustrious of 74 guns, and 
again, in 1793, to the Colossus, in which he 
went out to the Mediterranean, and was pre- 
sent at the occupation of Toulon, under the 
command of Lord Hood. In 1794 the Co- 
lossus returned to England, and joined the 
Channel fleet under Lord Howe. 

On 1 June 1795 Pole was promoted to be 
rear-admiral, and in NovemJber, in the Co- 
lossus, sailed for the West Indies as second 
in command, under Sir Hugh Cloberry 
Christian q. v.], with whom he returned to 
England in October 1796. In March 1797 
he was appointed first captain of the Royal 
George, or, as it would now be called, captain 
of the fleet, with Lord Bridport [see HOOD, 
with his flag in the Royal George, he com- 
manded a squadron detached against some 

Spanish ships in Basque roads, which wore 
found to be too far in under the batteries of 
the Isle of Aix to be attacked with advan- 
tage. In the following year he went out to 
Newfoundland as commander-in-chief, re- 
turning on his promotion to the rank of vice- 
admiral, on 1 Jan. 1801: In the following 
June he relieved Lord Nelson in command of 
the fleet in the Baltic. The work had, how- 
ever, been practically finished before his 
arrival, and little remained for him to do 
except to bring the fleet home. On 12 Sept. 
he was created a baronet. He was then sent 
in command off Cadiz, where he remained 
till the peace. In 1802 he was returned to 
parliament as member for Newark, and en- 
tered zealously on his duties. He was made 
an admiral in the Trafalgar promotion of 
9 Nov. 1805, but had no further service 
afloat. From 1803 to 1806 ho was chairman 
of the commission on naval abuses [BOO 
and in 1806 became one of the lorda of the 
admiralty. From 1806 to 1818 ho wasM,l\ 
for Plymouth, taking an active interest in 
all measures connected with naval admini- 
stration, and speaking with the freedom of a 
man independent of party. On 20 Fob. 1818 
he was nominatod a Q-.C.B. On the acces- 
sion of William IV he was appointed master 
of the robes, and was promoted to be ad- 
miral of the fleet on 22 July 1830. Ilu died 
at Denham Abboy, Hertfordshire, on Sept, 
1830. X 

Pole married, in 1792, Henrietta, third 
daughter of John Goddard, a Ilotterdam 
merchant, of Woodford Hall, Essex, and 
niece of ' the rich Mr. Hope of Rotterdam ; ' 
but, dying without male issue, the baronetcy 
became extinct. His portrait by Beochoy 
has been engraved, 

[Marshall's Royal Naval Biogr.i, 86 ; Navnl 
Chronicle (with a portrait after Northcoto), xxi. 
265 ; Ralfe's Naval Biogr. ii, 129; Pantliticm of 
the Ago, it. 1 58 ; Foster^ BtironotHgo, s,n. Polo of 
Shute. There are many casual notices of him in 
Nicolas's Despatches and Letters of Lord Nolson 
(see index).] jr. K. L. 

POLE, DAVID (rf.1568), bishop of Peter- 
borough, appears as a fellow of All Souls' 
College, Oxford, in 1620. He devoted him- 
self to civil law, and graduated B.Can.L. on 
2 July 1526 and D.CanX, on 17 Feb. 1527- 
1528, In 1529 he became an advocate in 
Doctors' Commons. He was connected with 
the diocese of Lichfield, where he held many 
preferments, first under Bishop Geoffrey 
Blyth, and then under Bishop Rowland Lae, 
He was made prebendary of Tachbrook in 
Lichfield Cathedral on 11 April 1531, arch- 
deacon of Salop in April 1580, and arch- 




deacon of Derby on 8 Jan. 1542-3. He had 
previously received the high appointment of 
dean of the arches and vicar-general of the 
archbishop of Canterbury on 14 Nov. 1640. 
A conscientious adherent of the Koman ca- 
tholic faith, he occupied several positions of 
importance during Mary's reign. In her first 
year he acted as vicar-general of the bishop 
of Lichfield (Richard Sampson) and commis- 
sioner for the deprivation of married priests 
^STBTPE, Jlf0?u>roW0, vol. iii. pt. i. p. 168), and 
in his capacity of archdeacon he sat on the 
commission for the deprivation of Cranmer, 
Ridley, and Latimer, and the restoration of 
Bonner and other deprived bishops (ib. p. 36). 
He stood high in the favour of Cardinal 
Pole, said to be a relative, who appointed 
him his vicar-general (ib. p. 476). During 
the vacancy of the see of Lichfield on Bishop 
Sampson's death in 1554, he was appointed 
commissary for the diocese. In the early 
part of the same year he took part in the con- 
demnation of Hooper and Taylor (ib. pp. 288, 
290). On 25 April 1556 he was appointed 
on the commission to inquire after heretics, 
and to proceed against them. On the death 
of John Chambers, the first bishop of the 
newly formed diocese of Peterborough, the 
cjueen sent letters commendatory to Paul IV 
in Pole's favour. He was consecrated at 
Chiswick on 1 5 Aug. 1557 by Nicholas Heath 
[q. vj, archbishop of York. Hardly a month 
elapsed before he proved his zeal against heresy 
by sanctioning the martyrdom of John Kurde, 
a protestant shoemaker of Syston, who was 
burntat Northamptonon 20 Sept. 1557 (Foxs, 
Acts and Monuments, iii. 71). The death of 
Mary caused a complete change in his position. 
He was regarded with well-deserved respect 
by Elizabeth, who put him in the first abortive 
commission for the consecration of Parker as 
archbishop, 9 Sept. 1559 (STKYPE, Parker, 
i. 106). In the same year he, with Bonner 
and two other prelates, signed Archbishop 
Heath's letter of remonstrance to Elizabeth, 
begging her to return to the catholic faith 
(STBYPB, Annals, vol. L pt. i. p. 217). His 
refusal, in common with his brother bishops, 
to take the oath under the act of supremacy 
was followed by his deprivation; but he was 
treated ^with great leniency by the queen as 
'an^ancient and grave person and very quiet 
subject/ and was allowed to live on parole 
in London or the suburbs, having no * other 
gaoler than his own promise" (FTJIXBTJ, 
Church Hist. iv. 281). He was * courteously 
treated by all persons amonff whom he lived, 
and at last' died ' on one of his farms in a 
good old age/ in Mayor June 1568 (HBYLTK, 
Hist, of Refotvnation, anno ] 559 ; STBTPE, 
JTnnals, vol. i. pt. i. pp. 214, 411). His pror 

perty he left to his friends, with the excep- 
tion of his books on law and theology, which 
he bequeathed to his college, All So'uls', 

[Wood's Athene, ii. 801, Fasti, i. 74, 77, 78 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Strypo, Me- 
morials, vol. iii. pt. i. pp. 36, 168, 288, 200, 473, 
476-7, pt. ii. p. 26, Annuls, vol. i. pt. i. pp. 206, 21 4, 
217, 411, pt.ii. p. 26, Cranmor, i. 469, Parker, i. 
106; Lansdowne MS. 980 f. 23; Ouuton's His- 
tory of Peterborough, pp. 69,70; Coote's Civilians, 
p. 26; Dixon's Church History, iv. 48, 693, 796.] 

E. V. 

FOLK (1472 P-1613), was the second son of 
John de la Pole, second duke of Suffolk [q. v.l 

d IV. 

by his wife Elizabeth, sister of Edwa 
About 1481 Edward sent him to Oxford, 
mainly to hear a divinity lecture he had 
lately founded. The university wrote two 
fulsome letters to the king, thanking him for 
the favour he had done them in sending 
thither a lad whose precocity, they declared, 
seemed to have something oi inspiration in it, 
The family owed much to Richard III, who 
made Edmund a knight of the Bath at las 
coronation on 4 July 1483 (HoLiNsinaD, iii, 
733), He, with his father, was also pro- 
sent at the coronation of Elizabeth, queen 
of Henry VII, on 25 Nov. 1487 (I^ANi), 
Collectanea, iv. 229, 230, eel. 1770), and was 
frequently at court during the next two 

In 1491 his father died. Edmund, the 
eldest surviving son, had not attained his 
majority, and was the king's ward (llotfa 0} 
Parl. vi. 477). He ought still to have suc- 
ceeded to his father's title, but, his inheri- 
tance being seriously diminished by tlio act of 
attainder against his late brother [see POLE, 
JOHN DB LA, EABT, OF LiHOo&tf, 14(M P-1487], 
he agreed with the king by indenture, datod 
26 Feb. 1493 (presumably the date at which 
he came of age), to forego the titlo of duko 
and content himself with that of Earl of 
Suffolk on the king restoring to him a por- 
tion of the forfeited property not indeed as 
a gift, but in exchange for a sum of r>,0(X)J. 
to be paid by yearly instalments of 200,?, 
during bis mother's life and of 400 after 
her death. This arrangement was ratifiod in 
the parliament of October 1496 (JRoUg of 
ParL vi. 474-7). Henry's skill at driving a 
hard bargain was never more apparent. But 
in the parliamentary confirmation of the in- 
denture he showed himself graciouw enough 
to restore to the impoverished nahlomou his 
< chief place ' in the- city of London, in the 
parish of St. Laurence Pultney, which by 
the agreement itself the earl had conceded 
to the king (ib. p, 476). 

la October 1492 Suffolk was at the siege 



of Boulogne {Chronicle of Calais, p. 2). On 
9 Nov. 1494 he was the leading challenger 
at Westminster in the tournament at the 
creation of Prince Henry as Duke of York, 
and was presented on the second day with 
' a ring of gold witH a diamond' as a prize. 
In 1495, on Michaelmas day, he received 
the king, who was on his way from "Wood- 
stock to Windsor, at his seat at Ewelme 
(Excerpta Historica, p. 105). The par- 
liament which confirmed his agreement with 
the king assembled in the following month, 
and he was one of the lords appointed triers 
of petitions from Gascony and foreign parts 
( Rolls of Parl vi. 458). It was probably in 
1496 that he was made a knight of the Garter 
in the room of Jasper, duke of Bedford, who 
died in December 1496 (BEi/rz, Memorials 
of the Garter, p. clxix). In February 1496 
he took part in a ' disguising- ' before the 
Icing (Excerpta Historica,j>. 107). In the same 
month he was one of a number of English 
noblemen who stood sureties to the Arch- 
duke Philip for the observance of the new 
treaties with Burgundy (RYMEE, xii. 588, 
1st edit.) On 22 June he led a company 
against the Cornish rebels at Blackheath. 

In Michaelmas term, 1498, he was in- 
dicted in the king's bench for murder. It 
appears that he had killed a man in a pas- 
sion ; and though he received the king's 
pardon, he is said to have resented the fact 
that he, a prince of royal blood, should have 
been arraigned for the crime. In April 1499, 
however, he attended a chapter of the Gar- 
ter at Windsor (ANSTIB, Register, ii. 238). 
But in July, or the very beginning of August, 
he fled the kingdom, first taking refuge at 
Guisnes, near Calais, where Sir James Tyrell, 
captain of the castle, had friendly confer- 
ences with him, and afterwards going on to 
St. Omer. Henry, much alarmed at his de- 
parture, issued on 20 Aug. strict orders 
against persons leaving the kingdom without 
a license (Letters and Papers, ii. 377 ; Paston 
Letters, iii. 173, ed. Gairdner). He also 
instructed Sir Richard Guildford [q.v.] and 
Richard Hatton, the former of whom was 
going on a mission to the archduke, to use 
all possible persuasions to induce Suffolk to 
return. Henry's ambassadors persuaded the 
archduke to order Suffolk out of his domi- 
nions; but the captain of St. Omer, who 
was charged to convey the order, delayed 
the intimation of it, much to his master's 
satisfaction. Guildford had instructions to 
bring Suffolk back by force if persuasion 
failed. Suffolk wisely preferred to return 
voluntarily, and was again taken into favour. 
He was, however, by no means satisfied as to 
the king's intentions j and the j udicial murder 

of the Earl of "Warwick, which happened 
immediately after, did not reassure him. It 
seemed as if the house of York were to be 
extirpated to secure the Tudor throne. 

On 5 May 1600, however, ho witnessed at 
Canterbury the kind's confirmation of the 
treaty for the marriage of Prince Arthur 
with Catherine of Arragon (ItnfBK, xii. 
752, 1st edit/), and six day a later ho followed 
the king to Calais to the meeting 1 with the 
Archduke Philip. He returned to England, 
but having heard that the Emperor Maxi- 
milian, who had an old grudge against 
Henry VII, would gladly help one of the 
blood of Edward IV to gain the English 
throne, he in August 1501 repaired to Maxi- 
milian in the Tyrol, The omporor at firKt 
gave him no encouragement. After remain- 
ing six weeks at Imst, Suffolk received a 
message, promising him the aid of throe to 
five thousand men for a period of one, two, 
or three months if nocoHtmry. Leaving 1 his 
steward Killingworth to arrange detailH with 
Maximilian, he repaired to Aix-la-Ohapollo 
with letters from the emperor in hi favour 
to the council of that town. A Suffolk's 
departure Maximilian raised diOieultieH in 
performing his promine, But HuiVolk wan at 
length informed that Maximilian had per- 
suaded the Count of Hardock to lend Suffolk 
twenty thousand gulden. Tho count was to 
be repaid double that sura, and hit) won was 
to go with Suffolk into Knglund. 

On 7 Nov. IHOl Suffolk, Sir Hubert Cur* 
zon who seems first to have miggtsHtwl tho 
project to the emperor and live other per- 
sons wore publicly * accursed * at I'uul'tt 
Cross as traitors. Afterwards on tho first 
Sunday of Lout (18 Fob.) 11502, Suffolk'** 
brother, Lord William do la Polo, with 
Lord William Courtney, Sir James Tyrell, 
and other Yorkist friendn, were thrown into 
prison. Of these, Tyroll and Bit* John Wytid- 
nam suffered aw traitors in May following ; 
but the two Lord Williams, wluwe Yorkwb 
blood and connection were alone wuHpieiouH, 
wore only kept in confinement till the ac- 
cession ot Henry V 111* Suffolk himself was 
outlawed at Ipswich on 2ft Dec, 3502. 

lie was also disappointed in. the hope of 
help from his foreign friends, Ilia remon- 
strances addressed to the emperor from Aix 
were in vain, and on 28 July 1502 Maximilian 
sifted a treaty at Augsburg, pledging him- 
self in return for 10,000*. not to succour any 
English rebels, even though they claimed tho 
dignity of dukes (for Suffolk had resumed his 
forfeited rank in the peerage) (Itowmt, xiiL 
9, 22-7, 1st edit.) Nevertheless, Suffolk 
was suffered to remain at Aix unmolested. 
But on 12 Fob. 1508 Maximilian took, at 



the English king's request, an oath to observe 
the treaties, and gave a reluctant promise to 
expel Suffolk from Aix by proclamation. He 
merely wrote, however, to the burgomaster 
and town council that, as he had sent the un- 
happy nobleman thither, and was forbidden 
by his treaty with England to grant him 
further aid, he had arranged to pay them three 
thousand Rhenish florins, to enable him to 
quit the town free of debt. But it does not 
appear that Maximilian kept his word, for 
Suffolk remained at Aix, still in debt, for 
several months after. 

In January 1504 he was attainted by the 
English parliament (Rolls of Part. vi. 546 
seq.), along with his brothers William and 
Richard [q, v.],and a number of his adherents. 
His situation seemed hopeless. Strangely 
illiterate letters during the next few years 
reflect his wretchedness, and form a most 
astounding commentary on that erudition 
with which he was credited by his univer- 
sity when a boy. Just before Easter 1504 he 
managed to quit Aix by leaving his brother 
Richard behind him as a hostage. He had 
arranged to join George, duke of Saxony, 
governor of Friesland,but on enter ing Gelder- 
land he was seized and thrown into the castle 
of Hattem, in spite of a safe-conduct the 
Duke of Gueldres had sent him. The duke 
is believed to have obtained money from 
Henry YII to keep the prisoner sate, and 
refused the demand of his overlord, Philip, 
king of Castile, to deliver him, But in July 
1505 Philips able captain, Paul von Lichten- 
stein, obtained possession of Hattem, with 
the prisoner in it. Much negotiation between 
Philip and the Duke of Gueldres followed, 
and during the course of it Suffolk was tem- 
porarily handed back to the dukej but in 
October Philip again obtained possession of 
the prisoner, and shut him up in the castle 
of Namur. 

On 24 Jan. 1506 Suffolk gave a curious 
commission to two of his servants to treat 
with Henry VII for an adjustment of the 
differences between them, with a set of spe- 
cific instructions as to the terms. He de- 
manded Henry's aid, if necessary, for his 
delivery out of Philip's hands. In the same 
month Philip visited Henry at Windsor, and 
consented to surrender the unhappy fugitive. 
At the end of March Suffolk was conveyed 
through London (Lu GLAY, Negotiations, i* 
114), and committed to the Tower. 

Henry gave Philip a written promise to 
spare his life (Cal. State Papers, Spanish, 
vol. i. No. 456), and the rumour that he 
recommended his son and successor to put 
Suffolk to death is probably a scandal 
' de Du Bellay, livre i.) But at 

Henry VIII's accession he was excepted from 
the general pardon, and in 1513, when his 
brother Richard had taken up arms in the 
service of France, with whom England was 
then at war, he was sent to the block, ap- 
parently without any further proceedings 
against him. A contemporary Spanish writer 
suggests (PETER MAHTYE, IZpp. No. 524) that 
he had given fresh offence by writing to urge 
his brother to promote a rebellion in Knglund. 
But as a prisoner in the Tower he had little 
opportunity of doing so, unless it were pur- 
posely afforded him (cf. Calendar, Venetian, 
vol. ii. No. 248). 

Pole married Margaret, a daughter of 
Richard, lord Scrope, and by her he had a 
daughter named Anne, who became a nun 
at the Minor ies without Aldgate. Ho left 
no male issue. 

[Polydori Vergilii Historia Anglica; Hall's 
Chronicle ; Fabyan's Chroniclo ; Dugdalo'0 
Baronage ; Sandford's Genealogical History ; 
Wood's Annals of Oxford ; Napier's Swyneombo 
and Ewelme ; Memorials of Houry VII (Rolls 
Ser.); Letters and Papers of .Richard III uud 
Henry VII (Bolls Ser) ; Bllis's Letters, 3rd sot. 
vol. i. Nos. 48-59 ; Cat State Papers, Spanish 
vol. i., Venetian vol. i., and Honry VJ.II vol. i. ; 
Chroniques de Jean Mplinet, vol. v. (Buchnn's 
Collection des Chroniques Rationales "Fran- 
caises); Le G lay's Negotiations ; Busch's Eng- 
land unter den Tudors.] J. GK 

POLE, SIB GEOFFREY (1502P-1558), 
a victim of Henry VIII's tyranny, born be- 
tween 1501 and 1505, was brother of Henry 
Pole, lord Montague [q. v.], and of Reginald 
Pole [q. v.l the cardinal, being the youngest 
son of Sir Richard Pole (& 1505), by his wife 
Margaret, afterwards Countess of Salisbury 
[see POLE, MAKGAKBT]. He was one of tUo 
knights made by Henry VIII at York Place 
in 1529 (METOAMQ, Book of Ehiffhttt, p, Cl ; 
Cal Henry Fill, vol ,iv. No. 6384). Soon 
afterwards he married Constance, the elder 
of the two daughters and heirs of Sir John 
Pakenham, by whom ha became possessed of 
the manor of Lordington in Sussex, Local 
antiquaries assert that this manor belonged to 
his lather ; but this has been fully disproved 
by Father Morris (Month, Ixv, oSl-ity, From 
1531 his name is met with in commisBkms of 
various kinds, both for Hampshire and for 

Like the rest of his familv, he greatly dis- 
liked Henry YIU's proceedings for a divorce 
from Catherine of Arragon, In 15JJSJ, whoa 
the king went over to Calais with Anne 
Boleyn to meet Francis I, ho crossed the sea 
in disguise, and keeping himself unseen in tho 
apartments of his brother, Henry Polo, lord 
Montague fo, v.J who had gone over with 



the king, stole out. at night to collect news. 
Montague sent him back to England to inform 
Queen Catherine that Henry had not suc- 
ceeded in persuading Francis to countenance 
his proposed marriage with Anne Boleyn. 
Next year, however, his name appears set 
down not with his own good will, we may 
be sure among the knights appointed 'to 
be servitors' at Anne Boleyn's coronation 
(Cat. Henry VIII, vi. 246), But a week 
after, on Thursday, 5 June, he dined with 
the Princess Mary (ib. No. 1540, iii.) ; and 
-frequently, when Anne Boleyn was queen, 
he visited the imperial ambassador, Ohapuys, 
to assure him that the emperor would find the 
hearts of the English people with him if he 
invaded England to redress the wrong done 
to Catherine (ib. vii. 520), He added that he 
himself wished to go to the emperor in Spain, 
which Chapuys wisely dissuaded him from 
doing (ib. vol. viii. No. 750, p. 283). 

In 1536, on the suppression of the smaller 
monasteries, he purchased from the commis- 
sioners such goods as then remained of the 
abbey of Durefordin Sussex, nearLordington 
(Sussex Archaeological Collections, vii. 224). 
In the end of that year he is said to have 
commanded a company, under the Duke of 
Norfolk, against the northern rebels at Don- 
caster ; but his sympathies were really with 
the rebels, and he was determined beforehand 
not to act against them (ib. xxi. 77). Norfolk, 
however, was aware that the insurgents were 
too strong to be attacked, and Sir Geoffrey had 
no occasion to desert the royal standard. A 
letter of Lord De la Warr, perhaps misplaced 
in the ' Calendar' in October 1536, speaks of 
his causing a riot by a forcible entry into Slin- 
don Park, which he was afterwards ordered 
in the king's name immediately to quit (Gal. 
Henry VIII, vol. xi. No. 523). In October 
1537 when he came to court the king refused 
to see him (ib. vol. xii. pt. iL No. 921) ; and 
a letter of his to the lord chancellor, dated at 
Lordington, 5 April, in which he hopes for 
a return of the king's favour, was probably 
written in 1638, though placed among the 
state papers of 1537 (ib, vol. xii. pt. i. No. 
829), On 29 Aug. 1538 he was arrested and 
sent to the Tower (ib. vol. xiii. pt. ii, p. 91). 

This was a blow aimed at his whole mmily, 
whom the king had long meant to crush on 
account of the part taken by his brother Regi- 
nald the cardinal. For nearly two months 
Geoffrey lay in prison ; on 26 Oct. a set of 
interrogatories was administered to him, first 
about words dropped by himself in private 
conversation, when he had expressed approval 
of his brother's proceedings, and next as to 
the letters and messages he or his mother, or 
others of his family, had received from the 

cardinal during the last three years. With 
the fear of the rack before him, and knowing 
that he would be compelled to implicate his 
family, he endeavoured to commit suicide, 
and did himself some serious injury (ib. voU 
xiii. pt.ii. Nos. 703, 875). But it was in vain. 
Seven separate examinations was he obliged 
to undergo, with further and further q \ios~ 
tionings as new information was elicited from 
himself or from those whom his confessions 
implicated, until the whole CUHO was made 
out for tho king against not only himself, 
but his brother Lord Montague, Henry Cour- 
tenay, marquis of Exeter [q.v.], Sir fcdward 
Neville (d. 1588) [q. v.], and others. 11 ia wiio, 
who was herself examined by tho council, 
privately informed her brother-in-law Lord 
Montague that her husband waa driven to 
frenzy, and might make indiscreet revolutions. 
Brought to trial with those ho had implicated, 
on 4 l)ec. at Westminster, ho "VVUB condemned 
to death on his own plea of guilty, but, while 
his brother and tho others mot their late, his 
life was spared. There wore now viutima Htill 
to be caught, and even on ttO Doc. Cromwell 
intimated to the French ambtiNwtdor that they 
hoped to learn something more from him. 
At last, on 4 Jan. 15JW, he received JUH par- 
don, which, itjs said, his wife obtuinod'for 
him, representing that he WUH HO ill that ho 
was already as good UM doad (J<\n,HV, Accords 
of the Enyluh Province of 1lw, timwty of 
Jews, \\i* 790-1). During tho OhriHtnuis 
week, indeed, he seonmto have wade another 
attempt ujjon his own life, trying to auttncato 
.himself with a cushion (Cal. Jlcnry FI/I, 
vol. xiv. pt. i, p, JO). 

In September 1540 ho was committed to 
the^ Fleet in consequence of ' a certain allray ' 
which he had made in Hampshire on one Air. 
Guntor, a justice of the peace, who hud given 
the council information against him, A. 
fortnight later ho received tho kmg'H pardon 
on condition of his keeping tho poueo tovwrdH 
Gunter,and not coming again to court until 
the king's pleasure wore further declared* 
Early in April next year another complaint 
was made against him to tho council for an 
assault on John Michael, tho paraon of 
Eacton, his parish church in SUHHOX. He 
seems to have previously connived at tho 
trumping-up of a charge of treason against 

A few weeks later his mother was put to 
death, and he was afraid of further trouble* 
* He went about,' says a contemporary writer, 
'like one terror-stricken, and, us he livd four 
miles from Chichotor,he saw ouo clay In Ohi- 
Chester a Flemish whip, into which ho resolved 
to get, and wit hher he passed over to Flanderw, 
leaving his wife and children/ It is added 



that he found his way to Borne, and threw 
himself at the feet of his brother the cardinal, 
saying he was unworthy to be called his 
brother for haying caused another brother's 
death. The cardinal brought him to the nope 
for absolution, and afterwards sent him into 
Flanders to the bishop of Liege, allowing him 
forty crowns a month to live upon. There 
he chiefly lived till the close of Edward VTs 
reign. His wife and family, however, were 
still at Lordington, and he had a strong desire 
to return to England. In 1550 he visited Sir 
John Mason [q. v.] at Poissy, while on a 
journey to Rouen. He explained that he 
was riding up and down that summer to see 
countries, and vainly begged Mason to procure 
leave for him to return to England. He was 
excepted from the general jjardon granted at 
the end of the parliament in 1662 (STRYEE, 
J&ccl. Mem. vol. ii. pt. ii, p. 67). After Queen 
Mary's accession he returned to England. 
He died in 1558, a few days before his brother 
the cardinal, and was buried at Stoughton 
Church, He was attended in his last illness 
by Father Peter de Soto [q. y.l Ilis widow 
Constance, who made her will on 12 Aug. 
1570, desired to be buried beside him. lie 
left five sons and six daughters, two of whom 
were married, and one a nun of Si on ; the 
eldest son, Arthur, is separately noticed. 

[Sandford's Genealogical HisL ; Cal. State 
Papers, Henry VIII, Foreign, Edward VI, Vene- 
tian, iii. 1660 ; Privy Council Proceedings, od. 
Nicolas, vol. vii. ; Sussex Archaeological Collec- 
tions, vol. xxi. ; Ty tier's England under Ed- 
ward VI and Mary, i. 313; Chronicle of 
Henry VIII of England, translated from the 
Spanish by Martin A. Sharp Hume. The notices 
of Sir Geoffrey Pole in Froude's History are 
altogether erroneous.] J. G, 

or MONTACUTE (1492?-1539),born about 1492, 
was eldest son of Sir Richard Pole (d. 1 505), by 
his wife Margaret [see POLTD, MARaABET]. He 
obtained a special livery of his father's lands, 
viz. the manors of Ellesborough and Med- 
menham in Buckinghamshire, on 5 July 1513. 
On 25 Sept. following he was one of a com- 
pany of forty-nine gentlemen knighted by 
Henry VIII under his banner, after mass, in. 
the church at Tournay* This implies that 
he had distinguished himself during the 
French campaign. Along with his mother, 
who was created Countess of Salisbury that 
year, he gave a bond to the king for the re- 
demption of the lands of that ancestral earl- 
dom (Gal Ilemy VIII, ii. 1480), and another 
old family title, the barony of Montague or 
Montacute, forfeited by the Nevilles under 
Edward IV, was conferred upon himself. 
There is no record of any formal grant or 

creation, but from 1517, when he is named 
as a witness of Henry VIIPs ratification of 
the treaty of London, he is continually called 
Lord Montague, though he was not admitted 
to the House of Lords till 1529. In Sep- 
tember 1518 he was one of the English lords 
appointed to receive the great French em- 
bassy. He was a member of the royal house- 
hold, and had a livery allowed mm (Cal 
Ilennj VIII, vol. iii, No, 491). He attended 
the king in 1520 to the Field of the Cloth of 
Gold, and also to the meeting with Charles V 
at Gravelines. 

About 1513 he married Jane, daughter of 
George Neville, lord Bergavenny [q. v.] His 
father-in-law insisted upon a jointure to the 
yearly value of 20Q/., in addition to which ho 
was to pay ' at convenient days ' a sum of one 
thousand marks if he shoal cl have no male 
issue; but if a son were born, Lord Bor- 
gavenny was to pay the same amount to the 
Countess of Salisbury (ib. vol. xiii, pt. ii. 
No, 1016). Lord Bergavenny was himself 
the son-in-law of the unfortunate Duke of 
Buckingham who once, as appears by his 
private accounts, lost 15/, at dice to him at 
the house of Lord Montague (ib. iii. 499). 
When Buckingham was arrested in April 
1521, Lords Bergavenny and Montague wore 
arrested also (ib. vol. iii. No. 1208), but wore 
soon after released. 

In 1522, on Charles V's visit to England, 
Montague was ono of those appointed to meet 
him on his way from Dover to Canterbury. 
In 1523 ho took part in Suffolk's invasion of 
France (ib. vol. iii. No. 8281, vol. iv. p, 85). 
His fortunes at this time must have ben 
depressed, for his income was under fiO/. a 
year, and he was exempted from paying sub- 
sidy in 1525 (ib. iv. 1#31). Apparently bo 
had parted with hiB paternal estates in Buck- 
inghamshire, as his name doos not appoar in 
the commissions for that county, although it 
is on those for Hampshire, Sussex, Wiltshire, 
Somerset, and Dorset. On 1 Dec. 1529 ho 
took his seat in the House of Lords (Dim* 
DALE, Smymonx to Parliament,]*. 500). Next 
year ho signed tho address of tho powrs to 
Clement VII, urging him to comply with tho 
king's suit for a divorce. His action did not 
express his real mind, 

In October 1532 he went with the king 
to Calais, to the meeting with Francis I. 
Next year he was queen's carver at. tho coro- 
nation banquet of Anno Boleyn, on 1 Juno. 
That he was made a knight of the .Bath at 
this time seems to bo an error duo to Stow, 
who misread the name Moiitoajylo in Hall's 
< Chronicle ' as Montague. On Thursday fol- 
lowing (5 June) he and his son-in-law, 'Lord 
Hastings, and his brother, Sir Geoffrey Polo, 



dined with the Princess Mary, and he him- 
self dined with her again on the 24th (CaL 
Henry VIII, vol. vi. No. 1540, iii.) He re- 
ceived a writ of summons to the prorogued 
parliament in January 1634, and he seems to 
have attended regularly, his presence being 
recorded on 30 March, the seventy-fifth day 
of parliament, In April 1535 he was on the 
special commission before whom the Car- 
thusian martyrs were tried ; but his position 
there, like that of other lords, was merely 
honorary, the practical work being left to the 
judicial members. He was similarly placed 
on the trial of Sir Thomas More on 1 July. Im- 
mediately afterwards he had a serious illness. 
In May 1530 he was one of the peers before 
whom Anne Boleyn was tried. In it he took a 
more practical part than in the two previous 
trials, for each of the peers present severally 
declared her guilty. He may have believed 
in the verdict, for he had never approved of 
the king's marriage to her, or loved the anti- 
papal policy to which that marriage had led 
(cf. ib. vol. xvii. No. 967, x. 243 ; vol. vii. 
No. 1040). 

He sat in the parliament of July 1536 
(&. vol. x. No. 994, vol. xi. No. 104). He 
and his mother were seriously distressed 
that year about the book which his brother 
Keginald sent to the king, and each wrote 
to him in reproachful terms, but it was appa- 
rently to satisfy the council by whom the 
letters were read and despatched [see POLE, 
MARGAKBTI, On the outbreak 01 the Lin- 
colnshire rebellion in the beginning of October 
1536, Montague received orders to be ready 
at a day's warning to serve against the in- 
surgents with two hundred men. But the 
musters were countermanded on the speedy 
suppression of the insurrection, and it is 
doubtful whether he was sent against the 
Yorkshire rebels afterwards. On 16 Oct. 
1537 he took part in the ceremonial at the 
christening of Prince Edward. On 12 Nov. 
following he and Lord Clifford attended the 
Princess Mary, as she rode from Hampton 
Court to Windsor, as chief mourner at the 
funeral of Jane Seymour. 

All this time, although perfectly loyal, he 
was deeply grieved at the overthrow of the 
monasteries and the abrogation of the pope's 
authority. He often said in private he 
wished he was over sea with the bishop 
of Liege, as his brother had been, and that 
knaves ruled about the king. Early in 1538 
his wife died, and his interest in public 
affairs consequently decreased (CaL vol. xiii, 
pt. ii. No. 695 [21). But Henry VIII was 
not ignorant or nis opinions, and obtained 
positive evidence of tnem by the examina- 
tion of his brother, Sir Geoffrey Pole [q. v.], 

in the Tower in October and November 1538. 
Montague was accordingly committed to the 
Tower on 4 Nov. along with the Marquis of 
Exeter. Thev had at times communicated 
on public affairs. The indictments in each 
case were to the same effect. They had both 
expressed approval of Cardinal .Pole's pro- 
ceedings, and Montague had said he expected 
civil war one day from the course things 
were taking, especially if the king were to 
die suddenly. The two lords were tried 
before Lord-chancellor Aucleley, as lord high 
steward, and a jury of peers, and both were 
found guilty. Montnguo received judgment 
on 2 Bee., and Exeter on the day following, 
On 9 Dec. both lords were beheaded on, 
Tower Hill. A portrait of Montague by an, 
unknown hand belonged in 1866 to Mr 
Keginald Chohnondcloy. 

Montague loft a son whose existence is not 
mentioned by peerage historian 8 j ho was in- 
cluded with his father in tho bill of attainder 
of 1539, and probably died not many years 
after in prison. Besides Oathorim 3 ), wife of 
Francis, lord Hastings, afterwards earl of 
Huntingdon fa,- v.], Montague had a daughter 
"Winifred, wlio married a brother ot her 
sister's husband. His two daughtere became 
his heirs, and were fully raatorod in blood 
and honours in the first year of Philip and 

[Sandford's Genealogical Hiflfc., Buffalo's Ba- 
ronage and the Calendar of Henry VJJI, arc the 
main sources of information. Tho Chronicle of 
Honry VIII> translated from tho Bpantwh by 
M. A. S. Hume (1 889), has acme dotailn of doubt- 
ful authenticity touching Monttiguo'a arrwjt, and 
examination.] J. G-. 

(1464 ?~1 487), born about 1404, was eldost 
son of John de la Polo, second duke of Knitblk 
[q. y .], by Elizabeth, siwtor to Edward IV. lie 
was created Earl of Lincoln on !l*i March 
1466-7, and knight of the Bath on 18 April 
1475, and attended Edward XV's funeral in 
April 1483. llichard III seoxnH to have s&- 
cured him firmly to his party. Ho boro the 
orb at Eichard's coronation, 7. Tuly 1483, and 
the same month he was matle pwsidtmt of 
the council of tho north (cf. Jitter* and 
Papers of Richard XXI and fflmry FJJ, ed. 
Gairdner, i, 56), Bidbard's son Kdward died 
on 9 April 1484, and one of Jus oificeH, that of 
lord lieutenant of Ireland, was conferred upon 
the Earl of Lincoln on the following 21 Aug. 
He continued to hold thia oilice for the rest 
of the reign, the duties bein$ performed, or 
neglected, by the Earl of Kilaare. It now 
became necessary for Bichard III to find an 
heir to the throne. Edward, earl of Warwick 
(1475-1499) [q. v,], son of the Du&o of Ok- 



renee, had a strong claim, and he was certainly 
allowed to take precedence of the Earl of Lin- 
coln after the death of the Prince of Wales. 
But, on the other hand, Warwick was a mere 
boy, and if he had any claim to be heir, he had 
an equally valid claim to be king. Hence, 
after some deliberation, Lincoln was selected 
as the heir to the throne. Richard was very 
generous to him. He gave him the reversion 
to the estates of Lady Margaret Beaufort 
fq. v.], subject to the life interest of her third 
husband, Lord Stanley; and in the meantime 
he was to have a pension of 176/. a year. He 
was with Richard at Bosworth ; but Henry VII 
had no wish to alienate his family, and Lin- 
coln, after Richard's defeat and death, took 
an oath with others in 1485 not to maintain 
felons. On 5 July 1486 he was appointed 
a justice of oyer and terminer. None the 
less he seems to have cherished the am- 
bition to succeed Richard, and he was the 
real centre of the plot of Lambert Simnel. 
Suddenly he fled in the early part of 1487 to 
Brabant, and thence went to Ireland, where 
he joined Simnel's army, and, crossing to 
England, was killed at the battle of Stoke on 
16 June 1487, He was attainted. He had 
married, first, Margaret Fitzalan, daughter 
of Thomas, twelfth earl of Arundel ; and, 
secondly, the daughter and heiress of Sir 
John Golafre, but left no children. His 
brothers Edmund and Richard are noticed 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, ii. 379 ; Letters, &c., 
Hichard III and Henry VII, ed. Gairdnor, i. 6, 
&c. ; Hot. Parl. vi. 288, 436, 474; Memorials of 
Henry VII, ed. Gairdner, pp. 50, 52, 139, 314 
(Bernard Andreas in his ' Douze Trumiphes' 
probably alludes to him under the name le (Jomte 
de Licaon); Materials for the Hist, of Hen. VII, 
i. 482 ; Cal. of the Patent Rolls of Richard III 
(Hep. Dep.-Keep. Publ. Records, 9th Rep. App. 
Busck's England under the Tudors 


transl.), i. 32-3 ; Gardner's Richard III ; 
Ramsay's Lancaster and York, ii. 453, 622, 
523, 534, 545 ; Gardner's Henry VH ; Burke's 
Extinct and Dormant Peerage.] W. A, J. A. 

SUFFOLK (1442-1491), born on 27 Sept. 1442, 
was only son of William de la Pole, first duke 
of Suffolk (if. 1450) [q. v.] On 27 Nov. 1445 
he was made joint constable of Wallingford 
and high steward of the honour of St. Valery, 
offices to which he was reappointed in 1401. 
In 1455 he was restored by Henry VI to the 
dukedom of Suffolk. None the less he joined 
Henry's Yorkist foes, and married Ed- 
ward *IV y s sister. In February 1401 he was 
with the army which went under Warwick 
against Margaret's northern host, fresh from 
Wakefield, aud he fought at the second 

battle of St. Albans on 7 Feb. 146L On 
28 June following he was steward of Eng- 
land at the coronation of Edward IV, and 
two years later he was re-created Duke of 
Suffolk. In 14C3 he was a trier of petitions. 
He bore the queen's sceptre at the coronation 
of Elizabeth "Woodville or Wydeville. In his 
own county, according to a letter from Mar- 
garet 1'aston to her husband, he was far from 
popular (Fasten Letters ,il 83), but it must be 
remembered that he was involved in disputes 
with the Paston family (ib. ii. 203). In the 
troubles of 1469 and 1470 he took Edward's 
side, and appears as a joint commissioner of 
array for several counties (cf. ib. ii. 418), 
When Edward was restored Suffolk was made 
a knight of the Garter (1472). In 1472 ho 
became high steward of Oxford University, 
When Edward wont to Prance in 1475, Suf- 
folk was a captain in his army, and took some 
minor part in the negotiations which led to 
the treaty of Pecquigptiy. In 1478 he made 
various exchanges ot lands with the Icing, 
which were duly confirmed in parliament. 
From 10 March 1478 to 5 May 1479 ho was 
lieutenant of Ireland; he also held the oflico 
of joint high steward of the duchy of Lan- 
caster for the parts of England south of tho 

Suffolk had enjoyed many favours from 
Edward IV, yet on his death lie at once 
offered his support to Hichard III. Ho bore 
the sceptre and the dove at Hi chard's corona- 
tion on 7 July 1488, When, however, Hichard 
was dead, Suffolk swore fealty to Henry VII, 
and was rewarded (19 Sept. 1485) with the 
constablcship of Wallmglbrd, a solo grant, 
doubtless, instead of a joint grant, such as he 
had hud previously. This, howevor, he did 
not keep long, for on 21 Feb. 1488-9 the oilice 
wasregrantedto two more distinguished Lan- 
castrians, Sir William Sfconor and Sir Thomas 
Lovell [q, v.] Suffolk seems to have boon 
trusted by Henry, for, in spitu of tho dofoction 
of his eldest son John, he was a trier of poti- 
tionsin 1485 and 1487, and chief commiflHioner 
of array for Norfolk and Suffolk in 1487. In 
1487 he refused to come to a feast of the order 
of the Garter because Lord Dynham had not 
made proper provision. Others did the samo, 
and the feast had to be pemtponod. On 2/3 Nov. 
1487 he bore the quettn'tt acoptre at tho coro- 
nation of Elizabeth of York, and on ($ MareU 
of the next yoar he witno8t*eu a chart or to htw. 
At the end of 1488 he was commwisionotl to 
take muster of archurs for the roliuf of Brit- 
tany* In 1489 he had a grant from tho lung's 
wardrobe, Ho died in 1491. Ilo had nmrritid 
before October 1460 (cf. Parian letter*, i* 
521) Elizabeth, second daughter of Richard, 

duke of York, and sister of Edward IV, liy 

f * 



her lie had six sons, of whom John, Edmund, 
and Richard are separately noticed. Of four 
daughters, Catherine, the eldest, married 
"William, Lord Stourton, and the youngest, 
Elizabeth, married Henry Lovel, second and 
last Lord Morley of that surname (d. 1489). 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, iii, 438; Burke's Ex- 
tinct and Dormant Peerage ; Bamsay's Lancaster 
and York, ii. 245 ; Rot. Parl. y. 470 n., vi. 76 n. 
Paston Letters, vols. ii. and iii. passim ; Materials 
for the Hist, of Henry VII, ed. Campbell (Eolls 
Ser.), i. 26, ii. 325, &c. ; Grants of Edward V 
(Camd. Soc.), xxi. ; "Wartworth's Chron, (Camd. 
Soc.), p. 11 ; Gardner's Richard III ; Gal. Pat. 
Rolls Ed. V and Ric. Ill (Rep. Dep.-Keeper of 
Public Records).] W. A. J. A, 

SALISBURY (1473-1541), was daughter of 
George Plantagenet, duke of Clarence [q.v.], 
by his wife Isabel, daughter of Warwick the 
Kingmaker. She was born at Castle Farley, 
near Bath, in August 1473 ( Rows Roll, 33,61), 
and was married by Henry VII to Sir Richard 
Pole, son of Sir Geoffrey Pole, whose wife, 
Edith St. John, was half-sister of the king's 
mother, Margaret Beaufort (see Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. v. 163-4). Sir Richard was 
a landed gentleman of Buckinghamshire, 
whom Henry made a squire of his bodyguard 
and knight of the Garter. He also gave him 
various offices in Wai es, such as the constable- 
ship of Harlech and Montgomery castles and 
the sheriffwick of the county of Merioneth; 
he held, too, the controllership of the port 
of Bristol (CAMPBELL, Materials and MS. 
Calendar of Patent Rolls). His marriage to 
Margaret probably took place about 1491 , cer- 
tainly not later than 1494, in which year the 
king made a payment of 201, i to my lady Pole 
in crowns ' (Mxcerpta HistoriGa, p. 99). Next 
year Pole seems to have raised men against 
Perkin Warbeck. In 1497 he was retained to 
serve against Scotland with five demi-lances 
and 200 archers, and shortly afterwards with 
600 men-at-arms,60 demi-lances,and 540 bows 
and bills. Two or three years later he was ap- 
pointed chief gentleman of the bedchamber to 
Prince Arthur, whom he attended into Wales 
after his marriage, and the chief government 
of the marches was committed to his charge. 
He died in 1605 ( Henry VITs Privy Purse Ex- 
penses, p, 182), leaving his widow with five 
children: viz. Henry [q.v.] (Lord Montague), 
Art^ur,Reginaldrq.v.Tthe cardinal,and Geof- 
freyfo- V 0> wifc k Ursula, wife of Henry, lord 
Stafford, son of the Duke of Buckingham. 

Margaret's brother Edward, earl of War- 
wick fa,v.] f was judicially murdered bv 
Henry VII in 1499. Henry VIII, who de- 
scribed Margaret as the most saintly woman 
in England, was anxious, after his accession, 

to at one to her for this injustice. ITo there- 
fore granted her an annuity of 1 001. ou 4 Aug. 
1509 (Cat. State. Papers, Venetian, v. 247), 
and on 14 Oct. 1513 ho created her Countess 
of Salisbury, and gave hor the family hinds of 
the earldom of Salisbury in foe, Her brother's 
attainder was reversed, and in the parliament 
of 1613-14 full restitution was made to her 
of the rights of her family. She thus became 
possessed of a very magnificent property, lying 
chiefly in Hampshire, Wiltshire, tho western 
counties, and Essex. But there is no doubt 
that it was heavily burdened by redemption- 
money claimed by tho king. On 25 May 1512 
she had delivered to WoLsey 1,0001* as a first 
payment of a benevolence of five thousand 
marks for the king's wars, and in 1 528 site was 
sued for a further instalment of $$&\L Gtf, 8<#. 
Of her restored lands the manor of Oanford 
and some others were soon reclaimed by the 
crown as part of the earldom of Somerset. 
In 1532 she purchased the manor of Aston, 
Clinton in Buckinghamshire from Sir John 

Meanwhile she was made governess to the 
Princess Mary, But iu 1521, ut the time of 
the Duke of Buckingham's attainder, she and 
her eons seem to have boon under a momen- 
tary cloud. She herself was allowed, however, 
to remain at court 'proptor nobiiitatem et 
bonitatem illius' (Cto/, ILmnj 7UL iii, 
Nos, 1204, 1268). In 1525 she went with 
Princess Mary to Wales, In the summer of 
1526, during- her absence, the lung visited her 
house at Warblington ixx Hampshire ($. iv* 
Nos. 2343, 2407), 

In 15133, when the king mameel Anno 
Boleyn, her loyalty was severely tried. She 
refused to give up Mary's jewels to, a lady 
sent fronx court, and was d'weharg'od of her 
position as governess. She declared that who 
would still follow and servo tht> prhw-oHS at 
her own expense (ib, iv, NoH,849, IOOS), 1041, 
1528) Her self-sacrificing fidelity to the 
princess was fully recognised by UalSujrhw of 
Arragon (ib. No. 1 120). The kin^, however, 
took good caro to separate his daughter from 
one whom she regarded as a second mother 

f *J "V/XIN 

After Anne Boleyn's fall in 1/536 (#. % 
No. 1212) the countess returned to court. 
But at that very time her son Reginald 
sent to tho kw his book, * Bo Duitate 
Ecclesiastica/ which gave deep olFtmco, and 
she trembled for the result, "Both who and 
her eldest son, Lord Montague, wrote to 
Reginald in strong language of reproof (ib. 
vol. xiiL pt. ii. p. #28)* Qho denounced 
him as a traitor to her own servants, and ex- 
pressed her grief that aho had given birth 
to him 0'6. xi. Nos. 03, 187). The letters, 



however, were written to be shown to the 
king's councii (ib. vol. xiii. pt. ii. No, 822), 
by whom they were despatched to Reginald 
in Italy. Though the countess's alarm was 
quite genuine, her disapproval of Beginald's 
proceedings was not equally sincere. The king 
knew well that his policy waa disliked by the 
whole family, and he privately told the French 
ambassador that he intended to destroy all of 
them (ib. vol. xiii. pt. ii. No. 733). The blow fell 
in the autumn of 1538, when her sons Geoffrey 
and Lord Montague were arrested. One Ger- 
vase Tyndall, a spy upon the countess's house- 
hold, was called before Cromwell at Lewes, 
and reported a number of circumstances about 
the escape some years before of the countess's 
chaplain, John Helyar, rector of Warbl ing- 
ton, beyond sea, and about clandestine mes- 
sages sent abroad by one Hugh Holland, pro- 
bably to Cardinal Pole himself. Fitzwilliam, 
earl of Southampton, and Goodrich, bishop 
of Ely, were sent down to Warblington to 
examine the countess. They questioned her 
all day, from the forenoon till almost night, 
but could not wring from her any admission. 
They nevertheless seized her goods and car- 
ried her off to Fitz William's house at Oowdry. 
Her house at Warblington was thoroughly 
searched, and some letters and papal bulls dis- 
covered. Her persecutors renewed the attack 
with a set of written interrogatories, and ob- 
tained her signature to the answers. She re- 
mained in Fitzwilliam's house, long unvisited 
either by him or his countess, until 14 March 
following (1539), when, in answer to her com- 
plaints, he saw her, and addressed her with 
barbarous incivility. Shortly afterwards she 
was removed to the Tower. Tn May a sweep- 
ing act of attainder waa passed by the parlia- 
ment against not only Exeter and Montague, 
who had already suffered death, but against 
the countess, who was not even called to an- 
swer the accusations against her, and against 
her son Reginald and many others. At the 
third reading of the bill in the House of Lords 
Cromwell produced, what was taken as evi- 
dence of treason, a tunic of white silk, em- 
broidered with the arms of England, viz, three 
lions surrounded by a wreath of pansies and 
marigolds, which it was said Fitaswilliam had 
found in her house, having on the back the 
badge of the 'five wounds carried by the in- 
surgents at the time of the northern rebellion. 
The act of parliament was passed on 12 May 
1639, but it was not put into force at once ; 
and in April 1540 it was supposed that the 
countess would be released. She was tor- 
mented in prison by the severity of the wea- 
ther and the insufficiency of her clothing. In 
A,pril 1541 there was another insurrection in 
Yorkshire under,Sir John Neville j and on this ! 

account, apparently, it was resolved to put 
the countess to death, without any further 
process, under the act of attainder passed 
two years before. Early in the morning of 
27 May she was told that she was to die. Sbe 
replied that no crime had been imputed to her ; 
but she walked boldly from her cell to East 
Smithfield Green, which was within the pre- 
cincts of the Tower. No scaffold was erected, 
but there was only a low block, Tho lord 
mayor and a select company were present to 
witness the execution. The countess com- 
mended her soul to God, and asked the by- 
standers to pray for the king and queen, 
Prince Edward, and the Princess Mary, her 
god-daughter, to whom she desired to be 
specially commended. She then, as com- 
manded, laid her head upon the block. The exe- 
cutioner was a clumsy novice, who hideously 
hacked her neck and shoulders before the 
decapitation was accomplished. 

[Ddgdttle's Baronage ; Sandfovd's Genealogical 
History; Hall's Chronicle; Letters and Papers 
of Henry VIII; CaL of State Papers, Spanish; 
Lords' Journals,!. 107; Correspondunco Politico 
deMM. do Cnatillon efc d MariUae. Tho account 
of Margaret's execution given by Lord Herbert of 
Cherburyin Kennot's England (ii. 227) is cloarly 
not so trustworthy as that of Chapuys.] J. G. 

POLE, MICHAEL DB LA, called in Eng- 
(1330?-1389),lord chancellor, son of Sir Wil- 
liam de la Pole (& 1366) [q. v,] ; by Kathe- 
rine Norwich, was probably born about 1380 
(DOYLE, Official Haronaye, ill 443). In 1 880 
he received for himself and his heirs the grant 
of a reversion of an annuity of 70/. from the 
customs of Hull, already bestowed on his 
father and uncle (7?< Orig. Alkiwfatio, ii. 
229). In 1 354 he had a charter of free warren 
within his demesne lands of Bliburgh, ares- 
thorpe, and Grafton. He was already a knight, 
when in 136/3 he was attached to the retinuo 
of Henry, diike of Lancaster [q. vj, in his abor- 
tive expedition to Normandy. Henceforward 

1 4ft t*t A I"* ta 4-*h J> .4*. Jh. riB. _ . m*A j ! _ **. ..... .IT .... 

(floodera, ill 443), He was again fighting in 
1< ranee in 1309, He was serving in 1 #70 undor 
the Black Prince in A qnitame, took part in 
September of that year in the famoiu tricra 
of Limoges (FftotBflART, ed. Luce, vii, 2*J.f) 
and in JDucerabor 1370 and January Itt7l 
fought under John of Gaunt at tliu RUCCGRH* 
fill siege of Montpont (ih. vol. viii. pp. xi~ 
xiii, 12). He also accompanied John of Uannt 
on the abortive expedition of 1K7& During 1 
liia French campaigns ho was twice taken 
prisoner (Jfoi. ParL iii. 2 1 7 ). Ho waw abo 
at one time captain of Calais 



While thus active abroad and at sea, Pole 
was also occupied at home. In 136^ he had 
livery of the lands of his niece Catherine, who 
died in that year, and was the daughter and 
heiress of his brother Thomas. In January 
1366 he was first summoned to parliament as 
a baron (G, E. C[okayne], Complete Peerage, 
Hi. 43). Thus he was already a peer when 
the death of his father, on 21 April 1366, 
and the succession to his extensive estates, 
gave him a still more commanding position. 
On 10 Feb. 1367 he was appointed one of 
the commissioners of array for the East 
Riding of Yorkshire, in which district his 
influence chiefly lay. In domestic politics he 
attached himself to John of Gaunt. In the 
Good parliament of 1376 he stood strongly 
on the side of the crown and the unpopular 
duke (cf. Rot. Parl ii. 327-329 a). Though 
his relations to John of Gaunt cooled, Pole 
never swerved for the rest of his career from 
the policy of supporting the crown. It was 
doubtless as a reward for his loyalty that 
he was on 24 Nov. 1376 appointed admiral 
of the king's fleet north of the Thames (F&- 
dera, iii. 1065). 

The accession of Bichard II did not affect 
Pole's position. On 14 Aug. 1377 his com- 
mission as admiral of the west was renewed 
(ib. iv. 15). However, on 5 Dec. of the 
same year he and his colleague Robert Hales 
were superseded in favour of the Earls of 
Warwick and Arundel (NiooiAS, Hut of 
Royal Navy, ii. 530 ; F&dera, iv. 36), He 
joined in Lancaster's useless maritime opera- 
tions against the French ; was put on the 
council of the little king, and, on 18 March 
1379, headed an embassy to Milan to negotiate 
a marriage between Richard II and Catherine, 
daughter of Bernabo Visconti, lord of Milan 
(ib. iv. 60). Nothing came of the Milanese 
negotiation; and Pole, after visiting the 
papal curia at Rome, went to Wenceslas, 
king of the Romans and of Bohemia, to 
suggest Richard's marriage with Wenceslas ? s 
sister Anne. He was, however, taken prisoner, 
though under an imperial safe-conduct, and 
on 20 Jan. 1380 John Otter and others were 
despatched from England to effect his ransom 
(ib. iv. 76), A mysterious entry on the issue 
roll of 1384 allows Pole his expenses for these 
expeditions, and also for money paid to ransom 
the lady, Anne, who also seems to have been 
taken captive (Du VON, Issues of the Exchequer, 
p. 224 ; Hot Parl. iii. 217 a). He returned 
to England in 1381, and in November was 
appointed, jointly with Richard Fitzalan, earl 
of Arundel [q. v.], counsellor in constant 
attendance on the king and governor of his 
person (JRot Parl. iii. 104 V). Richard II 
married Anne of Bohemia in 1382. 

Michael impressed the young king with 
his ideas of policy. Tho retirement of John 
of Gaunt to Castile removed the only rival 
counsellor of any influence, and ho soon bo- 
came the most trusted personal advisor of Hi- 
chard. His attachment to the court involved 
him in a growing unpopularity, both with the 
great barons and tho people. 

On 13 March 1383 Volo was appointed 
chancellor of England in succession to Ro- 
bert de Braybroko [q. v.], bishop of London 
(F&dera, iv. 162), and opened tho parliament 
of that year with a speech, in which he de- 
clared his own unworthinesa (Itot, Parl. iii 
149 a). It was a stormy suasion. Pole said 
that, besides enemies abroad, tho king had to 
deal with enemies at home among his own ser- 
vants and officials, lie especially denounced 
the iighting bishop of Norwich, Henry Do- 
spenser [q. v.], whom ho deprived of hin tem- 
poralities^. Iii. 1C3 -8; WAU.ON, tikknrdlL 
1. 198-214). In the parliament of U84 Pole 
wisely urged the need of a solid peace with 
France; but tho commons, who were anxious 
enough to end the war, were not pruparud to 
purchase a peace at a high price, and Pole's 
proposal was ill received. An accident gave 
his enemies an opportunity, A fishmonger 
named John Cavendish appeared before tho 
parliament and complained that the chan- 
cellor had taken a bribe IVomlum, Oavondish 
had an action before tho chancellor, and had 
been assured by Polo's (dork, John ( )'ttor, that 
if he paid 4<M. to the chancellor and 4 /. to Otter 
himself he would speedily got judgmont in 
his favour. Cavendish had no money, but lie 
sent to the chancellor prtwmts of fish which 
profited him nothing. In groat disgust he 
brought his grievances before the lords. The 
chancellor had no difficulty iu malting A 
satisfactory answer. As soon an ho heard 
of the presents of fish, he ordorisd thorn to 
be paid for, and compelled his ebrk to de- 
stroy the unworthy bond ho had witorwi 
into with the fishmonger, Cavendish, in- 
stead of gaining his point, was condomiwd 
for defamation, and ordered to remain in. 
prison until ho had paid one thousand marks 
as damage to the chancellor, and such ot-hnr 
fine as the king might impost) (7M. JftwJ, iii. 
168-70 ; WALLON, i. 221-4). 

Pole failed to carry out his policy of paacn, 
and was forced to face a vigorous premoni- 
tion of the war against both Scotland and 
Prance. It was complained that Ghent. foil 
into French hands owing to his want of 
quickness in sending relief (KNIOHTON apud 


, , . 

Parl iii. 216), In tho summer of 188T> ho 
accompanied Bichard on that king's only 
serious military undertaking, the expedition 


3 1 


against Scotland, in which he commanded a 
band of sixty men-at-arnis and eighty archers 
(DOYLE, iii. 433). After the failure of this 
undertaking, Pole was more than ever bent 
on peace. France had threatened invasion. 
He renewed negotiations. On '22 Jan. 1386 
he was appointed, with Bishop Skirlaw of 
Lichfield and others, to treat with the king 
of France and his allies, jointly or separately, 
for truce or for peace (Fcedera, vii. 491-3, 
original edition), 

Pole's wealth was steadily growing, and 
was exciting widespread envy. Besides the 
Yorkshire property that came from his father, 
and the Lincolnshire estates of his mother, 
he was now in possession of the great Suf- 
folk inheritance of his wife, Catherine, daugh- 
ter and heiress of Sir John de Wingfield. 
He now busied himself with consolidating 
his power in Suffolk by fortifying his manor- 
houses. He hoped to build up a solid domain 
in north-eastern Suffolk, of which the central 
feature was the new castle, or rather crenel- 
lated manor-house, of Wingfield. His gate- 
house on the south front, its flanking towers, 
and curtain wall still survive, while in the 
beautiful late decorated village church the 
work, it is believed, of his father-in-law the 
ashes of his son and many later Poles now re- 
pose (MURRAY, Eastern Counties, pp. 190-1). 
Moreover, on 6 Aug. 1385 he obtained the 
title of Earl of Suffolk, extinct since the death 
of William Uffbrd three years before. On 
20 Aug., at Newcastle-on-Tyne, the king 
granted him lands worth 500/. a year, which 
had belonged to William Ufford, and which 
included the castle, town, manor, and honour 
of Eye, with other manors and jurisdictions, 
mainly in Suffolk, which nicely rounded off 
the formerWingfield inheritance. But, as the 
widowed Countess of Suffolk still held part 
of these estates for her life, and other por- 
tions had been regranted to the queen, 
Richard further granted to the new earl 
200/. a year from the royal revenue and 
300/. a year from other lands, until the 
Ufford estates fell in. The grant of a small 
sum from the county revenue completed the 
formal connection between the new earl and 
his shire (cf. Rolls of Parliament, iii. 206-9 ; 
DUGDAXE, Baronage, ii. 185 ; CaL Xnq. post 
mortem, iii. 70, 111, 117, 257), 

At the parliament which met Richard on 
his return from Scotland, Pole was solemnly 
girt, on 12 Nov. 1385, with the sword of the 
shire, and performed homage for his new 
office, before which Walter Skirlaw, keeper 
of the privy seal and bishop of Lichfield, 
delivered an oration to the assembled estates 
on the new earl's merits (Rot Part, iii, 200). 
But the murmurs were many and deep, lie 

was, says the St. Albans chronicler, a mer- 
chant and the son of a merchant ; he was a 
man more fitted for trade than^for chivalry, 
and peacefully had grown old in a banker's 
counting-house, and not among warriors in 
the field (Chron. Angli, 1828-88, p. 367). 
The saying became a commonplace, and is 
repeated by several chroniclers (WALSINO- 
HAM, ii. 141; OTTERBOURNE, p. 162; MCHSTK 
OF EVESHAM, p. 67). Yet nothing could be 
more unjust than such a taunt levelled against 
the old companion in arms of the Black 
Prince and of John of Gaunt. But it faith- 
fully reflected the opinion of the greater 
families, and Pole's former ally, John of 
Gaunt, had turned against him. Thomas 
Arundel, then bishop of Ely, was especially 
hostile. He sought to get the temporalities of 
Norwich restored to Bishop Despenser. The 
chancellor argued in the parliament of 1385 
that to restore the bishop's lands would coat 
the king 1,OOOJ. a year. 'If thou hast so 
much concern for the king's profit/ retorted 
the bishop, ' why hast thou covetously taken 
from him a thousand marks per anmim since 
thou wast made an earl?' The chancellor 
had no answer, and Despenser recovered his 

Early in 1386 Suffolk was engaged in 
fruitless negotiations with Franco. He 
was on the continent between 9 Peb. and 
28 March (Fccdera, vii. 495). The English 
unwillingness to include Spain in the truco 
frustrated the negotiations. England was 
threatened with invasion. The chancellor did 
his best to organise the defence. Ho acted 
as commissioner to inspect Calais and the 
castles of the marches, and as chief commis- 
sioner of array in Suffolk (DoYLB, iii. 434). 
In April and May he visited Hull, whore his 
influence was still paramount (jfte/faro, vii. 
510). But whatever he did was adversely 
judged. In June some English ships captured 
and plundered several Genoese merchant 
ships off Dover ; and when the chancellor #avo 
the aggrieved Genoese traders compensation, 
he was charged with robbing the king of his 
rights and with showing more sympathy 
with traders than with "warriors (Chron. 
Antjlia, 1328-88, p. 371; cf. Ktfia IMPOST, 
c. 2678). 

The opposition to Pole was now formally 
organised under the king's uncle, Thoxnan, 
duke of Gloucester. When parl lament, mot, on 
1 Oct. 1386, Suffolk, as chancellor, ur#id that; 
the time was como for Itichurd to cross thr 
sea and fight the French in nerwon, This was 
a mere pretext for an inordinate demand for 
money. Four-fifteenths, s.ya Knighton, wa 
likely to be the chancellor's request, Afraid 
of the future, lUchard retired to 



where his imprudence culminated in making 1 
his favourite, Robert de Vere, duke of Ire- 
land. Lords and commons now united to 
demand the dismissal of the chancellor. 
Richard told the parliament that he would 
not, at their request, dismiss a scullion from 
,his kitchen. Gloucester and Bishop Arundel 
visited the king at Eltharn, and hinted at 

, On 24 Oct. Pole was dismissed from the 
chancellorship, and his old enemy, Bishop 
Arundel, put in his place. The commons 
now drew up formal articles of impeachment 
against the minister: (1) He had received 
grants of great estates trom the king, or had 
purchased or exchanged royal lands at prices 
below their value; (2) he had not carried out 
the ordinances of the nine lords appointed in 
1385 for the reform of the royal household ; 
(3) he had misappropriated the supplies 
granted in the last parliament for the guard of 
the seas ; (4) he had fraudulently appropriated 
to himself a charge on the customs of Hull 
previously granted to one Tydeman, a Lim- 
burg merchant ; (5) he had taken for his own 
uses the revenue of the schismatic master of 
St. Anthony, which ought to have gone 
to the king; (6) he had sealed charters, 
especially a grant of franchises to Dover 
Castle, contrary to the king's interest ; and 
(7) his remissness in conducting the war had 
led to the loss of Ghent and a large sum of 
treasure stored up within its walls (Rot. 
Parl. iii. 216; STTOBS'S Const. Hist ii. 474-6, 
ef. WALLON, Richard II, livrevi.,KNtGHTON > , 
ec, 2680-5). Suffolk spoke shortly but with 
dignity in his own defence, but left the burden 
of a detailed answer to his brother-in-law, 
Sir Kichard le Scrppe, who appealed in- 
dignantly to his thirty years of service in 
the field and in the council chamber, denied 
the ordinary allegations of his mean ori- 
gin and estate, and gave what seem to be 
satisfactory answers to the seven heads of 
accusation (Rot. Parl iii. 216-18). The 
commons then made a replication, in which, 
while silently dropprajg the third charge 
of misappropriation of the supplies they 
pressed for a conviction on the other six, 
and brought forward some fresh evidence 
against Suffolk. The earl was committed to 
the custody of the constable, but released on 
bail. The lords soon gave judgment. Suf- 
folk was convicted on three of the charges 
brought against him namely, the first, fifth, 
and sixth. On the other four charges the 
lords declared that he ought not to be im- 
peached alone, since his guilt was shared by 
other members of the council. Sentence was 
pronounced at the same time in the name of 
the king, Suffolk was to forfeit all the lands 

and grants which he had received contrary to 
his oath, and was committed to prinon, to 
remain there until he had paid an adequate 
fine. But it was expressly declared that the 
judgment was not to involve the loss of the 
name and title of earl, nor the 20/. a your 
which the king had granted him from the 
issues of Suffolk for the aforesaid name and 
title (ib. iii. 219-20). The fine is estimated in 
the chronicles at various largo sums (CVmm. 
Angli<e, 1328-88, and OTTiatnouKNM, p. 1(50, 
say twenty thousand marks, adding, quite 
incorrectly, that Suffolk was ad j udgod worthy 
of death). The paltry character of tlw 
charges, the insignificant offences regarded 
as proved by the hostile lords, show that tho 
only real complaint against the Ml en mi- 
nister was his attachment to an unpopular 

Parliament ordered Suffolk to be impri- 
soned' at Corfe Castle (Ctmh Huloymm Utah 
iii. 360 ; cf. KNTGHTON, c. 2688), but, Kielmrd 
sent him to Windsor. As noon as t.lio ' Won- 
derful' parliament came to an end, Richard 
remitted his fine and ranHom, released him. 
from custody, and listened to his advice. If 
not the boldest spirit, Suffolk was certainly 
the wisest head of the royalist 1 * party novv 
formed against the new rtiimHfcorfl and council 
set up by parliament, ITo dwolt in tho king's 
household, and seems to have accompanied 
Kichard on his hasty progress ^through tlm 
land to win support tor tho civil war which 
was seen to be imminent, A.t one time Pole 
was in Wales with Kichard and the Duko of 
Ireland (CAKauvn, C/iron. Unf/L pp, &tti- 8), 
On 25 Aug. 1837 five of the judges declared 
at Nottingham that the existence of the now 
perpetual council contravened tUo Icings pre- 
rogative, and that the sentence on ftuftolk 
ought to be reversed. Tho name of Suffolk 
appears among the witnesses to this disci aro- 
turn of war against the parliamentary yovorn- 
ment. But his enemies were resolute in their 
attack- lie was accused of labouring to pro- 
vent a reconciliation betwwm Kichard and 
Gloucester when Bishop William Courttmuy 
[q. v.] of London wont to promote poaco bo- 
tween them. * Hold thy peace, M icluwd/ mud 
the bishop to Suffolk, who was denouncing 
Gloucester to the king; ' it becomethtlwo right 
evil to say such words, thon that art damned 
for thy falsehood both by tho lords and by tho 
parliament.* Kichard dismissed the bishop in 
anger (Chron. Angl 1378-88, p, .MSB ; OAI- 
GRAVE'S Chron. of England, p. 248),^ but was 
unprepared to push thin gs to extrem i ties. On 
17 Nov. he was forced to promise tho hated 
council that Suffolk and his other bad advisers 
should be compelled to answer for their con- 
duct before the next parliament. Thereupon 




Suffolk hastily fled the realm. On 27 Dec. the 
five baronial leaders solemnly appealed him 
and his associates of treason. On 3 Feb. 1388 
the five lords appellant laid before the newly 
assembled estates a long list of accusations 
against Suffolk and his four chief associates 
(Hot. Parl. iii. 229-38). No special charges 
were brought against Suffolk ; but he was 
associated with the others in such general 
accusations as having withdrawn the king 
from the society of the barons, as haying con- 
spired to rule him for their own purposes, in- 
cited civil war, corresponded with the French, 
and attempted to pack parliament. The de- 
claration of the judges that the form of the 
appeal was illegal was brushed aside, on the 
ground that parliament itself was the supreme 
judge in matters of this sort. On 13 Feb. sen- 
tence was passed on the four absent offenders. 
Suffolk was condemned to be hanged. His 
estates and title were necessarily forfeited. 

A knight named William atte Hoo helped 
Suffolk to escape over the Channel. He 
disguised himself by shaving his beard and 
head and putting on shabby clothes. In 
this plight he presented himself before Calais 
Castle, dressed like a Flemish poulterer. 
His brother was captain of Calais Castle, and 
acquainted the governor of Calais, William 
Beauchamp, with his arrival. The governor 
sent him back to the king, who was very 
angry at his officiousness (KNIGHTON, c. 2702 ; 
CAPGRAVE, Chron. of Engl. p. 249 ; OTTEK- 
BOTJBNE, p. 170; Chron. AnyL 1328-88, p. 
386 ; MONK OF EVESHA.M, pp. 96-7X For a 
second time Pole made his escape. This time 
he went to Hull, whither, on 20 Dec., the king's 
sergeant-at-arms was despatched to arrest 
him (DEVOK, Issues of the Exchequer, p. 234). 
iTut Michael escaped a second time, sailing, if 
Froissart can be trusted, over the North Sea 
and along the coasts of Friesland, and ulti- 
mately landing at Dordrecht (FROISSABT, xii. 
286, ed. Kervyn de Lettenhove). Anyhow, 
he ultimately found his way to Paris. In May 
1389 Richard suddenly took over the govern- 
ment ; but he made no attempt to help Pole, 
who died at Paris on 5 Sept. 1389 (MONK OF 
EVESHAM, p. 113). The chroniclers and popu- 
lar poets were vehement in their reproaches 
(Political Poems, i. 421, Rolls Ser.) 

By his wife, Catherine Wingfield, Suffolk 
had five sons : Michael dela Pole, second earl 
of Suffolk [q.v.], Thomas, prebendary in St. 
Paul's Cathedral from 1419, Williarn,Eichard, 
and John (d. 1415), canon of York (cf. will at 
Somerset House, 31 March 1416 ; WEBVEK, 
Funeral Monuments, sv, ' Wingfield ') ; with 
three daughters: Margaret, Elizabeth, and 
Anne, who married Gerard de Tlsle (CH 
FROST, Notices relative to Hull, 1827), 


Besides his building operations in Suffolk, 
Pole did not neglect his original home. He 
completed his father's foundation at Hull 
[see POLE, WILLIAM DE LA, d. 1366]. In 
1377 he procured royal license to change his 
father's plan and establish a small Carthusian, 
monastery, with hospitals for men and women 
attached. The charter of foundation, by ' Mi- 
chael de la Pole, lord of Wingfield,' is dated 
18 Feb. 1379, and printed in the ' Monasticon' 
(vi. 20-1, cf. vi. 781 for Pole's hospital). 
Pole also built at Hull, for his own use, * a 
goodly house of brick, like a palace, with fair 
orchards and gardens/ opposite the west end 
of St. Mary's Church. He built three other 
houses in Hull, each with a brick tower, like 
the palace of an Italian civic noble. He also 
built a fine house in London, near the Thames, 

[The English chroniclers give a prejudiced ac- 
count of Suffolk. The most important of them ia 
Chronicon Angliae, 1 328-88, ed. Thompson, Rolls 
Ser,, which is copied by Walsinghara, Hist. Angli- 
cana, Eolls Sr., and the Monk of Evoshara, ed. 
Heanie. Otterbourne, ed. Heurne, Knigliton in 
Twysden's Decem Scriptores, Coutinimtion of 
the EulogiumHistoriarum, Oapgrave's Chronicle 
of England are also useful. Less trustworthy aro 
Froissart'sscattered notices /volsA'ii.x'iu.xi.xii.ed. 
Kervynde Lettenhove, vols.vii. and viii. ed. Luoo. 
Eolls of Paiiinment,vol. iii., Rymer's Fo3dera,vols. 
iii. and iv. Kecord edit, and vol. vii. orig. edit., 
contain the chief documentary evidence ; Doyle's 
Official Baronage, iii. 433-4 ; G, E. C[okayne'] 
Complete Peerage, iii. 43. The best biognipMos 
are in Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 181-5, and Foss's 
Judges of England, iv. 70-6, That in Campbell's 
Lives of the Chancellors, i. 248-51, is valueless. 
Stubbs'sConst.Hist. vol. ii., Wullon's Richard II, 
and Pauli's Geschichte von England, vol, iv. aro 
the best authorities for the period.] T. F. T. 

OP SUFFOLK (1361 P-1416), was eldest son of 
Michael de la Pole, earl of Suffolk [q.v.], 
and was born about 1861. He was knighted 
by Richard II on 16 July 1377 (Fwlera, iv, 
79, Record edit.) On 30 April 1386 he is 
mentioned as captain of men-at-arms for 
Calais, of which town his uncle, Sir Ed- 
mund de la Pole, was then captain. In 
tlie following year the Earl of Suffolk was 
disgraced, and, owing to his subsequent 
condemnation, his son did not succeed to 
the earldom at his death in 1889. Before 
September 1385 (cf, Testamanta Veiusta, p. 
119) Pole had married Catherine Stafford, 
daughter of Hugh, earl of Stafford, and in 
1391 obtained tor his support a grant of 
50/, a year from the customs of Hull, On 
23 Sept. 1391 he had letters of attorney 
during his intended absence on the crusade 
in Prussia, being then styled Sir Michael de 
la Pole (F&dera t vii. 700, orig, edit.) 





1397 lie was restored to his father's dignities 
as Earl of Suffolk and Baron de la Pole, and 
"was summoned to parliament in August 1399, 
But in the first parliament of Henry IV tlie 
acts of the parliament of 1397 were annulled, 
and those of 1388 confirmed, with the effect 
of reviving the attainder of 1388. However, 
on 15 Nov. 1399, the earldom of Suffolk was 
restored to Pole, hut without the barony of 
De la Pole, which had been enjoyed by his 
father (Gr. E. 0[okayne], Complete Peerage, 
iii. 43). At the same time restitution was 
made of his father's lands and castle and 
honour^ of Eye. The earl was a commis- 
sioner of array for Suffolk on 14 July 1402 
and 3 Sept. 1403. On 27 Aug. 1408 he was 
employed by the king on a mission abroad. 
He attended the council on several occasions 
during the reign of Henry IV, and was pre- 
sent in the council which was held at West- 
minster in April 1415 to discuss the French 
war (NicoLis, Proc. Privy Council, ii, 156). 
On 21 July he was one of the commissioners 
for the trial of Kichard, earl of Cambridge, 
Kichard, lord le Scrope, Sir Thomas Grey, and 
was one of the peers appointed to decide on 
the guilt of Cambridge and Scrope on 5 Aug. 
(Itolls of Parliament, iv. 65-6). He sailed 
with the king on 11 Aug., and, after taking 
part in the siege of Harfleur, died before 
that town of dysentery on 18 Sept. ( Gesta 
Henrid Quinti, p. 31, Engl. Hist, boc.) He 
is described as ' a knight of the most excel- 
lent and kindly reputation* ($.) His son 
in 1450 said he served ' in all the viages by 
See and by Lande 7 in the days of Henry IV 
Rolls of Par/., v. 176). Suffolk's will, dated 
1 July 1415, is summarised in ' Testaments 
Vetuata/ pp. 189-90, He was buried at 
Wingfield, Suffolk. His own and his wife's 
effigies are engraved in Stothard's ' Monu- 
mental Effigies/ p. 84. He left five sons 
and three daughters, one of whom, Isabel, 
seems to have married Thomas, fifth Barou 
Morley (d. 1435). Of his sons, Michael 
was third earl (see below), and William 
fourth earl and first duke of Suffolk [q. v.]. 
Sir John de la Pole, seigneur de Moyon in 
the Cotentin, served in the French war, 
was taken prisoner at Jargeau on 12 June 
1429, and died in captivity; by French 
chroniclers he is called Sire de la Poulle. 
Alexander was slain at Jargeau on 12 June 
1429, Sir Thomas had a daughter Kather- 
ine, married to Sir Miles Stapleton(eU466); 
he died in 1438 while a hostage with the 
Trench for his brother William. 

STJFEOLK (1894-1415), the eldest son, served 
wifch his father at Harfleur, and, after taking 
part in the march to Aginconrt, was killed in 

the battle there on 125 Oct. ITo is described 
as 'distinguished ninon^r all the court ions for 
his bravery, courage, and activity' ((Jest a 
Ilennd Quinti, pp. ,'il, 58). Dray ton make* 
special mention ot him in his ballad of Ag-in- 
court-' Suilolk hia axo did ply.' HIM body 
was brought home to Kn^latul, and buried 
at Ewelme, Oxford. I Jo married IClissaholli, 
daughter of Thomas Mowbniy, first duke ol* 
Norfolk [q. v.], but left no male isHiin, and was 
succeeded by his brother William. Of IUH 
three daughters, Cathoriiuj became n mm, and 
Elizabeth and Isabel both died unmarried. 

[Monstrtilot'fl Chromquos, ili. 100, iv. 324 (Sue. 
de Tliii-t. d Franco); Nh'olas'n Rutlo of Afin- 
court ; NMpior's Historical Net,itWHof Swywombe 
and Kwolmo, pp. 313-17 ; Coll. Top, ot (hut, v. 
15(J ; Dngdulo's Baronage, ii. ltt/5 ; ])ovl('H 
Official Baronngo, iii. 434-5; other authoritioa 
quoted.] 0. L. K. 


1452), judge, ^a oldest, of throe wmfl 
of Peter J)e la Pol oof Uadbonio, near Derby 1 , 
and knight of the shiro for Porby tn l-KK), 
FOBS was mistaken in making him a yomigur 
sou of Thomas Polo or Poole of Poolo llall 
in Wirral or Wirre.ll, who did not many 
until 14i2o. Tho Do la Polew wor a fttallbnt- 
shire family mmtod at Ne.w borough, who 
for three genorat.ions had married Derby- 
shire heireftnea. Pole'H father ue.quiriMl iho 
Kadborno Qstato, wliwth had belonged t,o Hir 
John Olmndoa fq,v,"] 7 the eompanton-in-arm* 
of the Black rrinc, by Ifus marringo with 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John F^awUm an<{ 
Alianore, Ohautlos'B Htster and ultimate heir* 

Pole became sorjoant-at-law iutho Miehuol- 
mas term of 144a, and a junticoof the king'B 
bench on 8 July 140^, and occurs in thu 
latter capacity until Michaelmas U5i), I Jo 
was probably the Hadulphua de la Polo ap- 
pointed one of the Derbyshire oommiHwionera 
to raise money for the 'defence of Oalaiw in, 
May 1455, i\ud he presided with JiiHt.iw 
Bingham over the York aHHizoH in W>7 9 
when the Nevilles got Uno Percys mulcted 
in a huge fine. 

His altar-tomb, on tlio nlab of wlncli aro 
engraved the iigimw of the jud^o and hw 
wife and a frapacmt of hmcription, rtsnjain** 
in the north aile of Emlborne church. By 
his wife Joan, daughter of Thomas (Jrosvonor, 
Pole, according to LywotiH, had thrae BOHR : 
Balph, who mamed the heiress of Motton, 
John, and Honry, the latter two founding 
the younger branches of Wahebritlgo ami 
Heage, Pole's deRcrnidontB in the cWnsut 
male line held Badborne until the death of 
German Pole in 168*% when it pafuwd to 
a younger branch, now roprescutiidi by 




[boss's Judges of England ; Proceedings and 
Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas, vi. 
243; Topographer and Genealogist, i. 176; 
"Whethamstede's Registrura, Rolls fc>er. i. 206, 
208, 303 ; Lysons's Magna Britannia, vol. v. pp. 
xciv-v, 91, 232 ; Orraerod's Cheshire, ii. 423, iii. 
351; Newcome's Hist, of St. Albans, p. 361; 
Burke's Landed Gentry ; Official Returns of Mem- 
bers of Parliament, 1878.] J. T-T. 

POLE, EEGINALD (1500-1558), car- 
dinal and archbishop of Canterbury, was son 
probably the third of Sir Richard Pole 
(d. 1505), by his wife Margaret, who was 
of the blood royal [see POLE, MABQARBT]. 
Born in March 1500 at Stourton Castle in 
Staffordshire, he was carefully brought up 
by his mother, and then spent five years at 
the school of the Charterhouse at Sheen. 
Henry VIII was much interested in his edu- 
cation, and paid 12/. for his maintenance at 
school in 1512. Soon afterwards he was 
sent to Oxford, to the house of the Carmelite 
friars. Subsequently he matriculated as a 
nobleman at Magdalen College. On 8 June 
1513 the king ordered the prior of St. Frides- 
wide's to give him a pension, which he was 
bound to give to a clerk of the king's nomina- 
tion, until he could provide him with a com- 
petent benefice (Gal. of Henry VIII, vol. i. 
No. 4190). Pole's studies at Oxford were 
directed by Thomas Linacre [q.v.l and "Wil- 
liam Latiiner (1460 P-1645) [q. v.J, and he is 
said to have attracted much attention in a 
disputation of some days' duration when still 
almost a boy. In June 1515 he graduated 
B.A. (WOOD, Athena, i. 279). While a 
youth, and still a layman, he was presented 
to the collegiate church of Wimborne min- 
ster, the incumbent of which bore the title 
of dean (12 Feb. 1518 ; Cal ofttmry VIII, 
vol. ii. No. 3493), to the prebend of Boscombe 
(19 March 1617-18), and that of Yatminster 
Secunda (10 April 1519), both in Salisbury 
Cathedral. From infancy his mother had 
destined him for the church, and he intended 
taking orders later in life (ib. vol. xi. No. 92). 

In February 1521, at, his own wish, he was 
sent by the king to Italy, with 1QO/. towards 
his expenses for a year (ib. iii. p. 1/544). At 
Padua, in May ancl June, he formed a friend- 
ship with the scholars Longolius, Bembo, 
Nicolas Leonicus, and his own countryman, 
Thomas Lupset [q. v.J His revenues from his 
benefices, together with the king's allowance, 
enabled him to practise much hospitality. 
Yet he preferred a quiet life, and was em- 
barrassed on his arrival by the attentions 
paid to him as the king of England's kinsman 
by the magistrates of Padua. Longolius died 
in his house there, and left him his library (ib. 
iii. 2460, 2405). Pole wrote the anonymous 

life prefixed to Longolius's collected writings 
(Florence, 1524). He sent congratulations 
to Clement VII on his election (19 Nov, 
1 523), and received a kindly acknowledgment 
encouraging him in his studies. Erasmus 
opened a correspondence with him in 1525, 
introducing to him the Polish scholar John t\ 
Lasco [q. v.] (id. No. 1685), and he himself 
wrote to Cardinal Wolsey that he was every- 
where much sought after though he mo- 
destly believed it was on the king's account 
rather than his own (ib. No. 15:29). He was 
urged by his family to return to England 
early in 1525 j but he lingered in order to 
visit Home, where he was received with 
great marks of distinction. He returned to 
England in 1527 after five years' absence. 
He met with a very cordial welcome from the 
king and queen, but continued his studios 
at the Carthusian monastery at Sheen. 

During his absence from England, on 
14 Feb: 1523-4 he was nominated fellow of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxibrd, by Richard 
Foxe or Fox fa^l bishop of Winchester, the 
founder, buthe never seems to have bwen ad- 
mitted, On 12 Aug. 1527, though lie was still 
a layman, he was elected dean of Exeter (Lw 
NEVE). In 1529, anxious to avoid the crisis 
likely to spring from the king'B proceedings 
against Queen Catherine, he obtained with 
some difficulty the king's permission to pur- 
sue his studies at Paris. Henry paid him the 
usual 100/. ' for one year's exhibition before- 
hand/ in October 1529 (Cal vol. iv. No. 0003, 
v. 815). At Paris he soon received a letter 
from the king requiring him to obtain from, 
the university there opinions in his favour 
respecting the projected divorce, lie sought 
to excuse himself on the ground of inexpe- 
rience, and the king ultimately sent Edward 
Fox [q. v.] to assist him. But the work being 
only to obtain opinions which he' could 
collect without compromising hi mwolf Pole 
did what he could, and won commendations 
at home for ' acting stoutly in the king's 

WhfllP/V/j xml iv TVfn RV.W\ Tliwsn h*w1i.Vi/l 

behalf (ib. vol.iv. No. 6252). Three 

which Henry desired, owing to the inter- 
ference of Francis I, In July Pole, by tho 
king's orders, returned homo. 

Although he withdrew to tho charterhouse 
at Sheen, he was invited, on Wolsoy'e death 
in November, to accept either tho vacant 
archbishopric of York or the bishopric of 
Winchester. The king's aim was to obtain 
his avowed support for his divorce, and the 
archbishopric was vehemently pressed on him 
by the king's friends. Polo entertained 



genuine affection for the Wng, aad hesitated 
to affront him by a refusal ; but no bribe 
could induce him to palter with his convic- 
tions, In a moment of weakness he said he 
believed he had found a mean's of satisfying 
the king without offence to his own con- 
science. The king gave him an interview at 
York Place. At first Pole was tongue-tied. 
At length he exhorted Henry not to ruin 
his fame and destroy his soul by perse- 
verance in wrong. The king in fury put his 
hand to his dagger. Pole left the chamber 
in tears (see the different accounts of the story 
inEpjp. Poli, i. 251-G2, and Calendar,vol. xu. 
pt, i. No. 444). At the same time Pole, at 
the king's request, wrote a paper, very likely 
just after the interview, giving his opinion 
on the king's scruples and how to deal with 
them. The treatise itself does not seem to be 
extant, but a full account of its contents is 
given by Oranmer in a letter to Anne Bo- 
leyn's lather, written on 13 June 1531, in 
which he says that it was ' much contrary to 
the king's purpose ; ' but the arguments were 
set forth with such wisdom and eloquence 
that if they were published it would be i im- 
possible, Cranmer thought, to persuade people 
to the contrary. Pole pointed out the danger 
of reviving controversies as to the succes- 
sion, then he attacked the arguments on the 
king's side, and urged Henry to defer to the 
pope's judgment (STRYPE, Cmnmer^ App. 
No.l). 'The king took Pole's counsel in good 
part (Cal Venetian, v. 244), and was almost 
inclined to abandon the divorce. Thomas 
Cromwell [q. v.], however, whom Pole re- 
garded as an emissary of Satan, induced him to 
persevere. With deep dislike Pole saw soon 
afterwards the concession of royal supremacy 
wrung from the clergy. He was present, pro- 
bably with a deputation of the clergy, when 
the king refused a large sum voted to him by 
convocation unless it were granted to him as 
head of the church of England (De Unitate 
JEccl. f. 19), He may also have been present 
in convocation in the same year when the 
title, with the qualification l as far as the 
law of Christ allows,' was silently conceded, 
after three days' strenuous opposition. His 
statement that he was absent when the royal 
supremacy was enacted (ib. t 82) clearly 
refers to the parliamentary act of 1684. He 
was then at Padua. Pole, apprehensive of 
the further consequences of Cromwell's pre- 
dominance, petitioned to be allowed to devote 
himself to the study of theology abroad. He 
told Henry that if he remained in England 
and had to attend parliament (as he would 
be expected to do) while the divorce was dis- 
cussed, he must speak according to his con- 
science. In 'January 1532 Henry thought it 

prudent to lot him go (CtaL v. No. 737). ITe 
and lltmry purtod ood friends, and the king- 
continued his pensions, 

Pole settled at Avignon for a fow months, 
but soon removed to Padua, whom ho Hjwnt 
some years, paying frequent vwitH to Vonkw. 
From Padua he wrotn to the king a care- 
fully considered lutior, full of powerful ar/rn- 
ments against the divom, whoso wisdom tho 
king and Cromwell praiHod. Moanwhilo his 
friends in Kngland caused him to bo insti- 
tuted in his abstmco (iX) Doc.. 15;&) to the 
vicarage of Piddletown in Dowut, a living 
in the patronage of bin family. II o WHi^ncd 
it threo years later, In orclW to hold it, ho 
was dispensed 'proptur dolW'ium auHcoplioms 
sacrorum ordinuin' (lUmwiNH, IhrscL iL 

At Padua ho took into IHH liousn thogrnat 
classical professor LuzKiiro Buonamici, with 
this view of ro-Hfcudy ing < Iruok and Latin lito- 
raturo; bud the Uum^hl, of what wan #oin# 
on in England intlucod him todovolo himtwlf 
moro arclontly to philoMnphy and thunlngy. 
At; Vcrneo or at Padua Potn made tho no* 
qiuiintanco of two UfoLontf friwidH Uaapar 
Oontarini, who wan ensiled a cardinal a var 
boforuliimsolf, aiid Ludovioo Priuli, a voting 
Vimolinn tioblmmin, who IxM'.umn ardtmtly 
attached to him. Ho camo to know,! .00, < 1 tan 
Pietro Oaralla, aft or wards Paul IV, tmd, 
timon# other mmi of worth and gnuiun, Ludo- 
vico noccatelli, afturwavdw IUH Hccrotary and 

On iCenry'ft marriago with Annwlioloyniu 
1533, audthe diHinherit.injf of Prhu^'S 
Queen Oathorino and htr nojiluw, Oh 
alike agrtu^d that Polo'n wrvn*oHu^ht. 
ployod in rodrossin^ tho \vrotigrt of tho divorced 
queen and her daughte ( C-W. Ytrnn/ Wlj t 
voL vii. No. HMO), The prmwHH inight., iti 
was vagtusly riUtfgt'shHl, bec,om<* hin wilt*, and 
and Tudor elaimn to tlw throno 

YorkiMft and Tudor elaimn to tlw throno 
might thus bti coiwolidated, It wan only in 
June 153H that Pole wan madts aware, ni a 
lottw from the (emperor, of t ho proposal tJuiti 
he should inti^rftmj.^ II in UrMt iotdiug wa 
alarm at the rospotwibility. But ho agrond 
to make experiment of peaceful mtuliatioiJi 
after a method of IUH own ((hi. RpuniMh, 
vol. v. pt. ii No. (J j of. vol viiL No, WW)>. 
Pole was anxious at thin time to avoid all 
chance of a civil war in Kngland ($, No. 
129), and Henry VITI had alroady oflbnnl 

him, he vainly hopud, an opportunity of pro- 
- ^- --- 

TTWCT^A * v*nu t.w jLyu^muu, mjunNuiu jrwtJtt 

ophtion on th two pointy whothwr marring 
with a do ceased brother^ wife waa ptirmituiible 



by divine law, and whether papal supremacy 
was of divine institution. If Pole could not 
agree with the royal view, Henry added, he 
must state his own candidly, and then come to 
England, where the king would find honour- 
able employment for him in other matters. 
Starkey's letter reached Pole at Venice in 
April, and Pole asked for further time for 
study before coming home. Starkey mean- 
while deemed it prudent to give the king 
some indication of Pole's general political 
views, and set them forth in the form of an 
imaginary dialogue bet ween Pole and the now 
deceased Thomas Lupset. Pole was repre- 
sented as in theory a reformer, strongly alive 
to the dangers of the prerogative, but entirely 
loyal to a king like Henry v III, who was in- 
capable of abusing it (ib. No. 217 ; Starkey's 
treatise printed in England in the Reiyn of 
Henry VIII, by J. M. Cowper, for the Early 
English Text Soc.) Henry was not offended 
at an abstract theory expounded in this way. 
The king caused Cromwell, in December 
1534, to write to Pole with some impatience 
for his answer to the two questions (Cal 
Henry VIII, vol. ix. No. 988). But his reply 
was taking the form of a long treatise, * Pro 
Ecclesiasticse Unitatis Uefensione/ which he 
did not finish till May 1536. His arguments 
were aimed at peacefully deterring Henry 
from further wrongdoing, and were solely 
intended for the king's eyes. The work 
was a severe criticism of his proceedings, 
written not without pain and tears, for the 
high estimate he had formed of Henry's 
character had been bitterly disappointed. 
The king, dissembling his indignation, re- 
peated his wish that Pole should repair to 
England ; but Pole alleged the severe laws 
the king had himself promulgated as a suffi- 
cient excuse. Letters from his nearest rela- 
tives_ at home threatened to renounce him if 
he did not return and make his peace with 
the king. His friends in Italy were alarmed 
lest he should, in spite of the manifest danger, 
revisit his country. Paul III was conse- 
quently induced to summon him to Rome 
to a consultation about a proposed general 
council. "With some reluctance he obeyed 
the call, and reached Kome in November 
1536. He was lodged by the pope with great 
honour in the Vatican. 

Pole found himself at Borne the youngest 
and most energetic member of a committee 
summoned by- Paul III, after consultation 
with Pole's friend Cardinal Contarini, to draw 
up a scheme for reforming the discipline of 
the church. The committee's report was pub- 
lished in 1538 (Concilium delectorum Qar- 
dinalium). Pole was still a layman, but it 
was thought well that he should now take 


deacon's orders and be made a cardinal. The 
prospect filled him with dismay, and he en- 
deavoured to convince the pope that it was 
at least untimely. It not only would destroy 
his influence in England, but involve his 
family in some danger. The pope at first 
yielded to these representations ; but others 
were so strongly in favour of his promotion 
that he returned to his original purpose. The 
papal chamberlain was despatched to inform 
Pole of the final resolution, along with a 
barber to shave his crown; and Pole sub- 
mitted. He was made a cardinal on 22 Dec. 
1536, deriving his title from the church of 
St. Mary in Cosmedin. In the following 
February he was nominated papal legate to 

The news of Pole's cardinalate enraged 
Henry VIII, but he forbore to show any 
open sign of anger. Popular disaffection was 
spreading in the north. A conciliatory atti- 
tude was needed to prevent a disastrous de- 
velopment. A letter to Pole was drawn up 
on 18 Jan. in the name of the king's council, 
and was despatched apparently on the 20tli, 
after being signed by Norfolk, Cromwell, and 
others, remonstrating with him on the tone 
of his book and of his letters to the king, but 
accepting conditionally a suggestion thrown 
out by himself that he should discuss in 
Flanders, with commissioners sent by the 
king, the matters in dispute ( CaL Henry VIII, 
vol. xii. pt. i. No. 125). It was insisted that 
he should go thither without commission 
from any one. Otherwise recognition of the 
pope's authority would be assumed. Pole 
replied from Rome on 16 Feb. that he had 
only obeyed the king's request in writing, 
and had done his utmost to keep the con- 
tents of the book secret from all but the king 
himself. He was ready, however, to treat 
with the king's commissioners in France or 
Flanders, but it must be in Ins capacity of 
legate (ib. No, 444; an undated Latin transla- 
tion in Pofo'-EJ>p. i. 179, is wrongly addressed 
to the parliament of England). 

Pole was straightway despatched by the pope- 
to England, and carried with him money with, 
which, it was understood, he was to encou- 
rage the northern rebels against Henry VI IL 
On the journey he resolved to appeal to 
Francis I, the ally of Henry, and to per- 
suade the Ftench king to exhort Henry to- 
return to the Koman church aa his only 
safety. With Giberti,, bishop of Verona, a 
known friend of England, to whom Henry, 
if he disliked receiving a cardinal, might give 
a more favourable reception, Pole accordingly 
set out. After live weeks' travelling, they 
reached Lyons on 24 March. Henry VII'I 
had crushed the northern rebellion before 



Pole left Kome. But Francis I and tho 
emperor were at war, and neither wished to 
offend Henry lest he should take part, with 
the other against him. Henry demanded of 
Francis I that Pole should be delivered up to 
Ixim as a traitor, Francis promiwod not to 
receive Pole as legate, Though the cardinal 
made a public entry into Paris, he was in- 
formed that his presence in France wa incon- 
venient, and that he must leave the country, 

Much mortified, he withdrew toCambray, 
which was neutral territory, and remained 
there more than a month, awaiting a safe- 
conduct from Mury, queen of Hungary, rogont 
of the Netherlands, in order to got wifoly 
away. But the English ambassador at her 
court insisted that if he entered imperial terri- 
tory he should be delivered up to I Icmry, and 
efforts were made by Engliwh agisntH to as- 
sassinate or kidnap him. Queen M ury cxcusnd 
herself from seeing him, and wont tiu twcoi't in 
May to convey him from Cam bray to Li&gp, 
wi th out stopping any whore more than a p in gin 
night. Withm the territory of tho cardinal 
of Liege he was safe from further domanda 
for his extradition. 

The cardinal (if Liege (TCrard do laMarcV) 
lodged Polo in his own palace, and with 
princely liberality pressed upon IUH accept- 
ance large sums of money for hia exponsoH. 
No stranger could enter or luava Liugo un- 
examined while Polo was there, And ho 
remained there nearly three mouths (fipp* 
Poli t ii,, Diatriba ad EpistolaB, cu-ciii, cix- 
cv). At length tho pope ordered him to re- 
turn to Rome, which he roachad in October, 
He remained there till tho following spring 
(1538), when he accompanied Paul III to 
the meeting at Nice between FvanoiH I and 
Charles V, At the first intorviow of tho em- 
peror and the pope the former dusiriul to Iw 
made acquainted with Pole, who accordingly 
waited on tho emperor at Villalmuca, and 
was very cordially received. After tho moot- 
ing he spent some time at his friend Priuli'H 
country house near Venice, and thence movod 
to Padua, There news reached him of tho 
arrest in England of JUR brother Sir deoil'wy, 
He himself, in Venetian territory, was beset 
by spies and would-be assassins one of thorn 
the plausible scoundrel Philips who had be- 
trayed the martyr Tiudal. In Ootobor ho 
removed to Borne. Not many weeks later 
he was refused an audience by the pope, bo- 
cause he had just received such diHtreBHintr 
news of Pole's family that he could not bear 
to look him in the face. His eldest brother, 
Lord Montague, had boen arrested on a charge 
of treason, and with him Ins mother and 
some dear and intimate friends, 

Pole felt that his own griefs woro thoso of 

hi.s country and oven of Kurope. Tho only 
cure w an to be nought- in a restoration o'f 
papal t iiuthorit,y in Kn^buul by a Ini^'no of 
cliritil.ian prinnw against, Henry, llo there- 
foro aoeepted a minion from thn popo to 
vwit tho omporor in Spain, and afU'rwardn 
Franeirt L II o Jell Kimio on L>7 1 >ee,. 1 f>a.H,imd, 
to avoid IlnnryV hired H,s,sn wins, travelled in 
AiH{jfuw, with fmv ai-t.<iulautM. Hy tho <nul of 
January ir^JMit* rour-luMl IiMnMlI>na, and ho 
was with tho oinpiM'or at. Toledo in t ho middlo 
o(' Kohruary, HirTlomn,s W f viUI,tho Mn^liwh 
ambaMHador, vainly (ioiuundrll IHM oxtmditmti 
as a traitor. ( 'buries tvplind that * if lio w; 
hisown t.ruil.or, cotniu^ tmintJi Holy Kal. 
at llonu*, h<^ could not n^fuMn. him luiduMi 
In otlu^r rtssports IM\V,M not MKHV Htuu;(>rt 
than bi'luro, (lluirlt'M V ri'jiluul tJiui lu VVUH 
notiiudinod t<taKil!onwivr ino 
lOti^Iaml until IHJ WIIM HUTM of thn wn 
tiou of Kraiu'-n, 

Whilu on bin return jouvn<'V,iti(liM*onn hi 
Oalalonia(ntn La(JiniudsH8 in*Sjuisli 
(Ijilomlar/ vol, vi, pi. i. p. Ho), Pnln h*rnivl 
that an l^ip;iiHh exiln WIIM Mppkiiify to HWMIN- 
nitiaftM him in hopo of <ai*ntii^ jmnltm iViu 
Ih'ury IbrpMst, lui.MdiMMlM, Thm Knn\v]idp> t 
eonthinod with a finr tltnt nn iimtMlit vUit 
to Franco mi^lit. hmd lorlonotMininn ItrtNvtM^i 
Kn^'huul itnd thn <mptTin\ l<d him tu return 
for a time to < ^.rpeutraM, a mut ml pinre in i 1 w 
papal territory near Aviation, Ho, however, 
coimnisHionwl I'linm^lin, uhhotof Sun Snluin, 
a l^ulmoutoHo hei<mjti;inf{ to his household, 
who had been with him tit Toledo, tu deliver 
hi muMMiigo to Fntiu'.irt nwl imjuiro if \w 
Hhould e,oim himnelf, l*urj.mjjflia\VHM r)eeivetl 
politely, but wan tuld that i*niV jinvutu' in 
Franco won not. <le,Mjmi Pole, tliwjmtdit'tt 
Parpn^Ha to \lmnn to tfivu a full iitruunt. of 
Hut two miwHiWR. l*t)le ! H evpennivi hiiil not 
only far oxneetled his ullmvnmvH, hut. hml 
ahsorbt'd nearly nil hi.s MIIVUI^H, 

Th(j popovva-s sntiniitnl that thn fnilurn tif 
tlunuwsionH \yiw ni)t- tlite to t*ule,Hnti uu tho 
death oi'('ardii)ini{)amj>e^ii> j q t v, j, \vh WH 
titular binhoj) of SaliHiniry^^ereil the M*O to 
Polo. PoUs who wns Ntil'l at. t 'JtrprnitraM^ii*. 
cliutKl it. Mnnwliili f in Mwghtutl, parlia- 
ment had tMHHiHl, in ir*au t nn iwtuf ttHimJ*r 
u^ainHti PotM and all bin family, e,\0*ptiuj( Sir 
Guol!Vy, When Im had new*M nfitm moUmr'n 
execution in 15-H, 1m aitl t *l am mw tho 
son of a martyr. Thin in UIH kinK'M n<wartl iur 
hr caw of bin datghter ? H education ;' hut 
adttod <ftlmly, 4 Let UH b* of unm\ rln***r, Wo 
havu now onn patron worn in heavem* Ui|)ly 
duyrowwd, ho fmiwt hin h*,ml winftirt in th 
quotnloof ( 'Hrjmntnw, im<l with irh rl 
tattoo obyd tho pojio'Mwnwimji 
* Thw jtopu otwgutid him a 




and, in order to supply him with means suit- 
able to his birth and station, conferred on him 
what was called the legation of the patrimony, 
that is to say, the secular government of that 
portion of the States of the Church called the 
patrimony of St. Peter, Viterbo was the 
capital of the district which lay between the 
Tiber and Tuscany. Pole's government was 
distinguished by a leniency strongly contrast- 
ing with Henry VIII's severity. After the 
arrest of two Englishmen, who, on examina- 
tion, were compelled to confess that they had 
been sent to assassinate him, he remitted the 
capital penalty, and merely sent them for a 
few days to the galleys. 

In 1541, when Ooutarini was despatched 
Tby the pope to the diet at Ratisbon, he took 
counsel with Pole, and never was the breach 
"between Rome and the protestants more 
nearly healed than by their able and concilia- 
tory policy. Pole appreciated clearly the fact 
that the heart of the controversy lay in the 
doctrine of justification, on which, indeed, his 
own views were not unlike those of Luther, 
and on this subject an understanding was 
almost arrived at. 

In 1542 he was one of the three legates 
appointed by the pope to open the council 
of Trent ; but delays followed, and the council 
only met for despatch of business in Decem- 
ber 1545. He spent some time of the interval 
in writing the treatise 'Be Concilio.' He 
was with his two colleagues at Trent when a 
solemn commencement was made on 13 Dec., 
after which there was an adjournment over 
Christmas till 7 Jan. 1546. Then matters 
proceeded smoothly till the fifth session in 
June, when a rheumatic attack compelled 
Pole to leave for his friend Priuli's country 
house at Padua, whence he corresponded 
with the council, and gave his opinion on the 
decrees it passed. The subject at that time 
was justification, and ungenerous sneers have 
been pointed at his illness as a diplomatic one, 
because lus own view in that matter inclined 
to the protestant side. 

He returned to Rome on 16 NOT. "by 
permission of the pope, who found his ser- 
vices of value in ms correspondence with 
foreign courts. "When news reached Pole of 
the death of Henry VIII (January 1547), he 
was anxious that the pope should use the em- 
peror's aid to reclaim his native country from 
schism, He strongly urged the pope to send 
legates to the emperor and to France ; while 
he wrote to the privy council, representing 
that now it would 'be necessary to redress 
many wrongs done during the late reign, but 
that" he would not press those done to Himself 
and his own family more than was consistent 
with the public peace* He warned the coun- 

cil, however, that no firm foundation could 
belaid for future prosperity without the Holy 
See, and that the English people were fortu- 
nate in having a pope to wnom their interests 
were very dear. The privy council declined 
to receive his messenger. 

Pole was not discouraged. Next year lie 
sent to England his trusted servant Throg- 
mortonto remonstrate on the incivility with 
which he had been treated, and to point out 
the dangers of their situation, especially if the 
emperor broke with England on account of 
changes in religion. Throgmorton failed to 
obtain an audience, but received an indirect 
answer from the Protector Somerset that any 
letters the cardinal might write privately 
would be fully considered, and that any emis- 
sary he might choose to send into France or 
Flanders, to speak for him, would have a 
passport sent him. to come to England (State 
JPapers, Domestic, Edw. VI, vol. v. No. 9). 
A few months later, on 6 April 1549, Pole 
despatched two special messengers to the pro- 
tector, and a letter to Dudley, earl of War- 
wick, offering, if they declined to allow his 
own return, to repair to some neutral place 
near the English Channel to discuss points 
of difference. Although his messengers this 
time were treated with courtesy, they were 
dismissed with a written answer repudiating 
any wish for conciliation. Pole wrote, the 
letter said, like a foreign prince* They in 
England had no need of the pope. If Pole 
wished to return to his country, the council 
would mediate for his pardon; and to show 
him the true state of matters there with re- 
spect to religion, they sent him a copy of 
the new prayer-book approved by parliament 
(#. vol. vii. No. 28). 

Pole still persevered, and again sent two 
messengers to England with a long letter 
(7 Sept. 1540) to the protector, in which he 
pointed out that he liad done no offence, 
either to Edward or even to his father, for 
which he should require a pardon. As to. 
their proceedings in religion, he was not con- 
vinced of their sincerity. "While he was con- 
cluding, news reached him of the rebellions 
in Norfolk and the west of England, which 
seemed a sufficient commentary on all that 
he had said. Among the fifteen articles of 
the western rebels, the twelfth was a demand 
that Cardinal Pole should be sent for. from 
Rome and admitted to the king's council 
(SraYPB, Cranmer, App. 835, ed. 1812), 

On 10 Nov. 1549 IWs friend Paul III 
died, one of his last acts being to confer upon 
Pole the abbacy of Gavello or Oanalnuovo in 
Polesina. There was much betting at bankers' 
shops in Home as to his successor, and Pole's 
name soon distanced all competitors. One 



evening two cardinals came to visit Polo in 
his cell, and begged him, as he had already 
two-thirds of the votes of the conclave, to 
come into the chapel, where they would make 
him pope by * adoration.' Polo, who was as 
much impressed with the responsibilities as 
with the dignity of St. Peter's chair, induced 
them to put the ceremony off till the morning, 
and thus lost his chance* His support ers 
were mainly those cardinaiawho favoured the 
emperor, and they remained steady to him 
throughout the protracted contest. But to- 
wards its close the French party gained head ; 
a compromise was thought advisable, and 
Pole himself cordially agreed to the election 
of Cardinal de Monte, who then easily car- 
ried the day (8 Feb. 1 550), and took the namo 
of Julius III. Polo, it is said, in the oxpocta- 
tion of being elected, composed an oration to 
thank the assembled cardinals (UiUTiANUH, 
DeCasibus VirorumlUu^trmw^. SilO), lie, 
undoubtedly prepared a treat wo, t Do Summo 
Pontifice, 7 on the powers and duties of the 
papal office, The new popo, who had not 
favoured Pole's own claim, was greatly 
touched by his disinterested nftsft. Though in 
June 1550 he conferred on another cardinal 
the legation of the patrimony givon to Polo 
by his predecessor, he charged the revenues 
with a pension of one hundred crowns lor 
Pole, and appointed him one of three cardi- 
nals to draw up the bull for the resumption 
of the council at Trent. The emporor, too, 
gave Pole a pension of two thoiiHand ducat out 
of the see of Burgos, and another out of that 
of Granada; but these wore irregularly paid 
The council of Trent was abruptly sus- 
pended in April 1/3/fcJ in consequence of tho 
war in Europe, and Pole, anxious to bo out of 
the turmoil both of war and politics, retired, 
with the pope's leave, in the spring of 155,1 to 
the monastery of Maguzmno on the Lago di 
Garda belonging to the Benedictine ordor, of 
which he had for some yoars bn cardinal 
protector. Here he acceded to the wish of his 
friends to prepare for publication his tratwo 
' Pro Dofensiono/ which had boon sot up in 
type with the pope's sanction but without 
Pole's knowledge and in his abfumce from 
Borne in 1539. The text apparently followed 
a first draft divided into four books : tho ma- 
nuscript sent to Henry VIII (which is now in 
the Record Office) was one connected treatise, 
There were also some variations, the most im- 
portant of which were the passages alluding' 
to the king's connection with Mary Boloyn, 
which in the manuscript sent to the king he 
suppressed. All that the book needed was 
a preface, This Pole now drew up in the 
form of a letter to Edward VI, in which ho 
explained, as delicately as ho could, the cir- 

cnmstances which had led him to 
the work, and vindicated his own loyalty and 
regard for the, Into kind's host, interests. Hut 
before thin letter was sent to press I'M ward V t 
was dead, and the preface, remained in maim* 
Rcriptt-illthn middle of the lost century, when 
it was included by Q,utrini in the great, edi- 
tion of Pole's correspondence, The treat iso 
itself appeared, without any preface or dato 
of publication, in 1MVI (Cttt> Ntrtf<* 7V//r/v, 
Venetian, vol. v. No. !>()!). Next, your a 
second edition was published by protest ant; 
hands in Germany, with a number of anti* 
papal tracts appended, and a letter prefixed 
from the pen of Vergcrius(oneo a papal legate, 
but then a protoMaut, ), repenting, wit h st nuiif 
party spirit, an old insinuation that the work 
tiad been kept back from publication din* 
honestly* Polo was more troubled by other 
malicious insinuations made in p,st years 
against his character at Home. His rivals 
in the, papal elect-ion bad imputed to him 
heresy in doctrine, overrent lenity in his go- 
vernment, at Viterho, awl personal impurity, 
He-was moved to write n defence of himseft, 
which Cardinal Oarntla wisely ndvi?*ed him 
not to publish, AM others however, to<dt a 
diJIurcut. view, he only retrained in deference, 
to the pope himself, to whom 1m referred the, 
matter, Tin* Ncnmlal thai he had a natural 
child rcHted on the fact that be had rescued 
a poor MngHwh tfirl, whuNi* mother had diid 
at Home, from the danger ni' an immoral iitu 
by placing her in a Rowan COHMMII, AH 
dardinal (litrailiu Pole's war 

m friend hitherto, 

disbelieved these imputtitiutiM, it, is not quitn 
clear how th\v led in a temporary cIuens 
on his part, &ur.h, howevor, i the fact , and, 
though OimiU'a soon contested hw error ttiitl 
expressed tht^ highest- tnl.t'im for I 'tile, mmt 
prudgc remained, and \vn revived a few yearn 
later, when Caratta IWCIUUM Paul I V, 

Tim mnvs of Kdward VTn death, soon fol- 
lowed by that of Mnry'H Moilli*rt triumph 
ovor the. fuctioun uUctupt tu prevent hermit',* 
C(ssion, rentdied l*t*le itt La Uarda enrly in 
Angtwt. l!w at onco wrote to the, nopn wf 
thu honofal pmnnect of recovering Kit^lnml 
from timordcr and schism, luHuit HI htui 
already tttlteu action, and sent to I'ole brief* 
and a commiMsion cunntitutin^ him le^utn to 
Queim Mary HH well uHfothiMMiiperurfimito 
Henry II of 1 'Vance, through whose territory 
hn might PUSH on his way to Knglaiul, Ou 
thi Polo \vrotH to th (juc^n ctmgrntulating 
her ou her accemttm, and asliiug dtrt(*tinitH 
as to tho time and mode in which he, mi^-ht 
tot (Jisc.hargo his legntiun and restore pupal 
authority* Tluujuetm shared his nnxmty, but, 
in othor quarters Urn opimou prevailetl that 
England wtu* to tuo un^ttlca to ruuuivu a 



legate yet. The emperor held that Mary 
ought to be married to his son Philip before 
the relations of England to the see of Home 
could be satisfactorily adjusted, and deemed 
it prudent to keep Pole out of the way till 
that marriage was accomplished. In England 
it was suggested that Pole should come to 
England and marry the queen himself. Pole 
had no such aspirations, and wrote to the 
emperor of the great importance of imme- 
diately reconciling England with Borne. But 
the more worldly-minded pope, Julius III, 
perceived that postponement was inevitable, 
, and, in order to preserve Pole's mission from 
an appearance ot undignified inactivity, made 
over to him the unpromising task of endea- 
vouring to make peace between the emperor 
and Henry II. With this further mission 
imposed on him, Pole decided to visit the 
emperor at Brussels, and on his way arrived 
on 1 Oct. at Trent. Thence, in a second 
letter to Mary, he protested against the delay 
of the religious settlement. Passing through 
the Tyrol, he stayed some days with the car- 
dinal-bishop of Augsburg, at Dillingen, on 
the Danube, where he received Mary's reply 
to his first note, stating that she could not 
restore papal authority offhand. The mes- 
senger, Henry Penning, also brought secret 
messages bidding Pole travel slowly towards 
Brussels, where he would receive letters from 
her again. Ilia nephew, Thomas Stafford, 
visited him at Dillingen, and spoke sharply 
against Mary's proposed xinion with Philip. 
Pole rebuked his presumption. A few days 
later, when three leagues from Dillingen, he 
was met by Don Juan de Mendoza, who told 
him that the emperor thought both his mis- 
sions untimely, and wished him to come no 
further till a more favourable opportunity. 
Pole remonstrated, but returned to Dillingen 
to await the pope's commands. 

That Pole when he went to England would 
at. once have the first place in Mary s confidence 
was generally anticipated. Accordingly the 
emperor stopped even his messengers going 
over to her, and the agents of the English go- 
vernment did the same (cf, Nfyw. deNoa,illw, 
ii. &!; Cal. State Papcn, For., Mary, p. 34), 
JVIary now wrote to him, in official Latin, that 
his immediate coming would bo inexpedient, 
and subsequently that his coming as legate 
would be extremely dangerous. The popo en- 
cleavourod to meet the difficulty by granting 
Pole permission, if ho found it expedient, to 
go to England as a private person, resuming 
the legutwe capacity when he could do so with 
prudence. Pole, however, found a new envoy 
to plead his cause with the empnror in the 
person of Friar Vetei Soto, once his majesty's 
contour, now professor of divinity in the 

university of Dillingen, whom he sent to 
Brussels in November. Soto's persuasions 
seem to have been effective, or Charles him- 
self felt that Pole could no longer do much 
harm at Brussels. On 22 Dec. the emperor 
invited him thither, and in January 1554 he 
gave him a magnificent reception. 

Mary's marriage was practically concluded. 
Pole, who had kept silence on the subject, 
declared, when asked his private opinion by 
Soto, that he thought the queen would do 
well not to marry at all. Wyatt's rebellion in 
January justified at once such an opinion and 
the emperor's argument that England was 
not * mature ' for a legate. Pole was driven 
to occupy himself with his second mission 
for peace between the emperor and France. 
And as the emperor's ministers affirmed that 
the obstacles to an honourable peace did not 
proceed from him, he in February left 
Brussels for Paris. On his way he drew up a 
very able address to both princes, full of argu- 
ments, alike from past experience and from 
policy, against the continuance of the war. 
He arrived at St. Denis on 12 March ; the 
French king received him at Fontainebleau 
on the 29th. He remained there till 5 April, 
and made a public entry into Paris on the 8th. 
He met with a very gratifying reception in 
France. Personally he produced a most fa- 
vourable impression on Henry II ; but the 
conferences, though encouraging, held out 
slender hopes of peace. 

On his return to Brussels he was very coolly 
received by the emperor ("21 April), owing to 
growing rumours of his dislike of Mary's mar- 
riage. Pole vindicated the reticence he had 
maintained in the first instance, and declared 
that he cordially accepted the queen's deci- 
sion when announced to him, believing that 
it was taken with a view to reform religion, 
and, if possible, secure the succession. Pole 
soon found, however, that the emperor wished 
him to be recalled. Pole referred the matter 
to the pope, but in the meantime remained 
at Brussels, while Philip went to England 
and was married. On 11 July Pole sent 
Philip a letter of congratulation. 

Pole had already been consulted by Mary 
in spiritual matters, and had rendered him- 
self indispensable. Neither the church nor 
the realm of England had yet been reconciled 
to Borne. But numerous bishops and married 
clergy had already been deprived, and as their 
places could only be filled by recourse either 
to the papal legate or to the pope, the queen 
had presented twelve bishops to Pole, of 
whom six were consecrated on 1 April, The 
position of affairs rendered Pole's presence in. 
England absolutely necessary, and the pope 
urged the emperor not to keep Pole away 



any longer. But Pole's attainder had still to 
toe reversed in parliament, and, from what 
was reported of his views on tho wibjoct, the 
possessors of church property felt that his 
coming might threaten their titles. '\ he pope 
vvas willing to remove tho latter dilHcully, 
and gave tho legato large dispensing power*, 
so that holders of church lands might, not be 
disturbed. But tho oiuperor, whcwo MtoroHtfl 
were now the sumo with those of tho king and 
queen, was not satisfied that those powers 
were large enough, Th traditional unpopu- 
larity of logatine jurisdiction in Kiufliiwl, 
whichcould only bftesowised by roynl license, 
made it moreover desirable to carefully w<ngh 
the terms on which it WHS conceded boioro tho 
legate arrived, 

Pole was in despair. He wrote a power- 
ful letter of expostulation to Philip, declar- 
ing that he had boon a year knocking at tho 
palace gates, although ho had snlttsred long 
years of exile only for maintaining MuryV 
rights to the succession. Philip, in reply, sont 
over Renard,tho imperial ambassador at tho 
English court, to Brussels to confer with him. 
The main difficulty was about the church pro* 
perty in secular hands. Pole refused to re- 
cognise the title of the lay proprietors, or to 
strike a bargain with them on behalf of the 
church. But general mid immediate rent it u- 
tion was clearly out of tho question, awl ho 
at length consented to leave the matter in 
abeyance, in the hope that tho king and quwn 
and other holders of church property would 
as a matter of conscience restore what and 
when they could. The divines at Itome took 
the moro practical view that the alienation of 
church goods was justifiable, if it proved 
the means of restoring a realm to tho faith 
( 170-2). 

Kenard was satisfied with Pole's awmranw, 
and Lords Paget and Hastings (th latter a 
nephew of Pole's) wore Rent to conduct, him 
to England (November). Tho munm praved 
him to come not as legate, but only us cardinal 
and ambassador. On 1 $ Nov. iwrli amen t re- 
versed his attain dor, TravolTwft by gent In 
stages, on account of his weak health, through 
Ghent and Bruges, he was roctuvod at. Calais 
on 19 Nov. with many peals of bll ami 
salvoes of attillery. Next morning ho ruaehud 
Dover in. a uoyal yacht. 

There he waa saluted by Anthony Browno, 
first viscount Montague [cuv.], Thirlby, bishop 
of Ely, and a number of tlie nobility, who 
brought him a letter from tho qwun, to 
which, Philip had added a ftjw words in his 
own han d, thanking him for coming, N icholaa 
Harj>Bfiela [q. v.l, archdeacon of Canterbury, 
inquired in behalf of the chapter whwthor '* 
would be received in that city aa legato. ' 

ho declined, an tho tvulm wns utill srhisi 
cult ami tho ijurtni hail not dMinl it, At- 
I by a inr^n company of nntiloiwn mid 

hn imttTod hy t (nvrhli^ht, 1 larjiNfi<lt| rocoiviul 
him with a linr oration, which movt'd (ho 
company to tt*nr;-u Htl Polo Ht.opptMl hm 
oratory win 1 !!, towardw the C!O,MS tiw Hpcnkor 
t\irn<Mi tht* (tiHcourHi* tooulo^y ol'lumwir, At 
Uoohcrttor a ivqm^t that, ho wtndil conm to 
lu>rnH l^ntc ri'Hchi'tl l*olo irom the <tu*M*n. \ 
patent, hud ulrrtuly lioon graiiUMl him on tho 
lOlh, in adviuum of his ctutiin,^ to onulilo him 
to oxmvi.Mo Ic^'nlino i'unrtionM in Kn^latul 
(Wu.KiNH, iv. lOil), At. Umvcwwi IUH ra- 
valcatlo hu<l inrn-iwiMl to tivr luuulrcd hoiW) 

Thori 1 * tho Karl of Shn\\8lurv and Tutwtnll. 

.* , , * 

ViMhnp nt Durhnin^ jMTHontoii hun with loltiTH 
utulor tho j^riMit. tu'ul, t'orfifyin^; tlu rjnnl C 
all lawn puHNnl n^niiutt. him in tho two pvo- 

(Jravownd ho nilt*tl uj the 'I'hnttii'M In tho 
qm'<wV hiir^o, with IHM ?ilvf crow ii\tnl in 
Vim prow (*M Nov.) Tin* liiti^ nnd <juoon 
received him mtt cortlinlly ut. Whitehull^ 
and in the proMowo rhumltcr h<% nn<ler a 
canopy of'.stiito, i'onnnlly jjrc-wntt'tt to them 
At \ hrieJHotMu.H le^;ation, lletheti WUHCOU* 
itetl hy (inn limn' to Immheth Pntace, 
Three dnyn lntovr-7 Nov.) Secrtni'y Petm 
!o l*Ki'HH, Silt \Vu,taAMJ muamoncti ttm 
two hotiMcH of |mri'uuent tu nnurt tt hnr a 
dtM'.lawtion from tho h'^utt* l*ohs <loMpito a 
weak voice, (loliveretl u htng tmvtion in which 
ht^Huio* lio \viw conte fn reHtnre the hmt ^loty 
d'tho kin^tlom, OH tlio IVaM oi'St, Antlr<nv 
(ttO Nov) lor<ln niui comtnonn proNonf edii joi u t 

upon ptihitcly inteireiiMl with the It^nte ti> 
nlwolvothew* frntn tlunr ttm^ m*hmm uml lw- 
. Pole, who WHH NtMttml, nttereit a 

to tt repentant nation, tliiMi he ro 
prtmouttreil tin* wttnln of tthmilution, 
On *J !)i*t*, the JIM. Snfiiu\ tu Ailvtml, ho 
l itt Mtitts ut 

! ami HI>hop llnnlin*^ jnvaehed 
iVom the t<**t ( Kotn, ,viii, I h, ' H H hi^h tiimi 
to awake nut tit' hltvp,* < >n 1'lutfMitav tollnv- 
ing (ti !>et%) the two huiiNt'H uf t'tmvtieut'mu 
cawu* before l*olo at ImmoMth, nmi, lvne4tt^, 
rewivtnl nhHulutioti Mur ail their jierjurieM, 
HehintuH, and hert'^U-H,' The Art I 'J l*hil. 
an<i Mary i *. H, for rt^toriit^lht* jitjn*Hijri- 
wa<*y WUK pu^nrd in .muuur,y Ifjfu'i, 
tUH III puhti ht*d u jubilee tt> a 

but he died on 5 MmvU foltitwrn^, l*u wtn 
H])oken of at I{OHM * hiMHt^Mr f hut 51ur 
II WUH utuctcd uw 41 Ajiril HWiri. liti 



survived his elevation only three weeks, dying 
on 30 April, and at the second vacancy both 
Q,ueen Mary and the court of France bestirred 
themselves in Pole's favour. But on S33 May 
Cardinal Caralfa bocamo pope as Paul iV. 
Pole himself, meanwhile, was more concerned 
about the re-establishment of peace in Europe. 
Peace conferences were presently arranged to 
takeplace at Mnrck, near Calais, on the borders 
of the two hostile countries of Prance and 
the empire, and lie crossed to Calais in the 
middle of May to act as jpres'ulont, Tho pro- 
spect, however, did not improve, and within 
a month the conferences were broken off, 
and he returned to England. 

On 10 June Paul IV held his first con- 
sistory at Home, when English ambassadors 
declared their nation's repentance for past 
errors. Paul rat ifiod all that Pole had done, 
and said no honour could be paid to him 
which would not fall short ol his merits. 
Ai'ter a month's stay in Homo the ambassa- 
dors returned to England with various bulls, 
one among them being directed against the 
alienation of church property, The bull 
might perhaps have been construed not to 
apply to the owners of church property in 
England, whose rights had already been re- 
cognised both by the legato and by the 
holy woo. But it was felt at onoo to be con- 
trary to tho spirit of tho compromise which 
Pole had accepted, lie therefore insisted 
on the nocoHflity of excepting England by 
name from ita operation. A new bull to that 
effect was issued without hesitation, and was 
road at Paul's Cross in September (Trixi3 ; 
jKdwrtrd VI and Mar?/, ii. 48JJ). 

Before Philip left England for Brussels in 
October ho placed the queen specially under 
the care of the cardinal, who thereupon took 
up his abodo in Greenwich Palace ; and he 
paid a private visit to Pole himself to induce 
him to undertake a supervision of the coun- 
cil's proceedings. Pole acquiesced, appa- 
rently so far as to receive reports of what 
was done in tho council, and to bo a referee 
when matters of dispute arose; but otherwise 
he declined to interfere with secular business 
(Gal oftitnU Paper*, Venetian, vi. 178-9 j 
comp. NOAILIMH, v. W>)> t Ho seems never to 
have attended the council. 

The church's affairs wore all-absorbing. 

Hintent \yith h is office ; but ho wrote to Cran- 
mer twice, in answer to letters to himself 
and to tho queen. The proceedings taken in 
England against Cranmer were aunt to Homo 
for judgment, where sentence of deprivation 
being pronounced against him, the admini- 


of the see of Canterbury was com- 
mitted on 11 Dec. to Pole. At the same 
time Pole was raised from the dignity of 
cardinal-deacon to that of cardinal-priest. 
The queen designed him to succeed Oranmer 
as archbishop. Though he felt it a serious 1 
additional responsibility, he agreed to accept 
the primacy, on the understanding that he 
should not be compelled again to go to Rome. 
"With the bull appointing him to Canterbury, 
Pole received a brief confirming him in his 
old oilice of legato for the negotiation of 
peace. Immediately afterwards Pole rejoiced 
to find that, without his intervention, a five 
years' truce was arranged between the French 
king and Philip, now king of Spain, at Vau- 
celles (& Feb. 1556). 

On 4 Nov. 1555 Pole, having a warrant 
under the great seal for his protection, had 
caused a synod of both the convocations to 
assemble before him as legate in the chapel 
royal at Westminster, Gardiner's death oa 
the 12th deprived Pole of very powerful aid in 
that reform and settlement of the affaire of 
the church which was the gjreat object of this 
synod. It cor tinned sitting till February 
following, when it was prorogued till No- 
vember, the results of its deliberations being 
meanwhile published on 10 Feb. 1550, under 
the title ' lleformatio Anglira ex decretis 
lleginaldi Poli, Cardinalis, Sedis Apostolicas 
Logati.' In the first of these decrees it 
was enjoined that sermons and processions 
through the streets should take place yearly 
on the feast of St. Andrew, to celebrate^ the 
reconciliation of the realm to Rome. 

Oil 20 March 1567, at Greenwich, he was 
ordained a priest at the Grey Friars church, 
and there next day, when Oranmer was burnt 
at Oxford, he celebrated mass for the nr&t 
time. On Sunday the 22nd he was conse- 
crated at the same church archbishop of 
Canterbury, by Heath, archbishop of York, 
assisted by Bonner and five other bishops of 
the province of Canterbury (STRYPB, JScul. 
Mam. iil 287, 1st ed.) lie would have gone to 
Canterbury to be enthroned, but as the queen 
desired his presence in London, he deputed 
one of tho canons to act as his proxy there, 
and received the pallium in great state on 
Ladyday at the church of St. Mary-le-Bow. 
On entering the church a paper was handed 
to him by the parishioners, requesting that 
he would favour them with a discourse, which 
he did extempore and with great fluency at 
the close of the proceedings. 

After Gardiner's death Pole was elected 
chancellor of the university of Cambridge. 
lie acknowledged the compliment in a grace- 
ful letter, dated from Greenwich 1 April 
1556 (which the editor of his letters 




v, 88, has inaccurately hotuW 'Oolloffio 
Oxonienai'). On 20 Oct. following Oxford 
paid bum the same honour, on tho resignation 
of Sir John Mason [q. v.] 11 e had jptu vioiwly 
issued a commission for the visitation of both 


universities, and he soon manifeHted 
tivity in revining the statutes at Oxford* 
Ignatius Loyola had invited him to nond 
English youths to Homo for their education, 
but Pole, much occupied with tho reform of 
the English clwrch and univer8itiw, appa- 
rently found no opportunity to accept thi 
invitation (Em. v. J J5-5JQ). llo wan inte- 
rested in Loyola'a now Society of JO.HUH, and 
Loyola on his part followed with admiration 
Pole's work in England, They had ciorw- 
sponded at times from the days of Pole's 
government of Viterbo. 

Both Mary and Pole had uwlonwtimatnd 
the difficulties of reconciling the roalm to 
Kome. With regard to church property, tho 
xnost ample papal indulgence could not allay 
all disquiet when tho eovumgn humlf de- 
clined to take advantage of it, and wan nur- 
rendering the religious property in th Immto 
of the crown. The abrogated laws against 
heresy had boon revived by parliamtmt just 
before Pole's arrival in Ktofrlad,aml hi con- 

and cuiitt'HtMl t.lm legation <f Poh*. Sir Kd 
ward (Jarnt, tlu Kn^.ltMh mulwwmlnr at 
lionKty romonNtrutrd. Kn}*lniid WIIH ntMttrul^ 
and thorondit ionof thi ciount rv Mprr tally ro- 
quired a locate. Tho JH>JM nM'o^nJM^d hin 
error, and laint>ly direct r<i that <hn nulivo 
h^fattMliip aUvayn uttnpluul to tho in of Can* 
UHury should not ln in^huUnl in ih act of 

Tho dowlH <Ud not i ltftjwrt. Mn^lnnd wan 
clraggc<l into tho wr, and Polo WUH HUtu- 
monod from ('untorhury by tho Kin^ iud 
qution, on jmiu of thoip diM|>lf 4 H''itir4\ Philip 
and Mary wrolt joint lH1or to tho popo fur 
tho full roMtomtum of PoloV tp^ntouhip, Paul 
it would bo unbooonuu^ 1 hi,Mtli^nitv to 
bach to Polo what, ho hud tnlvoji Irnia 
him; bonidoM, In* witntod ail IHM nirduuilH at 
Roiuo, to nmHult with him iu th*K*o tlilUrult 
tinnw. Still* IIM Mnrv wiMlunl for a loguto in 
Kn|fSand y ho nppoiutrd in INtlo'rt pluoo hor 
old oonfi'Hsor, In'mrWillinm iVlohj. v, | \ 
bri<f was n*nt to Polo mliovinp; turn <f hirt 
p, nnd rotjuirtn^ bin pronotu'o, ut 
mnry, ng'initMt. Pulo 1 ;* W|M|I, ilirortoti 
tho papal invvioiif;oiM<t bo<{*tninoii at t -nium, 
and i'o<|UoNt(<l Polo to rontiuno hi f < l 

nection with their enforcement wan 
official. But, like Sir Thomas Morw and all 
good catholics of the old school, ho thought 
the propagation of falsa opinion an evil for 
which no puniHlnnent was too extreme. 
With the actual conduct of pro8cutionH ho 
seemg to have had nothing 1 to do (cf, DIXON, 
JERat* of the Church of J3nylemd t iv, U7tt). 
Three condemned heretics in Bomwr'n dioeono 
were pardoned on an appeal to him. llo 
merely enjoined a penance and gave them 
absolution ($. p. 582 ) 

But Pole had to face difUouUies in an un- 
expected quarter, Paul IV, a hot-blootlod 
Neapolitan, lonped to drive tho Spaniards 
out of Naples* War broko out btwiw him 
and Philip in Italy, and Pole found that bin 
eovereiguliad become the pope's imtttny, Nu 
strongly urged on Philip the unsaunilineKH of 
making war on Christ* vicar, JJuttheKtorm 
extended itself; tho pope mad alliance with 
Prance, and the war so recently siwpnwltjd 
"between Franco and Spain was again ro 
newed. Pole now urged Mary not to dwclare 
herself against Franco on account of her 
husband's quarrel But Philip came back to 
England in March 1667 with the expreBs 
object of implicating her in his struggle with 
France, upon which Pole retired to hia cathe- 
dral city, explaining to him privately that 
the pope's legate could not visit the pojw'a 
enemy. In April, however, Paul IV with* 
drew all his legates from Philip's dominions, 

Polo rofuaod, nittl 

auditor, Niooolo (inuniiotto, ti> JUomo to 
form tho ponoof thoMtutoof I ho VIIMO { m*o 
tru<*.t from uiM imprint od lott^r to tltt 
m DISON'H //w/, **f Mr f tyw/W/ H 
iv, 074 r>,;/,) ll objootod t)mt il 
not only tloprivod him r^f hislt*#itUtm, Im1 in- 

ninuatod tbat lit* wan a horotio; nnd ttmt no 
pone, bad ovor cnHi'd a b^nt** info 
H vvhilo \u\\ \\t\\\y o\o 

, ir luttl r*jIiu*i'ti hitn by 

anotbor, without flrnt Htitt^ him to 

bin own numi* awl ju-stifv htmwlf *f tbi 
charge (STUWW, tM. tfrtiutrutfai iii. HI, 
d. l8*Ji). Ormanotto wiw ntlittiftiMl in tm 
atulit^uMi by tb^ iwutn <*n 4 Srjit. nnd NJIUU 
dimtrw^tly in l*nbH t*bulf* 

The i*rtuw*N ot 1 war hnd junt iMiujprlltui 
Paul to iumrludo tt |*nw* with Philip, inul 
he found it **s|di*iit !u brrniH'ilintnns Hit 
HHHiirml OrtuaM^tto that lit* t*niiiiiiU*r'il ih 
rutitourn of PuU*'rt h<r<'My ttmUrutUH, niul nnid 
that Im would Miil hm njihW| i'nf4lhtal 
Caraila, to Flnd*rH to urrtiittft* nil *lill** 
W'tuwjH* Hut UMJtlwrM h* utuli^itt*d I*bi aft 
a heriitic with a nuh*volii'' aliiHmi. wujjf- 
gwtiug mxauity and H]H!ii with ljitt*riii'M 
of all l*oli'H tfii*miH. lit* hnd tin}rimiiu*4 
Pobs^H diiwiplti, Oarciinal Mori*, inninly Iw*- 
cauHO Im wan a tlimtiplo of l**4t*, Wiifn tlw 
Vunutian ambttHxattnr at iim<* mju**Ht.Hltlm 
poiMtto^ivit th binbojirm of Hriwm tt* t*o!**H 
arcltnit adnuror an4 iumstanl. (*oHt|Miio in 

EnglauU aud abroad, i*riitti y i'tuti nuiti 




would never consent to bestow it on one 
who was of the English cardinal's ' accursed 
school and apostate household.' 

Cardinal Caralla, however, went to the 
Netherlands, and Pole restated his case to 
him in correspondence. lie also wrote a 
treatise in his defence, recounting his past 
relations with the pope, but threw it, when 
completed, into the fire, saying, < Thou 
shalt not uncover thy father's nakedness.' 
Finally he addressed to Paul, on 30 March 
1558, a powerful letter, recommending his 
self-denying friend Priuli for the vacant 
bishopric of Brescia, vindicating himself from 
the vague charges of heresy, and asking for 
some explanation of the pope's recent treat- 
ment of himself. 

In the course of the summer Pole fell 
mortally ill of a double quartan ague at Lam- 
beth Palace. At seven in the morning of 
17 Nov. Mary, who had been long ill, passed 
away ; at seven in the evening of the same 
day Pole, too, died so gently taat he seemed 
to 'have fallen asleep (Cat, Venetian, vol. vL 
Nos. 1286-7). The cardinal's body lay in 
state at Lambeth till 10 Dec., when it was 
carried with great pomp to Canterbury], There 
it was buried on the 15th, and it still rests 
in St.. Thoinaa's Chapel. The place was only 
marked by the inscription, which has now 
disappeared ; t Depositum Cardinalis Poll/ 

Pole was a man of slender build, of middle 
stature, and of fair complexion, his beard 
and hair in youth being of a light brown 
colour. His eye was bright and cheerful, 
his countenance frank and open. Several 
good portraits of him exist, in all of which he 
appears in the vestments of a cardinal, with 
a oiretta on his head. One picture by Sebas- 
tian del Piombo, now at St. Petersburg (once 
absurdly attributed to Raphael), is a full- 
foced portrait, with a large flowing, wavy 
beard. This must have been painted at Rome 
in the time of Paul III, when he was in his 
fullest vigour, A large portrait at Lambeth 
is said to have been copied for Archbishop 
Moore from an original in Italy. This pic- 
ture, with others of the same type, shows him 
seated, with a paper in his hand. Lord Arun- 
del of Wardour 1ms a valuable small panel- 
picture (not by Titian, however, to whom it 
is attributed), showing somewhat careworn 
features and small blue-grey eyes. This 
portrait has been engraved by Lodge. Other 
small panel-portraits of value are preserved 
at Lambeth, at Hardwick Hall (belonging 
to the Duke of Devonshire), and in the 
National Portrait Gallery. Two early en- 
gravings also deserve notice: One, in the 
' Herwologia ' (1620), gives the befit type 
of his appearance; the other, which is earlier, 

in lleusner's ' Icones ' (Basle, 1589), shows 
a more aged face. There is much gentleness 
of expression in all his likenesses. 

Pole's habits were ascetic. He kept a 
sumptuous table, but was himself abstemious 
in diet, taking only two meals a day, pro- 
bably to the detriment of his health. He 
slept little, and commonly rose before day- 
break to study. Though careful not to let 
his expenditure exceed his income, he never 
accumulated wealth, but gave liberally ; and 
his property after his death seems barely to 
have sufficed to cover a few legacies and ex- 

Seldom has any life been animated by a 
more single-minded purpose, but its aim 
was beyond the power of man to achieve. 
The ecclesiastical system which Henry VIII 
had shattered could not be restored in Eng- 
land. Royal supremacy thrust papal supre- 
macy aside, even in France and Belgium ; and 
when in England papal authority was re- 
stored for a time, it was restored by royal 
authority alone, and had to build upon 
foundations laid by royalty. "Worst of all, 
the papacy, itself fighting a temporal battle 
with the princes of this world, disowned its 
too intrepid champion at the last, That he 
died on the same day with Mary, whose 
battle he had been fighting all along, was a 
coincidence that might be considered natural. 
Both might well have been heartbroken at 
the discredit thrown upon their zeal, and 
the hopelessness of the political outlook. 

As a writer Pole's style is verbose, but he 
never cared for literary fame. None of his 
writings were penned with a mere literary 
aim, except his early anonymous life of Lon- 
golius. After his death editions of his * De 
Uoncilio ' appeared at Venice in 1562, and of 
the i De Unitate ' at Ingolstadt in 1587, of 
*De Summo Pontifice' (1569). There was 
published at Lou vain in 1569 * A treatie of 
Justification. Founde emong the writinges 
of Cardinal Pole of blessed memorie, remain- 
ing in the custodie of M. Henrie Pyning- 
[the Henry Penning above referred to] 
Chamberlaine and General Receiuer to the 
said Cardinal, late deceased in Louaine. 7 
The theological views here expounded are 
in practical agreement with the reformers. 
An extract from his ' De Unitate Ecclesias- 
tica ' appeared in an English translation by 
Fabian Withers, under the title of 'The 
Seditious and Blasphemous Oration of Car- 
dinal Pole. 7 Pole's correspondence, edited 
by Quirini, was issued at Brescia in five 
volumes between 1744 and 1757. 

[The Life of Pole, written in Italian by Ms 
secretary Beccatolli, commonly read in the Latin 
translation of Andrev Dudith, -who was also a 



memlxn-of tho cardinal's household, IH tho first. 
authority for thciiUeU. KothUioni'ijrinal uiid tho 
translation of thi 1'fo will bo found in Uumm N 
edition of Zulu's CoiTOpcmdimw (Mpisl-ohi; llopt- 
naldi Poli . . . et aliorum ad HO, &c., ft vols., 
Brescia, 1744-67), which in n most important 
source of information. Other ilomnn'iihuy ovi - 
dences will bo found in tho OalomlurH <!' Stiito 
Papers, viz. that of Homy VII I, iVuqmm! iy nUid 
in the text, and those of the UninoHtir SONOH 
(1547-80), the Foruifiii Series (J'Mward VI and 


]diry),tne}SpanifriU,a-iiu ? moMi.oi ,,'i,iu Y vn.^......^ 

A few notices also will ho found in tho Onl, ot 
Dom. Addenda; BurnaCs Hint of tho IMoram- 
tion- Strype'a KcrU'H, Mo-morials ; KOXUH ActH 
aiidMonumoutH; J)odd'H(JburhJlwt.; thoActM 
of tho Privy Council; Vcrtot'n AaibaHsadfM <lo 
MoasiotirR de Noailles; Papiorn d 1 Ktat dti Oar. 
diuaide Granvollo, vol. iv. (DoeuaiontH InnlitH); 
Sarpi's Hist, of tho Council of Tront ; Valla- 
vidno's Hint, of thoHamo; Orntiaui Vita,). K, 
Commondoni Cardinalifi (Pariw, lOfii)), Miu'hyn*H 
I)iary, Chronicle of (iucen J.'iim and Um<on Mary, 
aod Chroaiclfl of tho Oroy Kr'uiw (all throo 
Oamd.Soc.); IInrdy'H Jtuport on th Awhlv(w 
of Venice (in which, howov<r, 'J^r^inrot-h'H com- 
munication, pp. 69-71, miiHt b UHi'd wit.h 
caution) ; Letbore dol Ro d' Inpfliiltorra t 
Card. Polo . . . sopra la wluttiono di <[\\w 
Begno nlla . . . Chiosa (without dat.o); CJopia 
d' ima Ifittora d' JnRhiltorra uolla mialo m nnrra 
1'cntrata dol R(v. Oardinalo Polo, Lo^it o, M ilan, 
1554, reprinted (at Paris, 1800?), Of modorn 
biographies tho mottt val wablo ovon now, though 
by no meatifl fimltlwsH, IB tho History of th Lifo 
of Reginald Polo, by Thomtw Philltpa, first jiuln- 
lifcihod at Oxford in 1764, and a Hacond wlit.ion 
(in which tho anthor'B tianio is 8Up|irtwl), 
London, 1767 [see for replies art, huu.irs, 
THOMAS. 1708-177*1. Tho biop;mphy \\\ t " 
Lives of the Archbishops in strangoly pro; 
and sometimes quite inaccurate, Kv .._ 
toth's very erroneous statements in hi Iwttcr to 
Hr. (afterwards Sir Thomus) DuflPiiH Hardy do 
*not justify Dean Hook in hi iiHHtirtioii (p, 280) 
that thero is a letter at Simanctw *m which ,Polo 
had proposed himself as n Hiiitor for tho hand 
of Mary * (see Hardy's Export above refc*rr*ul to, 
p. 70). Tho historical sketch ont itlod 4 Ei^inahl 
Pole' (lettered on the bade of tho voluma * Tho 
Life of Cardinal Polo') by ,P. 0-. 1#e>, 1) J> M in 
not a life at all, hut an oHwiy on the hyp[innin^ 
and end of hiw career. OF much greater value 
isKardinal Pole, sein Lcbenund woine Bchrifton, 
ein Beitracf zur Kirchongofichichto do 16, Jahiv 
hnndftrts, by Athanasiiis Zimniwmiinn, S. J,, 
Kegensburg, 1893, This tB not so full a bio- 
graphy as oould he desired, but it ie the most 
accurate hitherto publinhed.] J. O 


J'ld ward, who wore older than himself, tonic 
M'H in the church, th. Int tor bt v<un hit;; arch- 
(leMe.i)iiof Hiclnmmil, I n 1 ^01 Rteliani tMCMpnl 
iibrom! with his brother Ktlnmiul, I'Yeueh 
writers, who uppnrently him* confounded him 

with Porkin \Vni'liecl(,iToneouNly Ntute that; 
, i i j i i* t ti i \ i t i & 

he entered llie vservieo ot \ iwrli'M VIU ul 

France HM oarly as I I'JlJ, the year in which 
Henry Vll bowii^'oil nonlo}ne; that. Henrv> 
on the conclusion of peaooyOoiminoed bin nnr* 
rondcr ; and that, though tbls wan refused, ho 
\vns compelled to quit. Knwni ( IMiniMNNH, 

POLE, RTCHABD BH li (A Um\ pro- 
tender to the crown, younger brothor of 
Edmund Pole PCL v.] and of John Pole fq, y,l 
was fifth aon of J olm, second duko of Suffolk 
[q. v*] Two other brothers, Humphrey aucl 

nay, equally falMely, that. Kin$ tlharlcM 
him a. pension of Mnvetii < hnu.-.aud <VHM. In t ho 
parliament which met in .January loO-l !w sva?4 
attainted, nlon^ with 1'Mmund uwl another 
brother, William, lie IM eallrd tit tlu act. 
1 Richard l*ole,lateof Win}viield inttm county 
of Sulloll^Hquiro/ while MM brother JM tlpMi?- 
natcd Williatn Pole of Win^lield, Iviu^bt 
(AW&' ttf f*tti'l, vi, Mn) 

In March 1MH he joiiu^d hm hrother I'M- 
niund at. Aix-ln-t'luipi'lh', inul wan |rft t-hero 
by Kdmund an a hu;<Ut};<< or {.ecnrity lor tlm 
piiyment of KdrntindVi d*ltH in the town, 
Tlin latte.rV c.rcditurM, tumble to obtain pay- 
ment, rendered iJichnrtlVi lile!e,ntfd 
threatened to deliver hint HP to tlonry ViL 
lti<;hard f however, manu^'oil to alt met tbo 
nympathy of 1 1m mmiilicent Mmrd de la 
Marcki IJinho]) of Me^e t who contrived to pt, 
liim out of his pcribntM mtuatin, and bo 
arrived Homewbiit- later in the year nt. Itndu 
in Ihm^ary. Henry VH'tunt undm r tHitdorH 
to LadtMlmiM VI to demaml bin fiurremler f 
hut that, kin^ not only refused to delivei 1 
him, but #ave him a pension t f W, N*euetinn f 
vol. L No.KHi^uml t'ttL tteiuy r///,vl,u. 
No, HUJJ n; cf, KW.IH, A**//*v#, *inl Her, 

i, Ml), 

In 150U Uiehardj HKo bin two lu'otbem 
Kdmutid and William, who weivthcn in tho 
Tower, wn.H e,\reptrd iVtuu the ^cncrid par* 
dim grntd at. the um%sion of llenrv VII l ( 
and in I51^,wbrn Mn^liintl nml I'Vitnci* w^ro 
at war, Lonin XJ1 rret^ninetl bitn an Itiug of 
Kiij^lnudf ffi vin)4' him n pension ot*ix 
crownrt, Toward* the eto^oof ibnt 
aommundtMl a hotly of Uornutn fund? 

during which hU crtrnpany HUHtuined wow 
H<n'M'o lossen than any other, In thin cam* 
paitfn he and the tiltcvulier Uayard wem 
warm friends, and tmtV**r*d f^reut privntionM 
tog'other (* (^bronique di* Hnynrtl/ |>. tO^i iu 
BTIOUOK), In tbenprin^ of' lMJl, witen bm 
brother Edmund WH jmt tudenth in Midland, 
ho HHHtuned the title of DuK** of Sullolk, and 
hecauio an avowed cbumtujt tf the crown oC 
Engluui Though hin prt'tituniuiw wvro ntit 




formidable, discharged soldiers of the garri- 
son of Tournay (then in English hands) 
threatened to join him (Off 1. Henry VIII, 
vol. ii, Nos. W5-6). It was reported, too, 
in Spain that he had been given the command 
of a French lleet. Later in the year he led a | 
company of six thousand men against the 
English at the siege of Thorouanne. In 1514 
Louis gave him twelve thousand hindsknechts 
' to keep Normandy, and also to enter into 
England and to conquer the same' (PIA.LL, 
Chronicle, p. 568, ed. liillis). lie conducted 
them to St. Malo in Brittany, to embark, it 
was supposed, for Scotland. Their behaviour 
in France had been so riotous that the people 
were glad to get rid of them. But peace was 
concluded with England before their depar- 
ture. Henry VIII liad insisted on Richard's 
surrender. To that Louts would not consent, 
but he desired Richard to leave France, and 
gave him letters to the municipal authorities 
of Metz in Lorraine (an imperial city), re- 
questing thorn to give him a good reception. 
He entered Metz on 2 Sept. 1514, with a 
company of sixty horsemen and a, guard of 
honour given him by the Duke of Lorraine. 
The town gave him a present of wine and 
oats, for his horses, with a temporary safe- 
conduct renewable at convenience. 

When Louis XII died (1 Jan. 1515), 
Francis I continued Pole's allowance, and he 
remained for some years at Metz. English 
ambassadors organised conspiracies for his 
capture. In February 1516 an Englishman 
who had been arrested confessed that he 
had been sent by Henry VIII to kill him. 
During a visit to Francis I at Lyons in 
March he obtained, it would seem, a distinct 
promise from the French king to support 
his title to the crown of England at a con- 
venient opportunity (Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, Nos. 1711, 1973, 2113). In 
the summer he paid a visit to Robert de la 
Marck at Florange. On Christmas day he 
again left Metz secretly, along 1 with the Duke 
of Gueldres, who had come thither in disguise. 
Proceeding to Paris, he visited the French 
Icing by night. He returned to Metz on 
17 Feb. 1516-17. Spies employed by Eng- 
land tried hard to discover his plans. Be- 
tween June and August, accompanied by 
several young gentlemen of Metz, he paid 
visits to Milan and Venice. 

Early in 1518 there were rumours that 
Francis I was about to send him into Eng- 
land to dispute Henry's title to the throne. 
But between 8 May and 24 Oct. he spent 
most of his time in Lombardy. Although 
peace was made between England and France 
on 2 Oct., it was reported to Wolsey that 
X^rancis favoured ' White Rose,' as Pole was 

called, more than ever, and had augmented 
Ids stipend. 

Pole had hitherto resided in Metz in a fine 
pleasure-house named Passe Temps, which a 
chevalier named Claude Baudoiche had lent 
him. In February 1519 the owner desired 
to resume possession. Thereupon the chapter 
of Metz gave him for life a mansion called 
La Haulte-Pierre, near St, Simphorien, at 
a low rent on his undertaking to rebuild it. 
This he did in magnificent style. His tastes 
were luxurious, and he initiated horse-racing- 
at Metz; but after losing money in the 
pastime he gave it up. 

After the death of the Empeyor Maxi- 
milian, in January 1519, Francis I sent Pole 
to Prague to influence Louis, the young king 
of Bohemia, and his tutor Sigismund, king 
of Portugal, in favour of his candidature 
for the imperial crown (Colbert MS. 385 iu 
Bibliothoque Nationale, Paris). In Septem- 
ber some disturbances caused by an intrigue 
which he had carried on with a citizen's 
wife led him to leave Metz for Toul, whither 
liis paramour escaped after him. There he 
remained during the next three years in the 
house of the cardinal of Lorraine. His com- 
pany of landsknechts was dismissed. 

In 1522, when England and France were 
again at war, Francis contemplated sending 
Pole to invade England. At the close of 
1522 he was in Paris with Francis, and fre- 
quently rode through the streets. The French 
king showed like courtesies to John Stewart, 
duke of Albany [q.v.], the regent of Scotland, 
who was arranging an attack on England from, 
the north, In 1523 Pole and Albany went 
to Brittany to make preparations for a joint 
invasion of England. They left the French, 
coast together, and Albany reached Scot- 
land at the end of September, when he an- 
nounced that he had parted at sea on Mon- 
day (21 Sept.) with his * cousin, the Duke of 
Suffolk/ who was about to carry out an in- 
vasion of England. Nothing further is re * 
corded of Pole's movements, and the inva- 
sion did not take place. 

In the spring of 1524 he served in the 
campaign in Picardy, and writing to Louise 
of Savoy, the mother of Francis I, from the 
camp near Therouanne, he declared that all 
he had in the world was owing to her. On 
24 Feb. 1625 he was killed, fighting by the 
French king's side, at the battle of Pavia. 
In a picture of the battle, preserved at the 
Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, his lifeless 
body is represented in the thick of the com- 
bat with the inscription* Le Due de Susfoc dit 
Blance Rose.' When the news of his death 
reached Metz, the cathedral chapter ordered 
an anniversary celebration for his soul, 



[Hall's Chronicle ; Dugdulo's JJaronap^; Sand- 
for.r* Genealogical History ; Nupior'a Swyn- 
combe and Kwlmo; Lottors and Papons of 
Kidiard ill and Henry VH (Koils Ser.) ; lUliHH 
Letters, 3rd er. vol. i. ; CalomUrH, VonoUnn, 
vole, i. and ii,, Henry VIII, rols, i-iv. ; Bunch s 
England untor don Tudors, vol. i. ; Journal ot 
Philippe de Vignoulles, in Bibliothofc d< hto- 
mrisehon Verrins in SUittguvt, vol. xxiv. A 
pamphlet by F. de Robort ( Un pcnsioniuiirodes 
Rois de Franco a Mcta). publwhwt at Namy m 
1878, is full of inaccuracies, but of somo value m 

local matters.] * ^* 

POLE, THOMAS (1763-1829), (maker 

and physician, bora on 13 Oct. 175.M in Vhila- 

cMphia, was youngest sou of John Polo 

(1705-1755), a native of Wivoliscombo, 

Somerset, who emigrated to ,New Juwoy. 

His mother's maiden name wa Jfcuchul 

Smith of Burlington. Thomas wan brought; 

up as a member of the Society of Friends, 

In 1775 lie visited bis relative in Mnglatul, 

and, with the object of attending Frionds' 

meetings, he travelled somo 6,050 miles 

through England and Walo8,chinlly on hows- 

back, during the next two or thre,o years. In 

1777 he studied modicino with Dr. Joseph 

Kickman at Maidmihoad, thenco passed t,o 

Reading-, for the same purpose, and in 1780 

removed to Falmouth, on blooming assistant 

to Dr. J. Fox. lie aettlud in London in 17HI , 

was admitted a member of the Collego of 

Surgeons there, and received tho dogmi of 

M.D. from St. Andrews Univomty in 1801, 

Iti 1789 he was made a member of tho 

American Philosophical Society, of which 

Benjamin Franklin was then president. 1 1 is 

practice was mainly confined to obatotricft 

and to the diseases of -women and children, 

He lectured on midwifery, and, being a nkil f ul 

draughtsman^ recorded inHtructivo' can8 in 

sketches, which were engraved* 

In 1790 he publihed his valuable f Ana* 
tomical Instructor 1 (1 790), an illuHtration of 
the modern and moat approved methods of 
preparing and preserving the di Hermit purt 
of the human body for purj)08tiH of study, 
with copperplates drawn l>y himself, A new 
edition appeared in 1813. Pole rmnovod to 
Bristol in 1802, and soon acquired nn nxfcou* 
fiive practice, There he continued hit* modkal 
lectures, among his pupils boing Jamos Oowius 
Prichard [q, y.], and he also lecturod on 
chemistry and other sciences. 

Pole throughput his life devoted much of 
his time to ministerial work in tho Society of 
Friends, and took part in many philanthropic 
schemes, He helped William Smith in 1 8 1 2 
to establish the first adult schools for poor 
persons of neglected education in England, 
and wrote in their support in 1813. In 18U 

ho iwmml an account of UHMT origin and 
protfr.wH, lor which James Montgomery wrntu 
a poom. Ho.nwrd Barton, tho quulter pnot, 
bow tiOHtimrmy in IH'JU to I'olo'n \vilo Hyin* 
piithii'H and tolernnt viowH. DeMpito tho 
Htrict.ncHH tlum prevalent in the Soeiety of 
Krionds, a lov( of art remained with htm to 
tho last., and found expression in nimty water- 
colour drawing of lamlnnvpo and aivhitec- 
tuns in monotint H aud silhoitettt^s. Ho diid 
at. Bristol on UHHi'pl. 1H^,>. In 17SI 1m had 
married Mlixabet.h Hnrrett of Olmltimham ; 
four children survived him. 

Besides tlw works noticed, Polo published 
'Anatomical Description of a Double UtoniH 
and Vagina/ -ito f London, \7W, 

s niaimiWiript. juurnnlH, tliarion, and orrn- 
ro ; priviittuntoriimtion.l k T, W, 

POLK Km WILLIAM tin i,\, railed in 
Knglish \Vn.u.\M ATTM !N>ot {</, UlUO), barou 
of the tisnlMMjuor and nuMvhitut, was second 
son of Sir William <le la Pole, a mcivhani- of 
Ravensnr Odd {l{avoiinidt) and Hull, who 
is described as a Iwight in hV,H and died 
about 1JWU, having made hi-4 will in Decem- 
ber I.'VJK. Tho father married Klona, daughter 
of John Rotenhoryng, 'men-hunt of Hull/ 
by whom ho had t hro nuns. Uielwrd, William* 

v ' * r 

and John. 

The eldest brother, Sm l\iru.\iu> un \.\ 
l*orwl//. UHH), was, in L'Uil, attorney fnrtbo 
king's butler at. ! I nil {( Vow AW/* ? AV//vr/v/ / ;, 
p, H7) t and a niuinperuor tor rertaiu nter- 
(thantsof Luberlt (/A. np, 17>, ISO), lie wan 
collector tr the iMwituiw at. Hull in lll'JO 
A^UHAVI^ /^rA ?IW/^ t iv. llJor*), and wns 
,1*. for that, town in the parliaments of 
May I.'iJi'J mid September L1l'7 t M'///i*/i ^/* 
Member* t\f Purlin wmtt |p, 00,70). Tbrougli 

tlu Iting's ibif butler in lii*J7 t nd, iri eon- 
junction with his hrothnt* William, obtitintnl 
the otlice of ganger of wine* tbr(*ugbout th 
rtNilm for life on t!:i Muv l.'UJit, nud ti Kimilnr 
grant of the iMiMotim oj 1 Hull on MHV UWK) 
(J*(ttent Iht/lxt Ihhmnl ///, li$^7 !JO, itp^ 

Mi, niK, I;KJ 4, pp. SK> UK The two 

brothers are frequently mentioned ns <td 
vum'.'mg money for the iiing, After the fall 
of Mortimer they lost tlu* post of ganger of 
wimw, but Sir Hicharti tumtinued to IH* obtef 
butlur until UIJJM ( /A. pp, 7(, j;u t M I ). Ht* 
was aguanliau of tin* p*n< for Uorbyshins 
and wrvtil on a cotutttiMMitin of oyor fttul 
termiimr in LHirewfer^bire in IM'/lM. pp, 
JOf, Jtt)i), About l.'MH h<^ M*itHH tu hnvo 
movml to Lomioniiimi \\\ his will and else* 
wlumi is styled a ntiawi of London, lit* 
was ktiigbttul in 1,'HU, and, dying n I Aug 
1 '*- <lrt at uttf tutiuur of Miltou, v --'*-" * 




shire, was buried in the Trinity Chapel at 
Hull. His will is printed in 'Test amenta 
Eboracensia/ i. 7-9. By his wife Joan he 
had two sons, William and John, and three 
daughters: Joan, wife of Ralph Basset of 
Weldon, Northamptonshire ; Elizabeth, a 
nun ; and Margaret. His son William (1316- 
1366), who is carefully to be distinguished 
from his uncle, married Margaret, daughter 
of Edmund Peverel, and held property at 
Brington and Ashby, Northamptonshire. He 
died on 26 June 1366, leaving a son John, 
who married Joan, daughter of John, lord 
Cobham; by her he was father of Joan, 
baroness Cobham and wife of Sir John Old- 
castle [q. vj (NAPIER, Hist. Notices of 
Sioymombe and JSwelme, pp. 262-70). The 
arms of this branch of the family were 
azure, two bars wavy, or. 

Sir William de la Pole, the baron of the 
exchequer, first learnt the business of a 
merchant at Ravenser Odd, but afterwards 
moved to Hull, and is mentioned as a mer- 
chant of that town in 1319 and 1322 (Cal. 

, ^ r-r. _ - r j ,_______...-. -^ 'JUJL * 

He was associated with his elder brother as 
ganger of wines in 1327, and in supplying 
money for the royal service. During the 
regency of Mortimer and Isabella they ad- 
vanced large sums to the government : 
4,OOOJ. on 12 July 1327 for the abortive 
Scots campaign, and 2,000 six weeks later 
as wages for the Netherland mercenaries, 
who had landed to effect Edward II's depo- 
sition. As repayment they received the 
issues of customs in London and other prin- 
cipal ports. They also received a grant of 
the manor of Myton in Yorkshire for their 
good services in 1330, and on 2 Aug. were 
appointed joint wardens of Hull. On the fall 
of Mortimer their position was endangered, 
and they lost the office of gaugers of wine. 
But they kept aloof from politics, and their 
wealth insured their pardon. On 15 July 
1331 William de la Pole, then described as 
the king's yeoman and butler, was granted 
repayment for his advances to Queen Phi- 
lippa out of the customs of Hull (Cal. 
Patent Rolls, Edward III, p. 107). In 1332 
lie entertained the king at Hull, and ob- 
tained from Edward the title of mayor for 
the chief magistrate of the town, being him- 
self the first to fill the office, which he re- 
tained for four years till 1335. Pole repre- 
sented Hull in the parliaments of March 
1332, September 1334, May and September 
1336, and February 1338 (Return of Mem- 
bers of Parliament). During 1333 and the 
two following years he was employed on 
various negotiations with Flanders, with 
which, as a wool merchant, ke had commer- 

cial relations (F&dera, ii. 862, 872, 875, 907- 
908; Cal. Patent Rolls, Edward J/Z, 1330-4, 
p. 479). 

On 29 Sept. 1335 he was appointed custos 
of the tables of exchange, established to 
prevent the export of gold and silver, and 
receiver of the old and new customs of Hull 
and Boston. In consideration of the latter 
appointment he undertook to pay the ex- 
penses of the royal household at 10Z. a day 
(Abbrev. Rot. Qrig. ii. 97, 100 ; Fcedera, ii. 
922). In 1337 he was charged to build a 
galley for the king at Hull, and on 1 Sept. 
of this year was associated with Reginald 
de Conduit in purchasing wool to be sent 
abroad for the king (ib. ii. 958, 988). On 
14 Nov. 1338 Edward gave him an acknow- 
ledgment for 11,000 advanced, and for 
7,500J. for which he had become bound ; and 
this same year, in consideration of other 
moneys advanced by Pole, granted him va- 
rious manors in Nottinghamshire and York- 
shire, including the lordship of Holderness, 
together with the rank of knight-banneret, 
the reversion of one thousand marks in rent 
in France when the king recovered Ids rights 
there, and the houses in Lombard Street, 
London, which had belonged to the l Societas 
Bardorum ' (ib. ii. 1065 ; Abbrev. Rot. Orig. ii. 
123, 128, 142 ; Chron. de Melsa, iii. 48). 

The ' Chronicle of Meaux ' also states that 
Pole's appointment as baron of the exche- 
quer was in reward for the same services. 
The date of his appointment as second baron 
was 26 Sept. 1339, and as one of the judges 
he was present in the parliaments of October 
1339 and April 1340 (Rolls of Parliament, 
ii. 103, 1125). He was a commissioner of 
array for Yorkshire in 1339. During this and 
the following year he was much employed 
by the king in commercial and financial 
business. In 1339 he was a hostage for the 
payment of the king's expenses at Antwerp 
(KNIGHTON, col. 2573). In 1340 he under- 
took to obtain wool for the king's aid, and 
to advance three thousand marks (Rolls of 
Parliament, ii. 110 a, 118 b, 121 b ; Fcedera, 
ii. 1072, 1085X But his conduct of affairs 
did not satisfy the king, and when Edward 
returned in haste to London on 30 Nov. 1340, 
William de la Pole, his brother Richard, 
and Sir John dePulteney [q.v.]were among 
the merchants who were arrested (Mirai- 
MTJTH, p. 117). Pole's lands were taken into 
the king's hands and he was for a short 
time imprisoned at Devizes Castle ( ATTNGHBB, 
French Chron. of London, pp. 84-5, Camden 
Soc, ; Chron. de Melsa, iii. 48). The par- 
ticular charge against Pole arose out of Ms 
commission with Reginald de Conduit three 
years before; but though judgment was 




given against them in tho exchequer, tho 
whole process ww annulled in tho parlia- 
ment of July 1844 (IMA of ' Arr/www/, 
ii ir4). Sir William do la lolo aurvivod . 
to enioy the king 1 ** favour for moro than 
twenty years, but ho does not atfiun appear 
in a prominent position. About. U'M) no 
founded a hospital, tho Mtiiaon Ihmi, out- 
side Hull, which he had at first intended to 
bo a coll of Moans, hut afterward** converted 
to ft college for six prioHtw, Iu tlus last, year 
of his lifo ho obtained liccmwi to (ihanffo it 
to a house for nuns of tho order of St. Olaru, 
and eventually, in U370, hw won Michael 
established it an a Carthusian priory (C/wui. 
de, Melaa, i. 170; PUUDALH, MwutAtittm An- 
fflicamm, vi. 19-22). Polo died at Hull on 
21 April or 22 June 1800, and was buried, 


a*, iV/pILl >' -'-- ------,- . 

like his brother, in the Trinity Uhapid (ol. 
NAPIKB, M/yweowfa, &c., p. 284 ). HIH will w 
printed in ' Testamimta KborueeuHia/ i, 70-7, 
lie married Katherirw, daughter of Sir 
Walter de Norwich [q, v,], who survived 
him, and, dying in I3H1, wan buried at tho 
Charterhouse, Hull; her will is printed in 
< Testaments Hboraamsiii, 1 v, 110, .Pole, had 
four sons: Michael, earl of Suffolk [q. v.|; 
Walter and Tluun at* (d. Itttil ),both oi whom 
were Imights; and Kdmimd (1.W-H17), 
who was captain of OalaiH in IW7, when he 
refused admission to hm brother M inline 1 lest 
he should bo found faint) to his trust, The 
Edmund who fought at Agiueourt was pro- 
bably his grandson (WAMUNCUIAM, Jtith 
Anffl. il 169; NicoTAfl, Ayinnmrt) pp. I'-'H, 
354; Arc/apologia, iii. 18), 1'oits had also two 
daughters : Blanche, who married Richard, 
first lord le Scrope of Bolton [q. v,l ; and 
Margaret, married Robert Neville of Hornby, 
Lancashire. Sir William de la Volute amiH 
were azure, a fos between throe leojjardH* 
faces or, The * Chronicle of MHHUX ' (iii, 48) 
describes him as * second to no inerttuiint of 
England.' He is momorabiw iu Knglish com- 
mercial history as the first merchant who 
became the founder of A great noble* bonne, 
His own and his wifo'w ulUfriiw, from tho 

POLE, WlliUAM I>K i.A, fourth 
nnd first UUKM oi' SIM-M-'OLK (l.'V,)(- 
wec.ond wn of Miebuel (\<< la l*ol<s t 
oarl \(\. v. |, WUH born on 10 Ort. li)0 at 
Cotton in SullnlU (NAPU-iu, pp. 47, 0-1 r>). 
r vet I iu the French enmpnigu of Ml5 t 
"4 invalided hotu< after t-hn .sie^o of 

r (//>, p. -IS). HIM fut-her died befuro 

Ilnrilettr, 'and hw elder brother, tin* third 
eurl, was Hluin at Agiueourt oji ilft ()<(-., and 
thus William de la Pole been we Marl of 
SuiVolk when only nineteen, Sutlolk nerved 
in tin* expedition of III'/ wil-h thirty men-iit.-* 
aruiwaud ninety relnrw( tfmh^ A pp. p,i!07) 
and in the enriy part of 1 1 IS wmumploved in 
t,lu reduet.ion of 1 he < \tteni in. (hi ll! Mttrrh 
MlH he was^ranied (he lord^liipsof Ihunbyo 
and Briquebei' (IlAitnv, /*/, AVirw, p, MI A). 
During the Nummer ho Nerved under Hum* 
phreyof ( Uoueester at the nie^e of( 'liMrhour^, 
an<l/whon that town fell in Oeioher, Aveut 
to join the Kintf before lloueu (Chrwift/ttr 
1l f 

tomb in the church of tho Holy Trinity, 
Hull, are engraved in G ough'tt l Sepulchral 
Monuments/ i, 122. 

[Information supplied tyr Profcifior T, P* 
Tout; Ohronicon da Motoa, i. 170, in. 17, 48 
(Bolls Set.) ; Bymer'a Foeclera, Record <d, ; liollH 
of PatlUtnent ; Calendarn of Olo HollH t Kl* 
watd II, and Patent Bolls, Edward III; To8ta* 
menta Eboracensia (Surtoes Soc,); Bu^dalo'H 
Baronage, ii. 182 ; Frost's HtBt, of Hull, pp, 81, 
85; TickelVs Hist, oi? Hull, p. 21; Poulon' 
Holderness, i, 66, 63, 64; JOSH'S Jud^a of 
England, iii* 478-81 ; Napior'ft Hist. Noticunof 
Swyueomtoe and Ewelme, passim*] Q, L K* 

I'AUI-J, *svV//f <>f fawn, p. 1 1 ), On ID May 
Mil) lie wHNMUpoiittetl ndtuirnl of Nttrmtuidy, 
in June eaptivut oi' Pont-orwotumid in Au^tmti 
eaptaiu of Mantes nnd A\nmrheM { Kiv/**m t 

I i\ f f J ** ^ ftfF***fft f J f WB W* ^ 

I)OYM-)). lie WUM u nmervHlur of the trueo, 
\vith iM'nuee on tT/' June I1;MM / ( W^m t ix, 
HHtJ), nnd tltiriuKthe uutuutn served nt thn 
Hie^eofMehin(frVW^,p, 1 1 i}, When Henry V 
took Mat heriue tit Kti^Und in I'^ehnmry MiiJ, 
Suflolk WHH one of the t'omnwuderM left, in 
dutr^e of Normandy, nnd tn 10 1'eb. wart 
named <ine <tf the etWHefvatow oi' the trueu 
with Brittany {/'Wm/ x, <U, Ul 15iJ), 
Suilblk WUH matle u knight f th (Barter 
on U May 14*J1 in MueeeH^mu tti Thoman^ 
dttk( nf (Uart^u'e (IUii<TX f M?)w*ntil* *if tfo 
(htrttTt p dviii), When Henry eatno trnek 
to Fraiuus SuiVolk jointnl the royal army 
(Mi.MHAM, f7/ //wnW Qnuttti p, Hl^); 
on t?H >Sept,. he, WAN njjpoiuted wtmlen ot 
tho lower nuuv.hen *f Normandy (f, lUi*!*, 
pp, 10H 0), 

After tlie deatli of Henry V, John f Hed- 
ford, on 10 Oit, 14'J'J, appointed Kutlolk 
pfuardinn of thn (lotentw (tytrt*n t Mtwt *SV* 
Mwkrl,\* U7) In I4UU Suilulk nerved in 
th important cuntimt^n in Ohawpatfiw UH 
B^cotid in <?nmmttna to ThomuM *l Muittti** 
cutrt, uarl of HalUbury [u* vJ In Jum 
14 % 24 f h laid WMJ<I to lvryla-(*haitHHet*, 
(Jndw Budtorii he wan prwwnt tit thi* nur- 
rtndw of Ivry an I ft Aug., iut*l when Hed- 
furd full htttik on Kvreiu, WHK d4VMptitt*hd 
with BaliHimry to wat^h the iVeneh t 
Brotmtil. Nxi day HuiVolk neut n**WK that 
thn Vrtmch wrt^ holding t!n*r ^rountl. Bl 
ford at onw advaucuu f uttd on the 17 til 



his victory at Verneuil. On 26 Sept. 
Suffolk was made governor of the district 
round Chartres, and during October captured 
Senonches, Nogent-le-Rotrou, and Rochefort 
(BBATTCOTTKT, ii. 20 n. 4). In November 
lie was at Paris for the festivities held by 
Philip of Burgundy (FENIN, p. 225). From 
Paris he was sent by Bedford to endea- 
vour to arrange the quarrel between Hum- ' 
phrey of Gloucester and the Duke of Bra- 
Bant. On his way he was nearly killed by 
an accident near Amiens (STEVENSON, ii. 400 ; 
as to his alleged complicity in a plot of 
Gloucester against Burgundy see BEATT- 
COtriiT, ii. 658-60). In 1425 Suffolk was' 
employed as lieutenant-general of Caen, the 
Cotentin, and Lower Normandy, and as con- 
stable of the army of the Earl of Salisbury. 
In May he was detached to direct the siege 
of Mont St. Michel by land and sea (Chron. 
Mont St. Michel, 1^201, 213, 244 ;>> DupONT, 
Ilistoire du Cotentin et ses lies, ii. 551-3). 
In the early part of 1426 Suffolk, who was 
about this time created Earl of Dreux, made 
a raid into Brittany as far as Rennes. Shortly 
afterwards his lieutenant, Sir Thomas Remp- 
ston [q. v.], defeated Arthur de Richemont 
at St. James de Beuvron on 6 March. Suf- 
folk came up a few days later, and, after some 
negotiations, concluded a truce with Brittany 
to last till the end of June. Almost imme- 
diately afterwards he resigned his command 
in Normandy to the Earl of Warwick (Moisr- 
BTRBLET, iv. 284-6). Suffolk took an active 
part in the warfare of the following year. 
On 26 May he laid sieg-e to Vendome, and 
on 1 J uly joined Warwick before Montargis, 
the siege of which place was raised by 
the French after it had lasted two months. 

In the summer of 1428 Suffolk served 
under Salisbury in the campaign which led 
up to the siege of Orleans. After Salis- 
bury's death he was appointed to the chief 
command on 13 Nov. (ib. iv. 360 ; RAMSAY, i. 
384). Under his direction the siege pros- 
pered so well that in February 1429 Orleans 
and the French cause seemed doomed. The 
appearance of Jeanne d'Arc changed the as- 
pect of affairs. In May the siege was raised, 
and Suffolk fell back to Jargeau. In that 
town he was besieged by Jeanne and the Duke 
of Alen$on, and was forced to surrender on 
12 June. One story represents Suffolk as 
refusing to yield himself prisoner till he had 
dubbed his would-be captor knight. Ac- 
cording to another, he would yield only to 
Jeanne as the bravest woman on earth 
(Proefo de Jeanne d'Arc, vol. iv. ; BBATT- 
OOXTBT, ii. 220, iv. 148 ; VALLET DE Vm- 
VILLB, ii. 83). Suffolk's brother, Sir John 
la Pole, was taken prisoner with him ; 

a third brother, Alexander, was slain. Suf- 
folk was the prisoner of the Comte de Dunois ; 
he obtained his freedom after a short time, 
though he had to sell his lordship of Brique- 
bec to raise the money for his ransom, amount- 
ing to 20,000/., and give his brother Thomas 
as a hostage (Chron. Mo?it 8t. Michel, i. 
156 n.; Rolls of Parliament, v. 17 '6; NAPIER, 
p. 317). On 15 March 1430 Suffolk was re- 
appointed to the command at Caen and in 
the Cotentin (Chron. Mont St. Michel, i. 292), 
In July he besieged and captured the castle 
of Aumale (MONSTEELBT, iv. 370) ; and after- 
wards took part in the siege of Compiegne 
(Proces de Jeanne d?Arc, v. 73). With this 
Suffolk's active participation in the war pro- 
bably came to an end ; for, though he re- 
mained captain of Avranches and was cap- 
tain of the islet of Tombelaine from 1432 
to 1437 and of Regneville in 1438, he exer- 
cised his authority by means of lieutenants 
(Chron. Mont St. Michel, i. 307, ii. 28, 44, 
111 ; STEVENSON, ii. 291, 293). It is, how- 
ever, commonly stated that Suffolk took part 
in the war in 1431, and attended Henry's 
coronation at Paris on 17 Dec. But he was 
certainly in England in November of that 
year, and probably some months earlier 
(NAPIER, p. 51 ; ANSTIS, Register of the Gar- 
ter, i. 108, where it is said that Suffolk could 
not attend on 22 April 1431 through illness). 
Suffolk himself said that he ' continually 
abode in the war seventeen year without 
coming home or seeing of this land ' (Rolls 
of Parliament, v. 176). But in this state- 
ment, if correctly reported, he was clearly in 

The remaining years of Suffolk's life were 
occupied with political affairs at home. He 
was present in the royal council on 10 
and on 28 Nov. 1431, and on 30 Nov. was 
formally admitted a member of the council 
and took the oath (NICOLAS, Proc. and Or- 
dinances, iv. 101, 104, 108). His marriage 
about this time to the widowed Countess of 
Salisbury inclined him to connection with 
the Beauforts. His long experience of the 
war in France had possibly convinced him 
of the wisdom of yeace. If he had formed 
such a conviction, it was no doubt strength- 
ened by his association with the captive 
Duke of Orleans, who was assigned to his 
custody on 21 July 1432 (ib. iv. 124). Next 
year Suffolk was made steward of the royal 
household, and was working actively for 
peace when Hue de Lannoy came to Eng- 
land as ambassador from Philip of Burgundy. 
Lannoy and his colleagues met Orleans at 
Suffolk's house in London (STEVENSON, ii. 
218-40), and Suffolk seems to have worked 
I with Orleans in forwarding the negotia* 

m ___ ?\ 


tions. In 1435 the ponce nugotialionrt had 
so far proffrousocl that n, nr.l uonirnwH WUH 

1 i ,. _ 1 i3..rt*..l 


1ititin# it. But SufloIU, who wiw 

^anlod by t-ho pwpli an t h most nmpoumhlo 
of Houry'n ivdviHirj* aflor (Ordinal Beaufort, 


VMljlVHAlw*' *v*w*-**"" " \~ / r ,, 

and moat of his colleaffHOH came, to Arras tor 
the comrrMB on SJ5 July, Itouwfort, jomnd 
them a little later, Tho En^ltoU wr not 
prepared to yield to tho Vnmfth demands, 
and withdrew from t,lie csontfre*M on Sopt. 
Their withdrawal wan almost immediately 
followed by the reconciliation of Burgundy 
to the French king* and by the death ot John 
of Bedford, 

The double eveutchangod thn wholo uflpocl 1 . 
of English politics. For tho timo it throw 
increased authority into tho hauda of Hum- 
phrey of Gloucester and the warlike party, 
Thereupon Suffolk gradually bwimo tho chief 
opponent of Gloucester, and the rouwimtor 
of Suffolk's life centroH in Ui rivalry with 
the Icing's uncle. For tliw tim tho war feeling 
was too strong to bo resisted, and Suffolk wa 
one of the coimmmderfl appointed to go ovor 
to Franco in December 14)55. ttio.luml, duko 
of York, was to have the chief command, but 
it was not until May MM that, ho and Suf- 
folk crowed over to Franco, With Kiduird 
Neville, earl of Salisbury [q. W], they wore 
commissioned to treat for p<jae ( JPWwi, x. 
642). No practical result, enmo from the 
negotiations, and Suffolk servud daring June 
and July at the defence of Caluk In A pril 
1437 there was some talk of fltmdin# him 
on a fresh embassy to France (Nit!or,A8, 
Proc. Privy Ctanftft, v, 7, 8). Meanwhile 
he was nominated to many posta of veHpmi- 
sibility at home. On 28 April 1487 ho WUH ap- 
pointed steward of the Duchy of Lancaster 
north of the Trent. On 1 Fob. 1 440 he was 
chief justice of North Walen and OhoHter, 
and of South Wales. On 17 Fob, 1441 ho 
was directed to make inquiry into the royal 
lordships in the county of Monmoutb, and ou 
23 July as to tho government of Norwich 
(DOTLB). In this same year also ho wiw ow 
of the commlflsionera to inquire into tlui 
charges of sorcery against Eleanor Gohham, 
wife of Humphrey of Gloucustor (DAVTBH, 
JBngKah Chronicle, p. 58). In 144-2 a marriage 
was projected for the young king with a 
daughter of the Count of Armagnac; but 
Suffolk was instrumental iti defeating the 
project, which was favoured by Gloucester, 
He resolved that the king should marry 
Margaret of Anjou. 

The match with Margaret was suggested 
by the JDuke of Orleans, who had been re- 
leased in 1440. From the same quarter, it 
would seem, came the suggestion that Suf- 
folk should be the chief ambassador in nego* 

that bin luvoptuneo of the 
_...: bo dangorouM both to himself tmd to 
the policy which ho Iwd ut heart. At. a later 
timo ho WIIN charged with having hud a cor- 
rupt interest iti the release of OrloanM (cf,, 
however, Bi-JAWotruT, iv. 100;*,), and it. in 
clear that ho hud already incurred HOIUO un- 
popularity, hi a council hold on 1 Fob, 
1414 (NtVoi.AM, /*w. /V/ry (*w;ir// f vi. H'J- 
, 4 tf>, whore the date i wrongly given) SulVolk 
himself urged tho objoettoiw to IUM appoint- 
ment. Thorto \vro* finally ovorrulod, but 
at hi own retfuent a forinal indemnity wan 
granted on *JO Keb, exonerating bim from 
all blame for what ho might do in the matter 
of tho poiuio or marriage ( /'Wm* xi. &J). 
HuiVolk'rt iMnbftwiy landed at Hurilour on 
,1*1 Mareh, On*S April e*uforoueoH wero 
opened at Vondotn<sand a woolt Inter SuUblk 
ami bin roUougnoM joined Orloann at liloiH. 
Theneo they nailed down tho Loire to Town, 
and on 17 April woropronoatodtot 'liarlos VII 
at bin ctwllo of MontilH-bvM-TourM, It MOOU 
bocumiM'b'iirtbnt t.enu foraponuanent poaee, 
<w)uld not bo agreed upon, but a truce \vtrn 

Oniii May Margaret WHM formally betrothed 
ti> Sufloilt an Honry'H tinny, tbe' truro wiw 
HtgmMl ou tbe &Hth,aw! oiitbottext daySul- 
folk nturtod homo, HU prtigrenn wan ou 
continued triumphant |IPC*MSWOH nud when 
bo entered Kouon on H June ho WUM butted 
\vith raptuft>tiw nboutn <f *Noelt Nooll* 
Suffolk reuehetl London on L*7 June^and 
on the mnw day the tvueo WUH ratitlod 
vi-JNHNf| i. W*t 7U f vol. ii, pt, i* prefaeo 
xxxvi sxxviii ; /'Wwr, xi, oU 07 ; 
...,..., i'u oH <Jt>), His HueeoHM WHH im* 
the \\irn eomplete $ and WHN marlnnl bv bin 
promotion to a mar^uinato on 14 Sept, 
(Thw in the <lute of bin jmtout, tout ho in HO 
styled in tho \tw\w Roll on 17 Aug.) Ou 
iiri (h*t, he wa tUMtrimtod to briug homo tho 
king*H brido, I tin wit** wont with bim M t ho 
principal lady of Mafgiirofn encort ; nml bm 
duo? ttollwgue in tht8 t u in bin former miKrtitni, 

Buttblk and biw retinu** left Lowloiuw 5 Nov., 
croHBwl tbo (*bannel tw 1ft Nov., and joinoti 
tho Fnmch wnwt at Nanity. Whotber from 

through dcinign, Murgarei WIIH not pnwnt-, 
Th Frflnch took&dvantngMo oxtort further 
concawHionn, utl before Im^mld obtum bin ob- 
ject Suffolk bittl to woniuw tlm Hirrtmd<r of 
all tlmttlxw KngHnh m4tlor claimed in Mamw 
and Anjou (GAWH>ii? f &w f f*$rtt Fwtta 
turn, jnj, 190, SiOi-d j KiMttiV, U, i&). * Th 





fatal concession, wrung from an. unwary 
diplomatist in a moment of weakness, be- 
came at once the turning-point of English 
politics 1 (ib.) At a later time, Suffolk 
laid the responsibility for the transaction on 
Molyneux (Rot. Parl v. 182). For the 
moment, however, all went fairly. Under 
Suffolk's escort, Margaret entered Rouen in 
triumph on 22 March 1445, and on 9 April 
landed at Portsmouth (EscouoHT, i. 87-9). 
In the parliament which met in June 
Suffolk made a declaration in defence of his 
conduct. William Burley, the speaker, on 
behalf of the commons, recommended the 
marquis to the king for the t ryghb grete 
and notable werkys whiche he hathe don to 
the pleasir of God' (Hot. Parl. v. 73-4). 
Even Gloucester, who had in the previous 
year endeavoured to thwart Suffolk, found 
it expedient to express his approval. On 
14 July a French embassy reached London. 
The only practical result was a prolonga- 
tion of the truce till 1 Nov. 1446. But the 
record of the transactions shows the thorough- 
ness of Suffolk's political triumph. The French 
ambassadors plainly accepted him as the most 
important person in the state, and Suffolk on 
Ms part did not hesitate to speak openly of 
liis wish for peace, and of his disbelief in 
Gloucester's power to thwart him (STEVEN- 
SON, i. 96-131, esp. p. 123). 

Under Suffolk's influence negotiations for 
peace were continued throughout 1446, with 
no very definite result. The government, 
liowever,passed more and more into Suffolk's 
hands. The king became alienated from his 
uncle, who made Suffolk the object of open 
fcnd repeated attack (B^sur, i. 187, 190 ; Es- 
COTTOHY, i. 115; Croyland Chron. p. 521), To 
Suffolk and the queen, the complete overthrow 
of Humphrey's power appeared a paramount 
necessity. Ou 14 Dec. a parliament was 
summoned to meet at Bury St. Edmunds, e a 
place where Suffolk, was strong, and where 
Gloucester would be far away from his friends, 
the Londoners ' (STUBBS). The parliament 
met on 10 Feb. 1447. Some formal action 
against Gloucester was no doubt intended, 
and one authority says that Suffolk had all 
the roads watched with armed men (DAVIES, 
English Chron. p. 62). Gloucester himself 
reached Bury on 18 Feb., and was at once 
arrested. Five days later he died, no doubt 
from natural causes accelerated by the shock 
of his imprisonment. Popular belief, how- 
ever, laid his death at Suffolk's door, though 
no definite charge was ever formulated (the 
nearest approach is in the 1 petition of the 
commons for Suffolk's attainder in Novem- 
ber 1,451, Rolls of Parliament, v. 226). The 
death of Cardinal Beaufort, which took place 

six weeks after that of Gloucester, left Suf- 
folk without a rival. 

But Suffolk's tenure of power was from 
the first troubled. The charges against him 
in reference to Maine and Anjou at once 
took shape. On 25 May he had formally 
to defend his action in the council, and on 
18 June a royal proclamation was issued, 
declaring the kings satisfaction with what 
he had done (Fcedera, xi. 173). Gloucester's 
death had brought Richard of York a step 
nearer the throne, and made him the leader 
of the party opposed to the court. The 
command in France was now taken away 
from Richard, who was sent into practical 
banishment as lieutenant of Ireland, and 
it was given to Edmund Beaufort, duke of 
Somerset. Both appointments were ascribed 
to Suffolk's influence (WATTBIN, i. ^ 300). 
They certainly contributed to diminish his 
popularity, and made Richard his mortal 
enemy (WHETHAMSTEDB, Reg. i.160; GILES, 
Chron. p. 35). Suffolk, however, was so 
strong in the king's favour that he cared 
little for the displeasure of others (ib.) At 
Gloucester's death he had obtained the earl- 
dom of Pembroke, the reversion to which 
had been granted to him four years previously. 
On 24 Feb. 1447 he was made chamberlain, 
constable of Dover, and lord warden of the 
Cinque ports. On 9 Aug. 1447 he was made 
admiral of England, and on 9 March 1448 
governor of Calais. With his promotion to 
a dukedom on 2 July of this year, he reached 
the summit of his power. Maine had been 
formally surrendered in February 1448, and 
a truce concluded for two years. The fact 
of the surrender increased Suffolk's unpopu- 
larity. The truce was ill observed, and 
Suffolk found it impossible to carry out his 
policy of peace in full. On 24 March 1449 
Fougeres in Brittany was treacherously cap- 
tured for the English by Francois 1'Arra- 
gonais or de Surienne. In this impolitic and 
unjustifiable act Suffolk was probably impli- 
cated. Francois, who had been connected 
with Suffolk as early as 1437 (NiooxAS, Proo. 

... _ . _. _ j . S^ i ^ "i i 1 j 

Privy Council, v. 29), expressly declared that 
he had acted with the duke's cognisance and 
approval (Ptew, &c., ap. BASIN, iv. 294- 
300, 337; STEVENSON, i. 278-98). The attack 
on Fougeres was followed by open wair ; one 
after another the English strongholds in Nor- 
mandy were lost, and Rouen itself was taken 
on 29 Oct. This succession of disasters. stirred 
a warlike feeling in England, and finally dis- 
credited Suffolk and his policy. 

If the cession of Maine and Anjou had 
been due to Suffolk's policy, the loss of Nor- 
mandy was due to the incapacity of Somer- 
set. But Suffolk, who had long been allied to 



the Beauforts, in politics and by 
was in the popular estimation, at; till events, 
responsible for Somerset's appointment, It 
was upon him that the storm broko. AH 
a minister he had boon careless about tho 
enmities that ho excited, He WUH olwrpul 
with pride and avarice, and with having dis- 
posed of bishoprics and other preferment 
from corrupt motives (Croi/lctnd CV/m;/. pp. 
621, 525 ; the charge was porluips a HJMIWIH 
one, cf. BKOKINOTON, i. 158, and Political 
Songs, u. 232-4; certainly many vacant woes 
Lad been filled by his supporters). 

Tho parliament of 1440 iftofc on Nov. 
Molyneux had to renign the privy Heal on 
9 Dec, JVJurmuduho Lmnley [q. v.] had re- 
signed the troasurerahip in 'tlw previous 
October, These two had mum SuilblK'8 prin- 
cipal supporters and eollnngnm Their re- 
moval marked the decliuo of his inilueneo, 
in the first weeks of the parlimneut no pub- 
lic action was taken apfahmt. Sullolk. But on 
28 Nov., as iialph, lord Cromwell, who ap- 
pears to have been the duke's chief adversary 
la the council, was untorintf tlio Htar-cluim- 
ber, he was hustled in Westminster Hall 
"by "William Tallboys, a Lincolnshire, squire 
and supporter of Suffolk. Cmmwoll accused 
Tallboys and Suffolk of intimding his death, 
Tailboys, supported by RufTolk, denied tho 
charge, but was committed to the Tower* 
There were other charges of violunw against 
Tailboys, and in thono also it was alleged 
that he had profited by fcJuttblh'B patronage, 
Afterwards Suflblk's commotion with Tail- 
boys formed part of the clmrp'H brought 
against him (Wnx, WOKO. L/tKJ]; JtVto ttf 
Parliament, v. 181, 200; Hitttvri /W/wvt, u 
96, 97, and Introduction, pp xliii-xliv), At 
Christmas tlio parliament wan prorogued till 
22 Jan. 1450. On 9 Jau.Mnlyiuuix was mur- 
dered at Portsmouth, ]ioforo his death ho 
made some confession injurious to Suffolk, 
When parliament reassembled, tlio duko, in 
anticipation of attack, at OIKHJ mado an olo- 
qiiont and improssivo sptMoh in hi own d 
fenco. Odious and horrible lanifuapfo WUH 
running through tho land to Im < highest 
charge and mpoat licvyest disdaundny 1 1 u 
appealed to his long and faithful Borvieo, and 
begged that any accusations against him 
might he preferred openly (Rolfo of Parlia- 
ment, v, 176), Tht) cominona, iuwpirwl by 
Cromwell, at once took up the clwlhmiw 
(Wirx.WoEO. p06]). On StfJan. they boggud 
that Suffolk might be * committed to ward.' 
The council refused, in absenco of any d<fiui tft 
charge. On 28 Jan. the commons nccmsod 
Suffolk of having sold tho ruajjn to tho 
French and treasonably fortified Walling- 
ford Castle* On this Suffolk was committed 

to tlun Towor Ututh of PriHwmnitt v. 17(U 
177), On 7 Vb, a 'long indictment, wan 

worn that, Huilolk hd cnuMptml to 
tlin Ilirono I'm* hi nnn, John do la Poh^ 
aflorwardMMi>nu<l Duk^tifSnitbik [q. v.J.who 
had m*irrio<i Murgnrot HoatUort, thn iniaut; 

of John Hi'itufort, <lukn of S 
and SuIlblkV ward; tlmt h lmdudvtMid t 

Orleium, promiwd toMurrondoi 1 An- 
jou and Maine, bolrnyed tlie lun^'.sooiutHoI to 

ou an ane, ornye ie un^.sooiutHo to 
tli I''reiuli tailed tt> ritift>ivi the 
iirmieK, nnd e^trun^ett iirittany ntu! Aragon. 
On 1*J l (l ob. l-honrtirleM won* brought below 
the council, nnd Honry orderiul the ntntter U 
be respited. 1 1 WHS report el t hut t he tluke wim 

1 15), and his ]iMrdou WHM no duubt intended. 
llmvever f tm S> Mnrch thr conunonM pre- 
sented (M^hteen additional tirttrle.M t chnrgitig 
Stiilolli with iniilmlniiniMnitinn tittd innlvnr* 
Hittinu, with the proinution if un\vtrthy IMT* 
sons, and with the |irotiTt'um of William 
Tallboy* (ttn/h i*f l>ttr/i*tuintt> v. IVU wj). 
On thn .same dny SuilnlU wits brought beforo 
t he king, and received ropii'.sur t heneenMat lotu 
On litjMurt'h lie ugaiit nmped before tho 
pnrliatnent, lie denii-tl the elwr^eM uttt*t*ly f 
and said : * Saving t he Kyngi'M high |rwitce t 
they were fuls nnd uiunic* (M, v, IS*J) 
four daVH biter he oneo uuro tippeured and 

rotieatc({ his deninl, At lengiHim the first 
bill the king hld Sntlolk *noithiT d^elaretl 

nm*flmrgid; f out he neeond Itill 'not by way 
of judgmt'nt',' bet by foree of bin NubuuMNttm f 
the kingonlcred IiiMlmrti^tuniMtt foHive yearn 
from the iirst of Mny ( Hi, v, W\)^ The "deci- 
sion was H sort of ftmmrmmMt* iitfetuled to 
save the dnke nnd siiti^iy the nmtmmirt, 

On H) March Sullolk wiw not fret*, ntnl nt 
once left the capital, The Londoner** sought 
to intercept him, ami sevr-l t v tmndted honn> 
of his servants ( Wiw Wtmt', |7li7|), Tim 
remaining HIJC weeks were MjM^nt bv SnHollc 
on bin white, On *JO April i* t*im to l\m 
\vich, and in l!u jrnseiu f i of the chief m*u 
nftlm tttmuty took uu iuith on the Hacrnmeut 
that he, wan innocent of the chur^es brought 
n^HUiHt him (if*,) Thiit, rtame rveniiifc h** 
uddrewsed utmttihhi^ti'ltcr cilMarewell ttt hm 
little stm (/Vw/ow Mtt*r#> u 1*21 ;*), nnd thn 
next juoriiin^ set sail with t.wt hhipH and a 
pimwujtn \Vlj<*i oil' Ihmn 1 \w nr-nt the pin* 
imco tuwnrds (*tt,!aiM to liwirn how he wmtUi 
borccoivrd, The m'tmaen waHititerc*pted l>v 
a ship called Nieholu* of th^ Tower, whim 
wan lying in wait, Tm* master of the Ni- 
cholttH bare down tin Knflolk*sHhij4H f itnd bn*l 
tho duke <jt)in *m btmrtl, ih hm nrrivni ho 
waB grmited with u tihtnit. nf * Weiiumm t 
traitor** 11U <ijtr* gruutiid him a day ami 




a night to shrive him. Then, on 2 May, he 
was drawn out into a little boat, and a knave 
of Ireland, ' one of the lewdest men on board/ 
took a rusty sword and smote off his head 
with half a dozen strokes. Some accounts 
alleged that Suffolk was given a sort of mock 
trial, and it was also stated that he spent his 
last hours in writing to the king (ib. i. 124- 
127; Three Fifteenth^ Century Chronicles, p. 
60; DAVTES, English Chronicle, pp. 68-9). 
His body was taken to land, and thrown 
upon the beach near Dover, whence, by 
Henry's orders, it was removed for burial at 
"Wingfield (GILES, Chron* p. 38). The cir- 
cumstances of Suffolk's murder must re- 
main somewhat of a mystery. But the Ni- 
cholas was a royal ship, and probably the 
crime was instigated by persons of influence, 
possibly by Richard of York, or some of his 
supporters (cf. RAMSAY, ii. 121 ; cf, Paston 
Letters, i. 125 ; GASCOIGITB, p. 7). It is some- 
times said that Suffolk was attainted after 
his death. But the petition of the commons 
to this effect in November 1451 was refused 
the king (Rolls of Parliament, v, 226). 
The general opinion of the time regarded 
Suffolk's murder as the worthy end of a 
traitor (Croyland Chron* p. 526), Public 
indignation expressed itself in a host of 
satirical verses (Political Poems and Songs* 
ii. 222-34). In these verses all the formal 
charges of the impeachment are repeated, 
and the hatred for Suffolk continued as a 
popular tradition ; it inspired one of William 
Baldwin's contributions to the * Mirror for 
Magistrates,' and two of Drayton's * Heroical 
Epistles/ By later writers Suffolk is even 
charged with having been the paramour of 
Queen Margaret (cf. HALL, p. 219 ; HOLIST- 
BHED, iii. 220 ; DRAYTON, Heroical Epistles)* 
The charge is absurd and baseless, but has 
gained currency from its adoption by Shake- 
speare (Henry VI, pt. ii, act v. sc. 2), But 
the popular verdict on Suffolk's private and 
public character is not to be accepted with- 
out serious qualification. The very indict- 
ment of the commons ' proves that nothing 
tangible could be adduced against him ' 
(B.AMSAY, ii. 117). Lingard ( Hist England, 
v, 179) well says of lus farewell to his son 
that it is ' difficult to believe that the writer 
could have been either a false subject or 
a bad man' (see also GAIKDNER, Paston 
Letters, vol. i. p. xlvii), The same spirit of 
unaffected piety and simple loyalty which 
inspires this letter appears in Suffolk's speech 
in parliament on 22 Jan. 1450. The two 
documents reveal their author as a man who 
had made it the rule of his life to fear G-od 
and honour the king. Suffolk may have been 
headstrong and overbearing, but his pa- 

triotism and sincerity appear beyond ques- 
tion. The policy of peace which he adopted 
and endeavoured to carry through was a just 
and sensible one. It was not a policy which 
would have appealed to selfish motives. 
Whatever its ultimate wisdom, it was sure to 
incur immediate odium. Suffolk himself 
foresaw and endeavoured to forestall the 
dangers before he embarked on his embassy 
in February 1444 ; his conduct at that time 
shows that he was 'throughout open and 
straightforward in his behaviour ' (STUBBS). 
Suffolk's tomb, with a stone effigy, still 
exists in his collegiate church at Wing- 
field. It is figured in Napier's ' History of 
Swyncombe and Ewelme' (plates before p. 
81). Walpole gave an engraving of a pic- 
ture in his possession, representing the mar- 
riage of Henry VI, one of the figures in 
which he takes for Suffolk (Anecdotes of 
Painting, i. 34, ed. 1762). Suffolk's will, 
dated 17 Jan. 1448, is given in Kennett's 
' Parochial Antiquities,' ii. 376, and in Na- 
pier's ' History of Swyncombe and Ewelme,' 
j>. 82. His seals and autograph are figured 
m the latter work (p. 89), and his badge 
the ape's clog in Doyle's 'Official Baron- 

age.' Suffolk was the founder of a hospital 
at Ewelme, Oxfordshire, in 1437. This 
charity still continues, the mastership having 
"been long annexed to the regius professor- 
ship of medicine at Oxford. He also re- 
founded another hospital at Donnington, 
Berkshire, in 1448, and intended to refound 
Snape Priory in Suffolk (NAPiBB,pp. 54, 63 ; 
DWDALE, Monasticon Anglicanum, iv. 557, 
vi. 715-17 ; Arch&ologia, xliv. 464). 

Suffolk's wife was Alice, daughter of 
Thomas Chaucer [q. v.] of Ewelme. She 
was therefore in all likelihood a grand- 
daughter of the poet, and through her grand- 
mother, Philippa Roet, a cousin of the Beau- 
forts. As a child she had married Sir John 
Philip or Phelip (d. 1415), and afterwards 
was second wile of Thomas de Montacute, 
fourth earl of Salisbury [q. v.] Her licertse 
to marry Suffolk was granted on 11 Nov. 
1430 (NAPIER, p. 66)* Hobes were pro- 
vided for Alice, countess of Suffolk^ as a 
lady of the Garter on 21 May 1432 (Nico- 
LAS, Proc. Privy Council^. 116). After her 
husband's death she was, during Jack Cade's 
rebellion, indicted for treason at the Guild- 
hall (WORCESTER [768]). The charge was 
more formally repeated in the parliament, of 
November 1451 (ib. [770] ; Rolls of Parlia- 
ment, v. 216). Subsequently Alice made her 
peace with the Duke of York and his party, 
her stepdaughter by her second husband 
being the mother of "Warwick t the king- 
maker/ She was specially executed from 



the act of attainder in 1461 ($. v, 470). 
Some fairly numera us references in the ' Pun- 
ton Letters' (vol. iii.) illustrate her later 
life. Three letters from Alico to kr wor- 
vtint, "William Bylton, arc givon by Napior 
(p. 99). She died on 20 May 1475 at 
Ewelme, and was buried in the church thorn 
on 9 June, Her splendid tomb ntill exists in 
fine preservation (plates in NAPIHII, p 103, 
and GOUGU'S Sepulchral JWonwHwitti). I Icr 
son John succeeded his father aw second 
Duke of Suffolk [q. v*] She is credited with 
another son, William, and a daughter Anna. 

[Stevenson's Wars of tho English in .Franco, 
with William of Worceator'8 biary, Walning- 
hum's Historia Anglicana, ii. 3-1/5, ltackington'0 
Correspondence, i. 158, 176, ii, ItfO, 103, 171, 
Amundcsimin's AnnaloH, ii. 2l!J~20, Whothum- 
stode's Rogifcrum, i. 45, 100, Wright's Political 
Poems and Songs, ii. 222-34 (all thoso art* in 
Rolls Ser.); Gestu Henrici Quiuti (Kti^l. IlLsfc, 
Soc.) ; Throp EiftoonthfConttiry OhrtmicloN, 
Collodions of a London Citisson, DUVIOH'H Kng- 
lish Chroniclo, 1377-1-161 (thoso three in Camd. 
Soc.) ; Giles's Incorti Beript-om Chronicou ; 
Chronicle of London, od. Nicolas, JB27; Con- 
tinuation of tho Croyland Chroniclo in JMman'H 
Scriptores, vol. i. ; Giiscoigno's Loci o Libro 
Veritatxim, eel Rogers; Button Lettwro, od, 
Gairdner; Chronicles of Hardyng and Hall, 
Among French writers thoro are MonHfcrolot, 
Jean le Pevre do S, Romy, Waurtu, OruoVn 
Arthur de Richomont, T. Basin, JVI'atthiau d'Es- 
coxichy (all in Soe. do I'Histoiire do France ; iho 
tot four throw light chiefly on Huflblk'B military 
cjireer, the last two furnish somo information as 
to his fall) ; Proces de Jeanno d'Arc. (Hoo. <lo 
1'Hist. France); Cousinot's GosUs dos Noblc 
and Chron, do la Pucollc, J, Vallot do Viri- 
yille ; Chronique do Monfc St. Michol (SocMtd 
des Anciens Textes Fran^aia) ; Ninons Sylviiw 
(Opera, pp. 440-2) gives a foreign opinion hontilo 
to Suffolk ; Nicolas's Proceedings and Ordi- 
nances of the Privy Council, rols. iv,-vi.; Rolls 
of Parliament ; Rymor's Fostjora, vola. ix.-xi ., qrig, 
edit. ; Dugdalo's I^uronage, ii. 180-9 ; l)oylo' 
Official Baronage, iii. 436-8 ; Napier'a Historical 
Notices of tho Parishes of Swynftowbo and 
Bwelme contains a Hfo of Suffolk, to^othir with 
genealogical tables <tnd some documents of im- 
portance. For modern accounts BOO Gairdnor'n 
Introduction to Fasten Lettors, i. pn. xxxii-l ; 
Sr.ubba'8 Constitutional History, in. i;t6-r>4: 
B,maa/s Lancaster and Yprif ; Vallot de Viri- 
ville's Hist de Charles YII ; G, pu FrcHtto do 
Beaucourt's Histpire de Charlps VIL] 

C L K! 

POLE, SIR WILLIAM (1561-1635), 
antiquary, baptised on 27 Aug. 1561 atQoly- 
ton, Devonshire, was son of Sir William 
I ole, knt,, of Shute in the same county, and 
T s t ^ 1 S f tteiu ^ daujyUtep of Ohittf-juatice 
Joh Popham [q. v.] Tho family originally 

camo from Wirroll in Ohwhins and 
rcntly hiul no connortion with tho <luk<*H of 
Suilolkof that, iiiimo or with ('ardinul I 
family. It wan tlw fathor, nl not tho 
an Primio Htatiw ( yr/'/ 
who was <ulucmtocl at xi'tvr (-ollo Ox- 
ford (nf. HOAMH, fttywtrttm t iL 

autumn roador at tlw Imior Tonij>lo in 15/5 

doublo rtuidftr in Ui(M), atid roiwunu' n , 
Tho mm ontoml Uo, Itinpr Totnplo in 1578, 
wnwplaml on tho commiMsinn of tho pouco 
for Dovonshm^Mrvod HH hi^hHhonfV fortliat 
county in KKhJ-tt, and 

Cornwall, in tho iwrlmwont, of 1 f>8(} ( 

FIowuM Itnijfhtod 

ft<> t i, 417), 

at Whitolmil on 15 |*,b, HJ(MJ. I| 
$71, 10.^ to tho Virginia Company, nnd 
an incorporator of tlto third Virginia 
\\(\ diod at. Colr-ombo, in tho tmrinh 
ton, DovonHluri*, on 9 lVh. HIM, 
,11 o wrtrthuritMl in tho wwt Nidoot't 
in <y<lyton churrh, Uo u>urriol t Iiiv4, Mtiry, 
(d. 1005), daugUtor nnd (Mihou'of Sir William 
Foryam |<j, v/|, by whom ho hurl JHMUO, mx 
HOUR nnd NIX dmi^lit.t*r, Of thi* nonn, tho 
ohUwi., WilHmn, diod young ; t I>o norond, Sir 
John, whoMo doH*!inl!utH ntill occupy Shuto 
Jlotwo, wa rroaiod a bimwof tm lU Sopt. 
lOliH, ami dSod on 10 April IMS; tho third 
WUH iWyatn l*olo, whoMpdtwtMtdnnt, Willinm 
Polo, dying in 1 77H wit bout ksuo, bomiont hml 
IUH tHt.utw to IHH ktuHiuuu, tho Hm. \Viliiam 
Wullosloy, who thorotipon uMMiimod tho immo 
!*!, antl HuiitM|utntly b<*onnio Hnrl t>f Morn- 
inffUm, Anothor of H'ir Witlmm Polo'HHoun, 
ftloniimul William, mutt'iniktod from Oritd 
Collogo, Oxford, on UM March KJIW 10, gm- 
duatnd H.A.on H N ? tw, 101^ ontorod tlw 

Irnwr Tmnplo in UUtt, nnd <tnigrat<ul to 
Amorioa, vhoro ho dW on S-*4 Fnh, HIM. 
Hir WiHiiim'g dauhter KHxnbttth !f>HH 

Hir WiHiiim'g daughter KHxnbttth (!f>HH 
1054) aim) omigratod to Aw*rini, nnd took 
a prominent part in tho fottitdafiou and in- 
corportttion of Taunton in ItJiiU !(), wlmrw 
Hhn diod on iiJ May 1054, Polo mamod, 
Bwumdly, JTanu. daughter of VViUiam Siinio 
or Hymw of Uhard, Homa^t, and widow <tf 
Itogtir How of London. 

Polo won a U^nrnnd antir|uary and at hin 
death It^ft largo manumj*t. w)Jlm*ttoH for 
tho luHto mid at^tuuitioH o 

Of tlwflo tku tfntttr part pHrwluul during 
the civil war, but thw Miirvivwii i, Two 
folio vcihunut, tmtitltul 'Thi Ifcwrijitiim of 
Devonahiwi ; ' which W4ri printiul tti 1791 
(4t<>) undor tho titln ' OolltTtiwiH fowurdw a 
Dowriptltm of tho (Bounty <>f Utvtin, 1 U. A 
folio vohuMtt of dotub, hnrtor und ^nifitn 
compilud tti UJ1(J; a Hiwtll tutrttftn nf thin 

41 . * * * K* * * u ^ h * < w ^ 

[q,v.]uador tho titiu 4 ^ir Wiilinw IWa 




Copies of Extracts from Old Evidences,' 
Mill Hill, 1840? 3. A thin folio volume 
containing coats-of-arms, &c. 4. A volume 
of deeds and grants to Tor Abbey, Devon- 
shire. These collections were largely used 
by (among others) Prince, Risdon, and 
Tuckett, in his edition of the ' Visitation of 
Devonshire in 1620,' published in 1859. 

[Rogers's Memorials of the West, pp. 350 et 
gpq. (with portraits) ; Preface to Pole's Descrip- 
tion of Devonshire, 1791 ; Harl. MS. 1195, f. 37 ; 
Prince's Worthies of Devon, pp. 504-6 ; Risdon's 
Chorographical Description of the County of 
Devon; Visitation of Devon in 1620 (Harl. 
Soc.); Dugdale's Orig. Juridiciales, p. 165; Fos- 
ter's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Nichols's Lit. 
Anecd. vi. 299 ; Brown's Genesis U. S. A. ii.968 ; 
Burke's Peerage, s.v. * Pole ' and ' Wellington.'] 

A. F. P. 

EARL OF MOB-NINGTON (1763-1845), master 
of the mint, [See WELLESLBY-POLE J 


MAN (1824-1857), Indian cliaplain, was 
the second son of Edward Polehampton, 
M.A., rector of Great Greenford, Middlesex, 
by liia wife, younger daughter of Thomas 
Stedman, vicar of St. Chad's, Shrewsbury, 
and was born at his father's rectory on 
1 Feb. 1824. Admitted on the foundation 
of Eton College in 1832, he proceeded thence 
to Oxford, where he matriculated from Pem- 
broke College on 17 Nov. 1842 as a Wight- 
wick scholar, a distinction which he obtained 
as being of the founder's kin. His university 
career was undistinguished; he became a 
fellow of his college in 1845, and in No- 
vember 1846 was admitted B.A. without 
taking honours. He proceeded M. A. in 1849. 
Following the family tradition, he was 
ordained deacon on 18 June 1848. At Easter 
1840, after a few months of tutorial work, he 
was appointed assistant curate of St. Chad's, 
Shrewsbury, doing good work among the 
victims of the cholera when it visited that 
town. In 1849 he was presented by his col- 
lege to the rectory of St. Aldate's, Oxford, 
a living which he soon resigned, because it 
was not tenable with his fellowship. Find- 
ing no further chance of preferment, he ac- 
cepted an East Indian chaplaincy in Septem- 
ber 1855. On 10 Oct. he married Emily, 
youngest daughter of C. B. Alinatt, esq,, of 
Shrewsbury, barrister, and, with his wife, 
sail eel for Calcutta on 4 Jan. 1 8/56. At his own 
desire he was appointed chaplain to the Luck- 
now garrison, and arrived there on 26 March. 
During the summer of 1856 he was instru- 
mental in relieving the sufferers from cholera, 
which had especially attacked the 52nd regi- 

ment. After recovering from a severe illness, 
he made several tours to Sultanpur, Sitapur, 
and the neighbourhood, and returned to 
Lucknow in time to witness the outbreak of 
the mutiny there (3-30 May 1867). He took 
refuge within the Residency, his wife volun- 
teering as nurse, when the siege began, 
30 June. Eight days later lie was wounded 
by a stray shot, cholera supervened, and he 
died on 20 July, while the first great attack 
was being made on the Residency. He was 
buried in the Residency garden. A tablet to 
his memory was afterwards set up in St. 
Chad's Church, Shrewsbury. 

The value of his services during his brief 
residence in Lucknow was attested in the 
official despatches of Havelock. He was a 
good athlete. His literary remains comprise 
merely a brief diary of his Indian career, with 
a few letters. 

[Memoir, Letters, and Diary of H. 8. P., 
edited by fters. E. and T. S. Polehatnpton, 3rd 
edit. 1859, 8vo; Funeral Sermon on his Death, 
preached at St. Chad's by Eev. F. W. Kitter- 
master, 1858, 8vo; Foster's Alumni Oxon.] 

E. G. H. 

POLEISTIUS, ROBERT (d. 1147?), car- 
dinal. [See PCTLLEN.] 

POLHILL, EDWARD (1622-1694?), re- 
ligious writer, son of Edward Polhill (d. 
1654), rector of Ellington, Kent, by his 
second wife, Jane, daughter of William New- 
ton of Lewes, was born in 1622. He entered 
Gray's Inn on 16 June 1638-9, and was called 
to the bar (FOSTER, Gray's Inn Register), 
but he chiefly divided his time between the 
care of his family estates in Burwash, Sussex, 
where he was justice of the peace, and the 
compilation oi religious tracts, somewhat 
Calvinistic in temper, but supporting the esta- 
blished church. * It was hard to say which 
excelled, the gentleman or the divine* (Life 
of Phil. Henry, p. 422X Lazarus Seaman 
claimed ' knowledge of him from his child- 
hood/ and * certified of his domestical piety* 
(Divine WilL preface). Polhill died about 

Polhill wrote: 1. ' The Divine Will con- 
sidered in its Eternal Degrees and holy Exe- 
cution of them,' London, 1673; strongly Cal- 
vinistic in tone, with prefaces by John Owen 
(1616-1683) [q, v.] and Lazarus Seaman ; 2nd 
edit., London, 1695; partly reprinted at 
Berwick, 1842,- as * An Essay on the Extent 
of the Death of Christ.' 2. 'An Answer 
to the Discourse of William Sherlock touch- 
ing the Knowledge of Christ and our Union 
and Communion with Him/ London, 1675. 
* When I read Sherlock's book/ says Polhill, 
thought myself in a new theological 



world, as if, according to rdagiiw, all gmco 
were in doctrine only.' & ' 1'nscious Fn'tUi 
considered in its Nature, Working, and 
Growth* (London, 1075); pam^yriHud by 
Philip Henry. 4, * Speculum Phuologim 
in Ohristo, or a View of aomo Divine Truths,' 
London, 1078. 6. 'Christus in cordo, or 
the Mystical Union botwoen ("Jhrist. and Be- 
lievers considered in its Roao.mhhincoH, Bonds, 
Seais,Priviieges,and Murks '(London, MHO); 
reprinted,' corrected by tho Nov. Mr. l*riostloy 
of Jewin Street,' Lon<lon, 1788, nnd again in 
1842 as * revised and carefully abridged by 
James Michel,' 6, < Armatura I>oi, or a 
Preparation for Suffering in an Kvil Day, 
showing how Christiana arc to bear Hutlor- 
ingR,' London, 168iJ; reprinted, London, IHiM. 
7. 'A Discourse of Schism,' London, 1U04 ; 
a catholic-minded troatiHo, nhowing that, tho 
separation of the nonconformists is not 
echism ; reprinted in 1 8&S, Ueprmla of No. 
1, 2, 3, and appear in Ward's ' Library of 
Standard Divinity' (new Her, vol. i*) 

[Berry's County Gen,, 'Kent,' p. IJ34; Addit. 
HSS. 5711 f. 133, C,W f. 10; Jlin^ MHS, 
Comm. 6tli Bop., pp. Slrt, r>3flr., C0r, 80rt; Lords' 
Journals, vii. 284, 304, 468, 033; Wood' Alhonm 
Oxon, iv. 106; Notes and Quurioflt 1st, Hr, vi* 
460, 663, 3rd sor. v, 410; Oalamy'n Account, 
ii. 680 ; Ormo's Life of l)r, John Gwun, pp. 607, 
613 ; Hasted's Kent, i, 316.] W, A, S. 

182 L), physician and author, waa thu son of 
Gaetano Polidori, teacher of Italian in Lon- 
don, who had been Aliiwi's socn^tary, arul is 
known as the author of tales and educational 
works and tho translator of Milton nnd 
Lucan into Italian (18-10 and IH-il). Ho 
was born in London on 7 Sept. 170o,'and at 
the early ago of nineteen received tho decree 
of M.D. from the university of Edinburgh, 
reading and publishing an able thesis on 
nightmare, 'fiisputatio medica inauiruraUa 
deOneirodynia/ 1815. Early in tho follow- 
ing year he obtained, through tho recom- 
mendation of Sir Henry Halford, th pot of 
physician and socrotary to Lord Byron, t-hn 
departing on his exile from Kngland, They 
travelled together to Geneva, and Midori 
continued in Byron's suite during tho greater 
portion of his Rojourn there; but MB whim- 
sical and jealous temper, of which several 
instances are given in Moore's biography of 
Byron, led to a dissolution of tho engage- 
tnent ere Byron quitted Switzerland. loH- 
dori, nevertlielefis, proceeded to Milan, where 
Byron found him *in very good society;' 
but he was soon expelled the city for quarrel- 
ling with an Austrian officer. iVom a kttor 
of Byron^s to Murray, dated ,11 April 1817, 
he appears to have returned to England from 

Venice in uttowlanro upon tin* widow of tho 
third Murlof Ouilfnnl Uon under NORTH, Kuw- 
wmd KAKI/|. AH Hyron 

Murray, thoir rolatiotm nintiot. have 
aolutt^ly unfVii'mlly. Polhlori had 
aHpo,cnlal.iv<MxpiMlition it) Uraxtl, but Nttttli k tt 
instead as a prnt'tiNiu^ jihvwrmn in Norwu-h, 
whom hn mot. with liitli* <MUM)urgonu*nt,an(l 
eventually nturM'<l to Ioiulr>n f nnd boguu 
to HUuly for tho bar, In April 1H1U ho pub* 
I'mlicd in thti i Now Monthly Mnga/,in<%' antl 
also in pamphlet, tonn, tin* rolobrutcd Htory 
of *Th Vumpyro/ wliirh \w attrihutod to 
'Byron, TliiMiMrriptinn wn ftctit.iotm. Hyrou 
had, in fact, in June 1HHJ begun to wriio at 
(}<mva a Ht-ory with thin titlw, \n iMiuiJatiou 
, Khi'llry'H* KntniMniNtoin/hutdrop 

of Mrs, 

it lu'forn ronrhin^ tlu HUpiM'Htition which \i, 
\vaH to havtullutitnUHl* Ho wnt tho iVjf 
inont to Murray upon i\w nppoumnuo of 
PoiidoriV fabfictitio.u t nncl it in innorted in hw 
workw, Ilo further protected in a e-nrelenHly 
good-uaturod diwhtiinor uddroM^ed to * UaH* 

tfnanPN M'HHeiiger,* 1 1 IM tuune, n*v*Tt hoIMH f 
gavo Polidori'n produrlum groat colobrity 
tipou tho cnntim'nt, when* tjjo * Vuiwijywr* 
wan hold (o bo uito t-ho thin whicli it bt^ 

wan hold (o bo quito t-ho thing whicli it 
hovod Jtyron to huvo written* It formed 
tho ground worlt of Muwhnor'M opera, nnd 
nearly half a volumo of I>nmn*H 4 Miniiotra' 
is om;upid hv nil omwnt of th^ repreHenta- 
tion of a French play ftmiuled ttpon it. 
Voliilori mado a IOHM Miin'OMsful o\periintmt 
in IUH own tuuno with * ICnn^ittB Bervhfold, 
or t.ho Modern <Kdi|ttiM l 1 nnother 

niatic Mt ory published in t h* ttin* ytnp, whirh 
alno witiussMiid tho punli^tttion *f*' Xiinon*8 f 
Tho Wroath/nml othor pootnH. 4 Th<^ I |V nlI 

ho An^oln/ ti MMcrod poont f wu.s pubtishod 
nymously in lK*.!l,tmd ri*iHHiul with tho 
htVn niiiuo nftiT \m death, lit* nlw 

of tho 


ftuthtVn niiiuo nftiT \m death, lit* nlw 
an * KwHity on Puwitivo IMoamin*/ lHiH r 
wiiH connurod for iiutuomlityand mm* 
v, antl ono upon tho pwuHhment tilf 

cleatli (iHKI), which imd>lht< hoiHMtr of 

ortion' in tho ' l*ftmphl<tter.' In 
IHiJl Polidori, pn*KM*d by H gami 


....... .. , _ ,. . 

donth wan rotuntod, but thitru in uti itnt 
to tho nuil fatM of tho WHO, !'ulUitri*M ttn- 
publinhod diary in Htatod by Mr, W, M. 
KosHotti to (ttmtitin wni jMU'tVulurH of mtti- 
Rtantial inttriHt. * !)r, INdiduri, 1 Hiiyn Mtd- 
win, 'WUH a t!l, haudHomo man,* with a 
mafkrtd Italian cust of (UMUifonnmus which 
boro the im]>nH ttf {irofonnd mointwholy ; A 
good adciiuiMi ttud inuiuiur^ wwro rutii'in 




forward in general society.' There is a por- 
trait of him in the National Portrait Gallery, 
London^ Ono of his sisters married Gabriele 
Rossetti [q. v.], and became the mother of 
Dante Gabriel and Christina Rossetti [q. v.] 

[W. M. Rosaetti's D. GL Rossetti, i. ; Moore's 
Byron; Moore's Diary, v.; Medwin's Shelley; 
Williams's Diary in Shelley's Prose Works, ed. 
Porman, iv.; Notes and Queries, 3rd Her. vii. 
ix, x.] R. G. 

POLKEMMET, LOUD (d. 1816), Scottish 
judge. [See BAILLIE, WILLIAM.] 

son of Sir Lewis Pollard, bart. (d. 1641), of 
King's Nympton, Devonshire, and his wife 
Margaret, daughter of Sir Henry Berkeley, 
was descended from Sir Lewis Pollard [q. v.] 
His great-grandfather, another Sir Lewis, was 
recorder of Exeter and serjeant-at-law ; his 
father, also Sir Lewis, was created a baronet 
on 31 May 1627. Hugh was a captain in the 
army before 1039, when he was engaged in 
raising troops in Devonshire for the expedition 
against the Scots. In the following year he 
was again serving under Con way against the 
Scots, and was probably present at the battle 
of Newburn on 28 Aug. On 19 Nov. he was 
returned to the Long parliament as member 
for Beeralston, Devonshire. In May and June 
1641 he was implicated in the royalists' 'first 
army plot/ was imprisoned in the Gatehouse, 
and expelled from the House of Commons. 
He was bailed before the end of June, and re- 
tired to Devonshire. Hero he was apparently 
engaged in further royalist schemes, and on 
26 Sept, was taken prisoner by some par- 
liamentary troopers, and carried to Molton 
(Some late Occurrences in Shropshire and 
Devonshire, 1641, p. 7). During the year 
he became baronet on his father's death. 

Early in 1642 he set out for Holland to 
araise levies for the king's service. On the 
voyage he fell in with the Providence, a king's 
ship corning from Holland with arms and 
ammunition, and determined to return with 
it. They were pursued by some parliamentary 
ships, but Pollard escaped, and in August 
accompanied the Marquis of Hertford to the 
west to levy troops ; he was sergeant-major 
in Viscount Ivilmorey's regiment (PEA.COOK, 
p, 1C). During the war he was mainly em- 
ployed with the army in Devonshire and 
Cornwall, and in 1645 was governor of Dart- 
mouth. Fairfax laid siege to the town in 
January 164/5-0, and when summoned to 
surrender Pollard returned a defiant answer. 
A detachment of four hundred horse was sent 
under Major Ducroc from the king's army at 
Torrington to defend the town, but Pollard 
quarrelled with Ducroc, and the troops re- 

turned to Exeter. The next night (18 Jan.) 
Fairfax ordered an attack on the town. It 
was stormed, and Pollard was wounded in 
an attempt to escape across the harbour. 
He was taken prisoner, and kept in custody 
until May 1646. An erroneous report of 
his death has been frequently repeated (z7>.) 
He then petitioned to compound for his de- 
linquency, and on submitting to his fine was 
released on bail. The sum was ultimately 
fixed at 518/. ; in 1653 it was paid, and the 
sequestration of his estates discharged. 

Pollard, though he stayed in England, 
remained a royalist at heart. It was only 
its rapid suppression that prevented him sup- 
porting Booth's attempt in 1 658 by a rising 
in Devonshire. At the Kestoration he was 
sworn of the privy council, appointed go- 
vernor of Guernsey and comptroller of the 
king's household. He sat in parliament as 
member for Callington, Cornwall, in 1660, 
and Devonshire in 1061. He received various 
grants from the king, including one of 5,OOOJ. 
in 1665, as a reward for his services, and to 
clear him from pecuniary embarrassment in 
which they had involved him. lie died on 
27 Nov. 1666, having married Bridget, daugh- 
ter of Edward de Vere, seventeenth earl of 
Oxford, and widow of Francis Norris, earl of 
Berkshire [q. v.] By her he left an only 
daughter, Margaret; the baronetcy passed 
to his brother Amias, and on his death with- 
out issue in 1093 became extinct. 

[Cal. State Papers, Dom. passim; Cals. of 
Committees for Compounding and Advance of 
Money; Cal. Clarendon Stato Papers; Hist.MSS. 
Comm. 4th Hop. p,304; Rnsh worth's Collections, 
ni.i. 255; Carte's Original Letters,!. 137; Official 
Returns of Members of Parliament; Journal; 
of Lords nncl Commons ; Clarendon's Rebellions 
Sprite's Anglia Recliviva ; May's Long Parl. pp, 
96, 98, 99 ; Lloyd'a Memoirs, p. 648 ; Pepys's 
Diury, od, Bniybrooke, iii-348 ; Evelyn's Diury, 
ed. Bray, i. 370, ii. 19, 862, iv. 154; Maaeres's 
Tract*, i. 29 ; Markham's Fairfax, pp. 260-1 ; 
Aikin's Court o-f Charles I, ii. 160, J 56; Masson's 
Hilton, passim ; Chostor'sWestm, Abbey Register ; 
Prince's Worthies of Devon, pp. 494-5; Moore's 
Dovon, p. 80; Burke's Extinct Baronetage; Gar- 
diner's Hist, of England.] A. P. P. 

POLLARD, SIB JOHN (d. 1557), speaker 
of the House of Commons, was second son of 
Walter Pollard of Plymouth, by Aviet*, 
daughter of Richard Pollard of Way, Devon- 
shire. The pedigree of the Pollard family is 
Tery complicated, as the family was wide- 
spread in the west of England, and other 
"branches are found in the fourteenth century 
in Yorkshire, Essex, and other counties ; the 
main branch was seated at Way, and Sir 
Lewis Pollard [q. v.], the judge, was a col- 


lateral relation of Sir John. John Pollard 
may have been tlw Pollard who, without 
Christian name, is montkmiul as (mturin^ at; 
the Middle Temple on 8 Jun 1515; but it 
may be that- this entry i that of Loww 
Tollard, sou of Sir Hugh Pollard and j^and- 
son of Sir Lewis Pollard the j udgn, .1 ohn was 
aointed autumn roadorof the JM iddlo Tom- 

pie in 1535, and became w.rJMnt-at-law in 
1547. After 1545 he received, posnibly 
through tho influence of a relative, Hiohard 
Pollard, who had taken part in tho suppres- 
sion of the immttBteruiB, a grant of tho manor 
of Nuneham Courtney, whoro h afterwards 
lived. He was relieved by patent of iil Oct. 
1550 from his office of serjeant-at-law, in 
order to become vice-pruaident of tho 
for the Welsh marches Ho wan ^loctod 
member for Oxfordnhittt in tho parliamimtrt 
of 1553 and 1R64, and for Wilthir in that 
of 1555. He seems to have IWIMI Icnightod 
on 2 Oct. 155;$, although ho in dneribc*d aw 
merely anuigor in the roturna of 1554 and 
1555, lie was chosen sjwalwr of tho Houtw of 
Commons in 1,553, and hold the otti<us till tho 
close of the parliament of 1555, Ho was de- 
scribed as 'excellent in tho lawn of thin realm.' 
He died in August 1557, and wan burwd cm 
25 Aug. He married Alary, duntfhtttt of Ri- 
chard Gray of London, but left no isHue. Hw 
estates passed in great part to hm brothwr 
Anthony, after the death of hm widow, Tho 
inquisition post mortem is numbered 4 and 
5 !rhil and Mary, No. 189, Ills will wan 
proved in the probate court of London, IM'.C, 
37, Wraatlcy, on 13 Oct. 1557, 

[Thelate'Mr.Winslow JonuH mado oxtonrnvo 
researches into tho hiwtory of the Pollard family, 
and plrtcod his material*! at tho dinpowtl of th 


rt(),hmi* Krm. ! n 1 .VHlm WIM 
admitted a frlluw of St. Jubti* (Ntlh^t^ 
(knibridf(c. lh \VHM rortnr of !iipp1t>, Wor- 
coHtorHhins and in lofjo htM'iimi 1 chnpimn to 
the hwhop of \Vor<'iMtr, Uirhnrd l*uto or 
PatiNslq.v. | Undi'r htMdiiwtion l*ollnrd \vro< 
fivi* HonnnnH, hf^mnintf M -onNydorin^ with 

ilf/ whirh ho diuUcntot) to bin biwhot), 
. i t * ti< 

Tlu\y worn print wl in London by Itirhurd 
*ltifff;<) and ruwoutl, HH wtH UH by William 
Urillith, in UiM, having h<<*n Hniu*t,i<mtd by 
Bomior on I July l*W> A copy in in Urn 
Hritmh MuMmun. Ho cUod bcfuro March 


^.iMU7 t Mrt; Amm'ti 
Horbwt, pt. 7lrti I 

1*1 * i j* i 4 h 

in, SIJ ; ifakitr'ft 

of Ht,. Jobn'N llotlf^o. wl. Mtt t yor i. VJHi, ii, 

8r,rvjm*H MomtiriiiK tu, i, HI, vnd Lifo of 

Oruntuor, p. v,!lt); Tuitnor'n Bibl, Hj'iu) M. H. 

POLLARD, Snt I.KWIS ( 1 mt U 
itidx(\bornnbotit 1 Itift, WHM r-uw of Unbrrt 
lard of Ho)tnrciu^h nmr Torrin^tott, !>< 
and a kinMtnun of Sir John Pollard |q, v. 

called to tho bur frnjn th* Middle l\Mnpi f 

inn do HHi*nnt"iit-inw ( uud on i> July 1507 
1 "' ""*- A nit uiiitinttnont whHt \VH 

*>f Urnry VI II, 

coniinn<( on tlm 
From this tiw* 1 


* iV^<jiu*ntlv M*rvinl tin tl 
ior tlioni^n in t-ornwall, ffovit 

tnjmbir*', and Wii 
nHHi/,0 tor tho Oxford rirruit in 

presnt writ.or* See alo Lotturn and 
of Honry V11I, viii. 87, 140, H12; Miunriing'H 
Speakers of the HOUHG of OommonH ; Mat*hy* 
Diary (Camd Soc.),pp, J4B, #86; Dixtm'tt HiMtof 
the Church of England, pa8im*] W. A* J A* 

POLL ABB, LEONARD (<L irM), di- 
vine, was a native of NottinffhairtHluw, and 
graduated BA. at Cambridge in J 548-4. 
He was admitted a fellow of PotorhouHn 
ou 2 March 1546, and proceeded M*A, iu 
1547. In Juno 1549 he was an opponent 
in a public disputation on the doctrine that 
the Lord's supper is no oblation or sacrifice, 
bat merely a remembrance of Christ's death, 
After he had .raduated D,D, he btKsamo 

lf()*, f antl for tlw* \vp?*t*rn nrniit from 151 1 to 

, wh*n h<* WUK appoitUt'd jnMtin* of 
pltmMiim) kni^bttMl, Hi* nMtnut fj*iiiu 
bntjttftiT Februar iAi*JO,unil did in irH). 

< I UN lumw!t*dfft* tit ho lawn nd 
mondablo virtitos, tti#t*tht'r wiflt a 

him fumtmn nhttvn niont of 

IK ' 


prebendary of Worcester on 11 Bept 
On 6 Nov. 1563 he preached at 8t, Mi- 
ctxael'B, Cambridge, on purgatory* He was 
then in receipt of an annual pension of 80*. 
as incumbent of the diasolvad chantry of 

f i I 1 fi . * J*" JfU H * to > . . . . if.- 


otniH t 

torn, Of th<i Honn no II*HM timn tmr w*m 
kmKti^l, Sir Hugh, Sir John, Sir iticlmfd, 
and Sir (}t*nrx*>. Sir Hugh wan ^m*tgront* 
grandfather of Sir Hnjfh Pollanl |ij, v,]j Sir 
Iliduvrd WH fai h*r of Sir John pollard ( 1 5*J8- 
157f>), who muMt hi* tiittt ittffWMitwi from Sir 
John f HptMilttT of th* HmwtMif (JoniinonH; th 
fonnnr WHH knif(hUiti hy tht ICiirl uf Warwick 

Little St. Mary'a, Cambridge, On &J De. 
1553 he became prebendary of Peterborough, ! 

on 10 Nov. ir>-ltfMitt in |*nt AH nnmb<*r 
for Hanmtnpbs 1AOU-4, Kk*tw in 1 5^5, ami 
(Jrampound, i/W*2 and Utt in 167fi^ Itntving 


to !UH 

<i*Mtr^H ovml hi* 
in d^f*mti uf Hu* 


Cliwa. B 

of llt^nry Vllf, jmHim ; 


61 Pollard-Urquhart 

of the Judges, v, 227-8 ; Visitation of Devon 
(Hari.Soc.) ; Prince's Worthies of Devon, pp. 492-' 
495; Polfl'8 Description of Devon, and Moore's 
Hist., of Devon, passim ; Burke' s Extinct Baro- 
BOtugo ; Strype's Works, Index.] A. F. P. 

POLLARD, ROBERT (1755-1838), de- 
signer and engraver, born at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne in 1755, was articled to a silversmith 
there, and subsequently became a pupil of 
Richard Wilson, E.A. For a time he prac- 
tised as a landscape and marine painter, but 
about 1782 he established himself in Spa 
Fields, London, as an engraver and print- 
seller, and during the next ten years pro- 
duced a large number of plates, executed in a 
peculiar mixed style, composed of line, etch- 
ing, and aquatint, some of them from his 
own designs, and others after popular artists 
of his time. To the former category belong 
i Lieutenant Moody rescuing a Prisoner,' 
1785, l Adventure of Lady Harriet Ackland/ 
1784, < Edwin and Angelina/ 1785, 'The 
Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green/ and eight 
plates of snipping. The latter class includes 
* Wreck of the Grosvenor East Indiatnan ' 
1784, * Wreck of the Halsewell East India- 
man/ 1786, ' Margaret Nicholson's attempt to 
murder George III/ 1786, and two plates 
illustrating the restoration of a young man 
to life by Doctors Lettsom and Hawes, 
1787, all after R. Smirke, R A. ; < Trial of 
Warren Hastings/ 1789, ' Thanksgiving Day 
in St. Paul's/ 1789, and views of Blooms- 
bury, Hanover, Grosvenor, and Queen 
squares, London, all after E. Dayes; ' Wreck 
ot the Centaur ' and ' Preservation of Cap- 
tain Inglefield after the Wreck ' (a pair), 
after R. Dodd, 1783 ; ' Leonora,' after J. R. 
Smith, 1786; and others after Cosway, Gil- 
pin, Stothard, Wheatley, c. Many of 
these plates were finished in aquatint by 
Francis Jukes [q. v.l In 1788 Pollard was 
elected a fellow, and in the following year a 
director, of the Incorporated Society of Ar- 
tists, which became extinct in 1791; in 
October 1836, as the last surviving member, 
he placed the charter, books, and papers of 
that body in the custody of the Royal Aca- 
demy. The latter part of Pollard's life was 
spent in poverty and obscurity, and he died 
on 23 May 1838. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Nagler's Kiinst- 
ler-Lexicon; information from E. A. Eaton, 
,] R M. O'D. 

POLLARD, WILLIAM (1828-1893), 
quaker, born on 10 June 1828, was ninth child 
of James and Susanna Pollard of Horsham, 
Sussex, where the family had been settled 
for several generations. After attending 
the Friends* school, Croydon, Pollard pro- 

ceeded to the Flounders Training College 
at Ackworth, Yorkshire. From 1853 ho 
was a teacher at Ackworth school. For 
the use of his pupils he wrote a ' Reading 
Book/ 1865, a < Poetical Reader/ 1872, and 

* Choice Readings.' From 1866 to 1872 he 
was in the employ of Francis Frith, the 
well-known photographer at Reigate. 

From 1872 to 1891 he was secretary and 
lecturer to the Manchester Peace and Arbi- 
tration Society, and lived at Sale, Cheshire. 
During this period he wrote articles for the 
' Manchester Examiner.' In the winter of 
1891 he became co-editor with W. E. Turner 
of the * British Friend/ a monthly periodical 
first published at Glasgow in 1843. 

Pollard was a successful minister among 
the Friends from 1865, and was an able ex- 
ponent of the fundamental principles of 
quakerism in its quietist phase. A * Reason- 
able Faith, by Three Friends ' (W. Pollard, 
Francis Frith, and W. E. Turner), London, 
1884 and 1886, was well received, though it 
met with some opposition from the more 
evangelical section of the society. His other 
works were : ' Old-fashioned Quakerism : its 
Origin, Results, and Future. Four Lectures/ 
London, 1887 ; the first lecture, on * Primitive 
Christianity/ was reissued in i Religious 
Systems of the World/ London, 1890. His 

* Primitive Christianity revived ' and* * Con- 
gregational Worship 'were contributed to the 
' Old Banner T series of quaker tracts, London^ 

Pollard died on 26 Sept. 1893, and was 
buried in the Friends' burial-ground at Ash- 
ton-on-Mersey, Manchester. His wife, Lucy 
Binns of Sunderland, whom he married in 
1854, survived him with five sons and three 

[Eccles and Patrtcroft Journal, September 
1893; Annual Monitor, 1894, and private in- 
formation.] 0. F. S. 


(1815-1871), miscellaneous writer, eldest 
child of William Button Pollard (1789- 
1839), of Kinturk, Castlepollard, co. West- 
meath, by his second wife, Louisa Anne, 
eldest daughter of Admiral Sir Thomas Pa- 
kenham, was born at Kinturk on 19 June 
1815. He was educated at Harrow and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating B A. 
as eighteenth wrangler in 1838, and M. A. in 
1843. He kept his terms at the InnerTemple, 
but was never called to the bar. In 1840 
he was gazetted high sheriff of Westmeath, 
and in 1846, on his marriage, took by royal 
license the additional name of Urquhart. He 
sat in parliament for Westmeath as a liberal 
from 1852 to 1857,and from 1859 tohis death. 


Ilediod at 10 HrunHwick Tormw, Nritflitim, 
on 1 Juno 187 1. !l mammon 'JO Aujr. 
1840, Mary Isabella, only dautflitor of Wil- 
liam Uvquliart of Oraii^Um Oastlo Abor- 
doonslnre. Thoaocoml son, bYanns Kd \vnrtt 
KomulusPollariHh'quhart (A, IK1S), hotwmn 
a major in th royal horso artillery in 1SSO. 
Pollard- Urquliarfc was tlm author ^ol : 
1. 'Agricultural Dwtwss ami its llomiuhoH^ 
AbwU'on, 1850, 2, * Kssay* on SubjHs ol 
Political Keononw,' 1MO, fl, 'Tlm SubsU- 
t at ion of Direct 'for trnHnH Taxation no- 
cessary to carry nut. tho Policy of IVoo Travis 
1851. 4. 'Lifa and Timn ol* Knim'.wrn 
Sfonsa, Duke, of Milan,' Winburtfli, iHfW, 
2 -vola, (atlvernoly critic, mod by tho * Atlw- 
rueum'). 5. 'A liort A WHmtoi'tlw Prussian 
Land Credit, Oompanitw, with KiwtionM tor 
the Formation of a Land OwltU Company ui 
JwlancV Dunlin, IHfitt. (>, 'Tim Uurniwy 
Question nnd the Bank Charter (l 

Pol lex fen 

wlnn, Nviiij SOMHTM, lor whoso a.MNi,Mtnmo 
stipulnlodjio di't'rMtdi'd th NIVU 
xii.*l70), Ujmn \ hr K< 4 \nlution 
known t.n In 1 n u nd!uM'nl nf <h<> 
Ornn^ t nnd to itohl tin* opinion that Mm 
throw W.MM M\ vni'nnl. h t v tho Into 

noto to 

y nmottf,v 


of 1807 and 1858 nwiuwod, JJy an M,K, 
1800. 7. ' Dialogues ou Taxation, local and 
Imperial/ 1807. 

[Burke'H Landed why, 1880,5?, 17 I Ann. 
RotfiHtor, 1871, p. 164} IlUwtraUidLtmtlon Ninvw, 
1871, Iviii. 579.] t>. 0. It. 

1691), judgo, born almut KWi*, wan oldi'si, 
eon of ' Andrew rolloxfon, tt minihr of an 


by tho poo rrt to nd\ i r -o tbotn in ..,,-, ,,,, - ltt ,-m;v, 
mid also mi t for I'JviMor in tho ( -ouvontidu 
pju'Uuinout, Iti 1'Vhnmry lUSlt ho wan 
kuitfhtod and njnoint<<l iittortioy|(onovul f 
and on -1 May pronmlod to ho ohtot jiiMtioo 
of tin* nwunon plouw, AM a jiul^'o hn duett 
not- nppoiir to huvo ituToiHod hi;-* fin MO. HIM 
ivpovts, whioh hi{.'w in lU/Onud won* po 
tlmmnuHly published, tiro itiforir; and Ilur* 
tu'.t- (lol. 'tl. i, '100, SMI, ii, 1*00} dt'.MOj'ihort 
him at. th bur nn*nn Imnout, uiul lournoil, 
but. iiorplovotl biwvotV Tho tmly public, 

* 1 4 * k *44>B* J.H 

IM hi,M 

in Jum 

ancient family settled at. Hhoribrd in 
Devonshire, Ilowas bwl to th law, cullod 
to the bar at tho Timor Tomnlo in 10oH, and 

b lK*4tt * t^lJMJ * f 

IM ,M iMii{,c Muuuuourt n um ii 
tho HOUMO of honli iitr ox polling tho 
of (intfton fnnn llw irotuir t v nilico of tiw 
oominttu J!I*MM ^rnntod tn him hv tho orowm 
On 15 Juno UttM !u hunt. H nluod-viw-tol, 
di(l Nhorllv nftorwin'th nt hid luui->o in Lin* 
ntln'n Jnn Vii*ld,* iu*l SMI.** huriod in Wood- 
bur chuivH iu hrvon.'ihii'**. Two 
itrt by W, Kb lor imd *}* S 

wontimtotl b 

a bonehorof hia inn in U>74, His 
practice was noon cxttmnivo ; known a a 
prominont whig, ho appoarod fn'-qiicn 
the defence in state trials. Thirhitf tlui 
of Charles H and Jam^B II ho WUH 


for Lord Arimdel of Wardour on tho trial of 
the 'Pive Popish Lords' in UWO, for Col- 
ledge in 1681, for Fitsiharriw in tho HIUIW 
year, for William Sachovwrisll in 1(584, for 
the corporation of London in dufimftu of itn 
charter in 1082 (jBvBNMT, folio^ml i, 5JJi>, 
68^, gives Polbxitm's argument, in thin cano 
as communicated by himBeli), and for Kandy 
when sued for infringing the monopoly of 
the East India Company in 10H4, Ho had 

M.,A~*M jHnjJ 4* V% /^ %t/XWt) < ff4* rt "!< /S.%*h y\4- It4l*t *** A *% At ftt 4 11 fitj h k * L 4- 

vii-xiu; NuptU'i* LivnM t ju 214; 

, , 

POLLWXVKN", 40UN (,f I)7N 
cbiuit und inninoiuir writor, of tlto piu'inh *t 
'M, Wn!htHiok t Ltittdutt, WUH bru 


about HJiJM. A wowbo? of tho t- 

of trndi* und ttbtittutmtiM in Ui7i\ und of tlm 

hoard of tnulo iVom 

to I7o\ ho \r- 

ciwd much iullitontus Uo took juivt iti tlm 
tiitutiim l\p wit lid rawing tho privibonnf 
idd Hunt Imiia ('umjuiny, anil 
a now t f uni|itutv *u n ittttiMftn! 

earned the reputation of *bemg aa 
of tho court and crown, Oonwoquijutly liirt 
appearance asprosecutor for the crown, on tho 
nomination of Ohief-justictt JeiFreyfl, 

Monmouth'fl followers, and particularly Lady 

iny a now t f uni|itutv *u n ittttiMftn! ltMtM, lu 
HW ht publinhoii *A IWiwr** *f Tnido, 
Ooyn, and l'njur C-h ( dit f nml of wrtyn und 
mnuiiM to f^ain mid rotuin noboM, TtMvhmb 

of i LoarnodCounsol 
P<m*\fi| upon nit Action ofttm 
OHHH brought bv tho I,HHI tntliti Comjmny 
ftgainnt Mr, Sitndj y l*i u 1 nt t*rl*uor, f I jttmitm, 

ti* of wtnlth, 

Alice Lisle, in 1685 at the aasfaw in tho wftHt, Kvo. In tl i*uprrtnt 

caused some surprise and gained liirn much un- trout H labour HM * 

popularity. The fact is probably oxplauuid by 

his being leader of the circuit, and ho mertdy 

laid the evidence before the court (State to havt h'oir riflwH ami ntnttwurios from Urn 

Tiiaki K\. 316). In June 1688 he was era- ftwwt and labour of at horn,' uml * tlumo tluifc 

ployud m his accustomed kind of practice ! labour to provide thwuthmgtt'Cp. 4 *), liik 

und point H out tlmt natiottul w*nhh 

on tho proportion btitwoon * thono that tlopt*iul 



all freo traders - of the seventeenth century, 
lie was equally opposed to monopoly and to 
* leaving trade to take its own. course/ but 
favourable to the state regulation of industry 
and commerce. His main object, however, 
was to attack the East India Company, and 
to urge the claims of the private traders. 
lie discusses at length the ' interlopers/ par- 
ticularly Captain Thomas Sandys, to whose 
enterprises he, together with other merchants, 
probably contributed, so that a test case might 
be submitted to the courts. When the 
company employed Charles Davenant to 
write ' An Essay on the East India Trade/ 
Pollexfen replied to him in ' England and 
East India inconsistent in their Manufac- 
tures/ e,, London, 1697, 8vo. A reply to 
this was published, with the title ' Some 
Reflections on a Pamphlet, intituled Eng- 
land and East India/ &c., London, 1696 (.sue), 
8vo. Pollexfen married, on 10 May 1670, 
at St. Mary Undershaft, Mary, daughter of 
Sir John Lawrence. 

[HarleianSoc.Publ.xxni. 178; OaL of Colonial 
State Papers (America and West Indies), 1675, 
p, 498 ; Macpliorson's Annals of Commerce, ii. 
693 ; M/Culloch's Literature of Political Economy, 
p. 182; Roschor's Political Economy, transl. by 
Lalor, i. 70; Cunningham's Growth of English 
Industry and Commerce, ii. 126, 130, 154, 160,] 

W. A. S. H. 

POLLOCK, Sm DAVID (1780-1847), 
judge, eldost son of David Bollock, saddler, of 
Charing Cross, by Sarah Hoinera^daughter of 
Richard Parsons of London, receiver-general 
of customs, was of Scottish extraction, his 
grandfather, John Pollock, having been a 
native of Tweedmouth. Sir George Pollock 
[q, v.l and Sir Jonathan Frederick Pollock 
[q, v.J were his brothers. He was born in 
London on 2 Sept. 1780, and was educated 
at St. Paul's School and the university of 
Edinburgh, but did not. graduate. On 28 Jan. 
1803 he was called to the bar at the Middle 
Temple. Pollock practised as a special pleader 
on the home circuit, at the Kent sessions, and 
in the insolvent debtors' court. He took silk 
in Hilary vacation 1833, was appointed re- 
corder of Maidatone in 1838, and commissioner 
of the insolvent debtors' court in 1842. 

By patent of 2 Sept. 1846 he was created 
a knight of the United Kingdom on suc- 
ceeding Sir Henry Roper as chief justice 
of the supreme court oi Bombay, where ^he 
was sworn in on 8 Nov. following, and died 
of liver complaint on 22 May 1847. His 
remains were interred in Bombay cathedral. 
Pollock married, on 12 Dec. 1807, Elizabeth 
Gore, daughter of John Atkinson, by whom 
he had issue seven sons and a daughter. 
Lady Pollock died on 16 April 1841, 

[Foster's Baronetage; Law .List; Times, 
5 Sopt. 1846, 22 July 1847; London Gazette, 
4 Sept. 1846; Gent. Mag. 1846 pt. ii. pp. 103, 
417, 1847 pt. ii. p. 432; Ann. Bog. 1840 Chron. 
App. p. 322, 1847 Chron. App. p. 223 ; Bombay 
Times (bi-monthly edit), November 1846 and 
May 1847.] J. M. R 

POLLOCK, SIB GEORGE (1786-1872), 
baronet, field-marshal, youngest son of David 
Pollock of Charing Cross, London, saddler to 
George III, was born on 4 June 1786. He 
was educated with his brother, Jonathan 
Frederick [q. v.], afterwards lord chief baron, 
at a school at Vauxhall, and entered the Boyal 
Military Academy at Woolwich, where a few 
candidates of the East India Company artil- 
lery and engineers were received. Pollock 
quitted Woolwich in the summer of 1803. 
Although he had passed for the engineers, he 
elected to serve in the artillery, and sailed for 
India in September on board ibae Tigris. He 
was commissioned lieutenant fireworker on 
14 Dec. 1803, and after his arrival at Dumdum 
was promoted lieutenant on 19 April 1804, 
In August he moved to Cawnpore, to join the 
army in the field, under Lake, against Holkar. 
From Cawnpore he went to Agra, where the 
remnants of Colonel Morison's brigade were- 
straggling in after a disastrous rout. He 
finally joined his company of artillery at Ma- 
thura; but, as Holkar advanced with ninety 
thousand men, the British forces fell back on. 
Agra, and Pollock with them. On 1 Oct. 
Lake marched to meet Holkar, who evaded 
him and moved on Delhi. Pollock joined 
Marmaduke Brown's battery of 6-pounders, 
under General Eraser, who left Delhi, after 
Holkar had been compelled to abandon his 
efforts to besiege it, on 6 Nov. with six thou- 
sand men, to watch the Maratha infantry. 
On 12 Nov. he came up with the enemy near 
tlie fort of Dig, and the following day the oat tie 
of Dig was Fought, in which the battery to 
which' Pollock belonged played an important 
part. The battle was a very severe one, and 
the issue was for some time doubtful* Eraser 
was wounded, and Morison assumed com- 
mand. Eventually the Mar&thas were de- 
feated, and the remnant of Holkar's army took 
refuge in the fort of Dig. On 2 Dec. Lake 
united his forces before Dig, and on the 17 bh 
fire was opened. Pollock served in the mortar- 
battery, and on the night of 23 Dec, 1804 the 
assault was made and the outworks captured, 
The next morning Pollock was detailed with 
his guns to destroy the pates of the citadel. 
As Pollock, with the brigade major, was re- 
connoitring the same evening, he discovered 
that the enemy had evacuated the place, and 
on Christmas-day Lake occupied Dig. Before 
Blxaratpiir, to whicli Lake laid siege on 4 J an. 



1 805, Pollock was again in thn mortar-but lory, 
and did good work. After four asHimU.s worn 
repulsod, tho mege was converted into a 
blockade; but on. 2 April, when Uko com- 
pletely defeated Holkar in tho field, tho rajah 
of Bharatpur, dreading t.h renewal of tho 
siege, Hastened to conclude poaco. Pollock 
was promoted captain-lieutenant on 17 Sept. 


Lake moved to Jailor on tho Chatnbal, and 
Pollock went with his battery to JVIarubad. 
In August Lake gave Pollock tho command 
of the artillery of a field force, under Colonel 
Ball, ordered for the pursuit of Holkar. By 
December, Holkar, a helpless fugitivo, Blind 
for peace, and Pollock was statin-nod with bin 
battery at Mirat, until he was appointed 
quartermaster to a battalion of art il lory at 
Dumdum. Later he waa inado adjutant and 
quartermaster of the field artillery at Civvy n- 
pore ; he remained there until his promotion 
to captain on I March 1812, when ho was 
ordered to Dumdum, lie -was in command 
of the artillery at Fathgarh in 1813. Shortly 
afterwards the offer of his aorvicws to aorvo 
in Nipal was accepted, and iti January 1H14 
he joined Major-general John. Sullivan Wood'n 
division at Jeitpur, with romforoomiintfl of 
two companies of artillery, Finding himself 
senior oilicer of artillery, he took command 
of that arm in the division, On tho conclu- 
sion of hostilities Pollock returned to Dum- 
dum, and in 1815 was jjiven tho appoint- 
ment of brigade-major of the Bengal artil- 
lery. For some years he remained in can- 
tonments. He was promoted brovot-ttiajor 
on 12 Aug. 1819, and regimental major *ou 
4 May 1820. 

In 1820 he was appointed assistant adju- 
tant-general of artillery, a poflt which 'he 
held until his promotion to a rojufimuntal 
lieutenant-colonelcy on 1 May 1824. In 
1824 the first Burmese war began, and Pol- 
lock, ordered to the front, arrived at the Boat 
of war after tho capture of Kang'oon. Ji 
did much good work in organising the artil- 
lery and completing tho equipment, In. 
February 1825 he accompanied tho Com- 
mander-in-chief in his advance on Promo, 
moving by water up the Irrawaddy, with 
his detachment or artillery and guns. 
Prome was entered on 26 April. He' took 
part in the operations near Prome in Novem- 
ber aad December, commanding the artillery 
of General Willoughby Cotton's division in 
the march and capture of Mallown. He 
was specially mentioned in despatches 
for the prominent part he had taken in 
the bombardment of Mallown. On 25 Jan. 
1826 the army marched on Ava, and came 
upon the euemy between Yebbay aud 

i on Feb. The Burmese wort* do* 
foaled, and Pa^ahm Mow, with nil it.M st.oroM, 
ordnantto, audiumnmntton.folUo the British, 
Pollock took his full Hlmro in tho dnyV pro- 
ceedings, in which the lory again took 
tho most prominent, part. On 1<J Feb. 
tho march oti Ava WHS resumed, and tho 
force arrived at YandaYm, Home forty- 
(ivo miles from Ava, on the iiUnd, Hero 
the troaty of penc,e wan signed, On 
H March tho army loft, Yandalm. PolloeVs 
services in tho campaign wore Npoeiallv" 
acknowledged by tho governor-general in 
council, and ho 'wan made a (!,B. On his 
roturn to Calcutta his health wiw HO much 
Htiakuu by tho imrdMhijm of tho campaign 
that ho received Hirk Wvo to proceed to 
Europe early in 1HL7. He was promoted 
brevet-colonel iu tho oompuuyV; wjrvkus on 

II o wM.urn(jd to India in IHM, and wa 
posted to t,ho command of H Iwttnlioji of 
artillery at Oawnporo, lie \VJIM ]romott>d 
ropfimental colonel nntl (M>lom^l-eoiimnn<lant 
of tho Bonsai artillery on JJ Maivh 1H,%, In 
18JJH ho wan appoint^} l)ri^ndior*pMtontl with 
a divisional tioimmmd at Dtumptir* From 
Dilnaptirho was tnin.sferred to the <*onutiund 
of tho Agra d'tHtrmt. On iJH Juno IH, 4> >8 ho 
wan promoted major-general. 

In November IHU tho diMtiHt.rouM viNJngat 
Kabul took plnco, It wiw followed in January 
by tho nniuhilation of tho Hritmh army in 
tho Rhyher JMIMH [w*o .HuvimN, WiM.UM ; 
MMNAOHTKN, NtK \Vjua\M HAV], Troops 
wore gradually colloctod at. I'oMlmwar, and 
Pollock wa t Melecte<l in !iuiuitry IHJii to 
command, with political puworrtj tho i*xpo- 
dttion for tho reliof of Sulo and JUM t.roopH 
at Jalalabad, Pollock roacHoil l*t*HhttwHtM>n 
5 Foh, For two montlut ho remained 
waiting for roinfonwtnontM and 
column. Much MtcknoHN provu 
nntivfli troop*, and uenrly t.wo thouHiuul inon 
woro in hoHpital Tho* native troopn wero 
also somowhat doinornliHod, U r^ont. UH Pol- 
lock understood tho nw^ of Jululuhud to he, 
he proforrwl U> faco hnHt.ilo (triticiHtn on hin 
delay to rinking anything ut uh a mm* 
On .11 March his a<lvanrd with hin column 
to iTatnrud. U had roduced JUH army bag- 
gage to a minimum, and wa himnolf content; 
to sharti a tont with two ofUcor of hin HtafU 
Ho had ^ conciliated hin Hikh alltoH, and in- 
spired hift own nativo troop** with BOIUO con* 
fidonco. On f) April lin advancod to tho 
mouth of tho pan wlioro tho ontituy had mado 
a formidable barrier in tho valltty, had taken 
up atron^ pomtionK, and had ortuit<Hl ndt)))t8 
on tho high ground to tho right and left of 
tho pose, Pollock had made all his 



ments beforehand with care, and had per- 
sonally ascertained that each commander 
was acquainted with the dispositions. He 
directed columns, under Lieutenant-colonel 
Taylor and Major Anderson, to crown the 
heights on the right of the pass, while simi- 
lar columns, under Lieutenant-colonel Mose- 
ley and Major Huish, were to crown the 
hills on the left. Artillery and the infantry 
of the advanced guard were drawn up op- 
posite the pass, and the whole of the 
cavalry placed so that any attack from 
the low hills on the right might be frus- 
trated. The heights on each side were 
scaled and crowned, in spite of a deter- 
mined opposition from the hardy moun- 
taineers. On finding their position turned, 
the barrier at the mouth of the pass was 
abandoned, as well as the redoubts on the 
heights, and Pollock's main body commenced 
the destruction of the barrier. The flank 
columns now descended, and attacked the 
enemy, drawn up in dense masses, who, in 
spite of a vigorous defence, were compelled 
to retreat; and Pollock pushed on to All 
MaRJid, some five miles within the pass. 
Ali Masjid had been evacuated, and was 
at once occupied by the British force. 
Detained during 6 April at Ali Masjid by 
finding the Sikhs had not completed the ar- 
rangements for guarding the road to Pesha- 
war, Pollock marched on the 7th to G-hari 
Lala Beg, meeting with trifling opposition 
on the road, and pushed on to Landikhana. 
Thence he advanced to Daka, and emerged 
on the other side of the pass. He formed a 
camp near Lalpura, where Saadut Khan made 
an effort to oppose him, but was driven off, 
and on the 16th Pollock arrived at Jalala- 
bad, the band of the 13th regiment marching 
out to play the releasing force into the town. 
Sale had sallied out on 7 April, and with 
eighteen hundred men had completely de- 
feated Akbar Khan, whose force was six 
thousand strong, with heavy loss, capturing 
his guns and burning his camp. 

Lord Auckland had been relieved by Lord 
Ellenborough as governor-general at the end 
of February 1842, and on 15 March Ellen- 
borough addressed a spirited letter to the com- 
mander-in-chief in India, advocating not only 
the relief of the troops at Jalalabad, Ghazni, 
Kalat-i-Ghilzai, and Kandahar, but the ad- 
vantage of striking a decisive blow at the 
Afghans, and possibly reoccupying Kabul, 
and recovering the British captives, before 
withdrawing from the country. Unfortu- 
nately the news of Sale's victory at Jalala- 
bad, and of the forcing of the Khaibar and 
arrival at Jalalabad of Pollock, was more 
than counterbalanced in Lord Elleuborough's 


eyes by the news of the capitulation of 
Gliazni by Colonel Palmer, after holding 
out for four months, and of Brigadier- 
general England's repulse on 28 March at 
llaikalzai, and he induced both Pollock at 
Jalalabad and Nott at Kandahar to make 
arrangements for the withdrawal of all 
British troops from Afghanistan. Fortu- 
nately neither Pollock nor Nott feared re- 
sponsibility, and both were of an opinion 
that an advance on Kabul must be made 
before withdrawing from the country. Pol- 
lock at once communicated with Nott, re- 
questing him on no account to retire until 
he should hear again from him. In the 
meantime Pollock remonstrated strongly 
against the policy of the governor-general, 
and pointed out the necessity of advancing, 
if only to recover the captives, while at 
that season it was highly advantageous for 
the health of the troops to move to a hotter 
climate rather than retire with insufficient 
carriage through the pass to Peshawar. He 
further assumed that the instruction left 
him discretionary powers. Having received 
further orders from the governor-general that, 
on account of the health of the troops, they 
would not be withdrawn from Afghanistan 
until October or November, Pollock re- 
mained at Jalalabad negotiating with Akbar 
Khan for the release of the captives, but 
making preparations for an advance on 
Kabul. On 2 Aug. Captains Troup and 
George Lawrence arrived from Kabul, de- 
puted by Akbar Khan to conclude negotia- 
tions, but they were obliged to return to 
captivity, as Pollock would not agree to re- 
tire. In July Lord Ellenborough decided 
to leave the responsibility of an advance on 
Kabul, or as he put it, a withdrawal by 
way of Kabul, to the discretion of Pollock 
and Nott, directing Pollock to combine his 
movements with those of Nott, should 
he decide to adopt the line of retirement 
by Ghazni and Kabul ; and, in that case, as 
soon as Nott advanced beyond Kabul, 
Pollock was directed to issue such orders 
to Nott as he might deem fit, It now be- 
came a race, in which the two generals were 
each bent on getting to Kabul first. In the 
middle of August Pollock heard from Nott 
that he would withdraw a part of his force by 
way of Kabul and Jalalabad, and on 20 A ug. 
Pollock moved towards Gandamak, leaving 
a detachment to hold Jalalabad. Pollock 
reached Gandamak on the 23rd, and on the 
24th he attacked the enemy and drove them 
out of their positions at Mamu Khel and 
KuchliKhel, and then out of the village and 
their adjoining camn. Major Broadfoot and 
his sappers greatly distinguished themselves, 





and captured the whole of tho enemy s tonts, 
cattle,and a good supply of ammunition. I ho 
Afghans fled to the hills; tho heights wore 
attacked,and position after txwiUon earned at 
the point of the bayonet. I laving dispersed 
the enemy and punished tho villapowol Mamu 
Khel, Pollock busied himself in collecting 
supplies at Gandamak, and in making " 
necessary arrangements for tho advance on 
Kabul. Letters arrived from Nott on Hopt, 

and leaving a strong detachment at Ganda- 
mak, advanced on 7 Sept. in two divisions, 
the first, which he himself accompanied, 
under the immediate command of Sir Robert; 
Sale, the second under Major-gonortil McCafl- 
Idll. Pollock encountered tho wnomy on tho 
8th when advancing on the Jagdalak paws. 
The position occupied by tho enomy was one of 
great strength and diilicult of approach, The 
hills on each aide were studded with ' sun- 
gahs 7 or breastworks, and formed nn amphi- 
theatre inclining towards tho loft of the 
road. After shelling the * mingahw > for some 
time, Sale with much courage dinporsod tho 
enemy, and Pollock pushed on his troops, 
rejecting the advice of Sale to givo tho men 
rest after the fatiguoft of the day and to sparo 
the cattle, lie wisoly deomod it host to gt vo 
the enemy no time to rally, even at tho cost, of 
some of tne baggage animals, ( Japtaiu Troup, 
who was at this time at Kabul, a canttvo 
with Akbar Khan, subsequently told Pollock 
that, had he not pushed on, the sirdar would 
have sallied out of Kabul with twenty thou- 
sand men. Pollock reached Boh Baba on 
the 10th, and Tezin on 11 Sept., and was 
joined on the same day by the aocond divi- 

Akbar IChan had sent the captives to 
Bamian, and, on learning that Pollock had 
halted at Tezin, at once determined to at- 
tack him there, He opened lire in tho after- 
noon of 12 Sept. Pollock immediately at- 
tacked the enemy, some live hundred of whom 
had taken post along the crest and upon th 
summit of a range of steep hills running 
from the northward into the Toxin valloy. 
They were taken by surprise, and drivon 
headlong down the hills. Hostilities wore 
suspended by the approach of night. At 
dawn preparations were made ^ for forcing 
the Tezin pass, a most formidable pass, 
some four miles in length* The Afghans, 
numbering some twenty thousand mon, had 
occupied every height and crag not already 
crowned "by the British. Sale, with whom 
was PollockyCommanded the advanced guard, 
The enemy were driven from post to post, con- 
testing every step, but overcome by repeated 
bayonet charges, At length Pollock gained 

complete possession of tho pass ; hut. tho fight 
was not over. The Afghans retired to tho 
Haft Kotal, an almost improgiwhle position 
on hills HO von thousand eight hundred fiwt 
above tho sea, nnd the las!. they could hope 
to defend in front, of Kabul. Hut Pollock's 
force had now become omod to victory, 
and was burning to wmo out tho stain oftlw 
disasters that had ho fallen Mlph5nstono f sarmy 
near tho same spot, Tho Haft Kotal was 
at length surmounted and the enemy driven, 
from crag to crag, Pollock, having com- 
pletely dispersed tho enemy by those opora- 
tionw, on iS ami I't Sent. pursuo<l his inarch* 
The passage through tuo Khuixl Kabul puss 
wus umuoltiHtml, but, the Hcono WHS a painful 
MM, for the skeletons of KlphinHtoneV force 
lay so thick on the ffn>uul that t.hoy had to 
too dragged aside t.o allow the ^tin-carrin^ert 
to puss. Butlchah was reju^hed on t.he Mth f 
and on the 15th the force encamped close to 
Kabul The British HH# was hoisted with 
great ceremony in the Hal a Histir on Urn 
morning of the 10th. Akbar K iwn, who had 
commanded the Afghans \n person at. Team, 
lied to the Ohorebund valley, ( )n t ho follow- 
ing day Nott arrived from Kandahar and en- 
camped at Argluuuleh, war Kabul Tho 
armies of Nott and Pollock wert tmwmiutui 
on opposite sides of Kabul (Nott having 
shifted his camp to Kulnt-i-Sultan), and 
Pollock assumed tsontmnnd of the wholn 
force. ImmediHtely ujion his arrival at Kabul 
Pollock despatched Sir Hichiml Shukespear 
with seven hundred Kaalbash horsemen to 
Batman to ruHttutj theapt.iveH,andon ITHept, 
he Hont a request to Nott that he would sup- 
port Shakespear by mnitUng a brigade m t,U 
dirtiott ot JUmtan. Nott, however, who 
was annoyed by Pollock's victory in the mew 
to Kabul objected, saying his men retiuired 

*. ^* ^ * V H 

rest for a day or twt>^ antl excused himself 
from visiting Pollock MI the plea of tll-'hmith* 
Pollor.k, whtme amiability wan never in doubt, 
wnf,onthe 17th to seeNuttand, limltng that 
hft was still indispose*! to **<! A brigaue, di- 
rected Sale to take a brigjide from his JfaUlu- 
bad troops and push oa to t\w HUp]ort. of 
Bhakeftpetir. Tho captiveH had, however r by 
larg brihtHH wiVed.ed tlitnr own <lt^liverance, 
and, tarting for Kabul on th<j lUth, met 
Hhakospoar on th 17th, and nrrivwd in Pol- 
loci's camp on &S Htmt. 

Pollock astiertainea that Amir Ullah Khan, 
ono of tho fic^rceHt opponents of British au- 
thority in Afghanistan, was collecting thu 
flcattttrad rumutmt of Aldmr'n forcts in tho 
kohistanor highlnn<l of Kabul, Ho therefor** 
flent a strong fbrcts^ taken frmn both his own 
and Nott's division, under Muduwkill, wliono 
oporations woru crownod with compl^t*} 



cess. The fortified town of Istalif was carried 
by assault, and Amir Ullah forced to fly. Cha- 
rikar and some other fortified places were 
destroyed, and the force returned to Kabul on 
7 Oct. 

On 9 Oct. Pollock instructed his chief 
engineer, Captain (now Major-general Sir 
Frederick) Abbott, to demolish the celebrated 
Char Chutter (or four bazaars), built in the 
reign of Aurungzebe by the celebrated Ali 
Mardan Khan, where the head and muti- 
lated remains of the British envoy, Sir 
"William Macnaghten, had been exhibited. 
On 12 Oct. Pollock broke up his camp, and 
started on his return to India. He took with 
him as trophies forty-four pieces of ordnance 
and a large quantity of warlike stores, but, for 
want of carriage, was obliged to destroy the 
guns en route. He also removed with him 
two thousand natives, sepoys and camp fol- 
lowers of Elphinstone's army, who had been 
found in Kabul. Pollock, with the advanced 
guard under Sale, reached G-andamak on 
18 Oct., with little opposition; but McCaskill 
had some fighting, and the rear column under 
Nott was engaged in a severe affair in the 
Haft Kotal. On the 22nd the main column 
arrived at Jalalabad, McCaskill arriving on 
the 23rd, and Nott on the 24th. On 27 Oct. 
the army commenced to move from Jalalabad, 
having during- the halt there destroyed both 
the fortifications and the town. Pollock 
reached Daka on the 30th, and Ali Masjid 
on the 12th Nov. Having during the whole 
of his march exercised the greatest caution, 
he met with no difficulty in any of the passes. 
McCaskill's division met with much opposi- 
tion in the Khaibar, and suffered severely. 
His third brigade, under Wild, was over- 
taken at night in the defiles leading to Ali 
Masjid, and lost some officers and men. 
Nott arrived at Jamriid with the rear di- 
vision on 6 Nov. The whole army encamped 
some four miles from Peshawar, On 12 Nov. 
it moved from Peshawar, and crossing the 
Punjab arrived, after an uneventful march, on 
the oanks of the Satlaj, opposite Firozpur. 
Here they were met by the governor-general 
and the commander-in-chief, who, with the 
army of reserve, -welcomed them with every 
circumstance of pomp. On 17 Dec. Sale, at 
the head of the Jalalabad garrison, crossed 
the bridge of boats into Firozpur. On the 
19th Pollock crossed, and was received by 
the governor-general ; and on the 23rd Nott 
arrived. Banquets and fe"tes were the order 
of the day. Kajah Shen Singh presented to 
Pollock, through the governor-general, a 
sword of honour. Pollock was made a O.O.B. 
and given the command of the Danapur divi- 
sion. In the session of parliament of 1843 the 

thanks of both houses were voted to Pollock, 
and Sir Robert Peel dwelt eloquently on his 

In December 1843 Nott, who had been 
appointed political resident at Lucknow, re- 
signed on account of ill-health, and Pollock 
was appointed acting resident, an office which 
he held until the latter part of 1844, when 
he was appointed military member of the 
supreme council of India. On his arrival at 
Calcutta he was presented with an address, 
and a medal was instituted in commemora- 
tion of his services, to be presented to the 
most distinguished cadet at the East India 
Company's military college at Addiscombe 
on each examination for commissions. This 
medal, which has the head of Pollock on the 
obverse side, has since the abolition of Ad- 
discombe been transferred to the Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich. Pollock 
was compelled to resign his appointment and 
leave India in 1846 in consequence of serious 

On his return to England the directors of 
the East India Company conferred upon 
Pollock a pension of 1,OOOJ. a year; the cor- 
poration of London voted their thanks to 
him and presented him with the freedom of 
the city; the Merchant Taylors conferred 
on him the freedom of their company. On 
11 Nov. 1851 he was promoted lieutenant- 
general. He was appointed colonel-com- 
mandant of the C brigade of the royal horse 
artillery. On the initiation of the volunteer 
movement in 1861 he accepted the honorary 
colonelcy of the 1st Surrey rifles. On the 
institution in 1861 of the order of the Star 
of India, Pollock was made one of the first 
knights grand cross, 

In April 1854 Pollock was appointed by 
Sir Charles Wood the senior of the three 
government directors of the East India Com- 
pany, under the act of parliament passed in 
the previous year. The appointment was for 
two years, Pollock resided at Clapham Com- 
mon, and, after the expiration of his two years 
of office, did not again undertake any public 
post. On 17 May 1859 he was promoted gene- 
ral. On 24 May 1870 he was gazetted field- 
marshal. One of the last occasions on which 
he appeared in public was on 17 Aug. 1871, 
at the unveiling of the memorial of Outram. 
On the death of Sir John Burgoyne in 1871, 
Pollock was appointed to succeed him as con- 
stable of the Tower of London and lieutenant 
and custos rotulorum of the Tower Hamlets. 
In March 1872 the queen created him baronet 
as * of the Khyber Pass/ He died at Walmer 
on 6 Oct. 1872, and was buried in Westmin- 
ster Abbey. His remains received a public 
funeral. His portrait was painted by Sir 

i by 




Francis Grant, afterwards president of the 
Royal Academy, for the I<iOt India Com- 
pany, and is now in the India oilieo, Pollock 
also sat for his likeness at the request of the 
committee of the United Service Ulub ; and a 
marble bust, by Joseph Durham, IB in th 
National Portrait Gallery, London. Polloch'n 
second wife presented a portrait of her hus- 
band, in the uniform of a nold-marshal, to 
the mess of the otncers of the royal artillery 
at Woolwich, 

Pollock was twice married first, in 1810, 
to Frances Webbe, daughter of ,T. Barclay, 
sheriff of Tain. She died in 1 848. By her 
he had five children: Annabolla Ilomerui, 
married, first, to J. Harcourt of the Indinn 
medical service, who was killed in the retreat 
from Kabul, and, secondly, to John Hinnwy 
Key. Frederick, the eldest son, entored the 
royal engineers, and succeeded to tho baro- 
netcy ; he married Laura Caroline, daughter 
of lienry Seymour Moatagu of Wualloton 
Grange, Suffolk, and in 1873 assumed tho 
name of Montagu-Pollock ; he died in 1874, 
and was succeeded by his son, who has no 
male issue. Sir George's second son, Georgo 
David, F.R.C.S., of Early Wood, Surrey, 
surgeon to St. George's Hospital, and Burgoou* 
in-ordinary to the Prince of Wales, is hwr to 
the baronetcy. Robert, a lieutenant in tho 
Bengal horse artillery, died from the ofloetfl 
of a wound received at the battle of Mudki 
on 18 Dec. 1845 (h& was aide-de-camp to hit) 
father in Afghanistan) ; and Archibald Hold 
Swiney of tho Indian civil service. Pollock 
married, secondly, in 1862, Henrietta, daugh- 
ter of George Ifyde Wollaston of Claplwm 
Common. She died on 14 Fob. 1872. 

Pollock's fame rests chiefly on Im Afghani- 
stan campaign. Although not a brilliant 
commander, he was a very efficient one. lie 
took the greatest trouble m looking after his 
men, and made all his arrangements with great 
care and precision. Cautious and prudent, 
he husbanded his resources j but when he was 
ready to strike he was bold and determined. 
The Afghan campaign was a model of moun- 
tain warfare, and is a standing example in all 
textbooks on the subject. 

[Despatches ; Ws Life of tfiold-maralml Sir 
George Pollock, London, 1873 ; Stocquel0r*s Mo- 
roorials of Afghanistan, Calcutta, 1843; Broad- 
foot's Career of Major Goorge Broadfoot, London, 
1888 ; Kaye's Hist, of the War in Afghanifltan 
an 1838 to 1842, 3 vote. ; Ann, Beg. 1842; Stoc- 
queler's Memoirs /ind Correspondence of Sir 
William Nott, 2 vols, 1854.] R. H. V. 


jjm\j.un. ^A/oo-icuu;, ,]uage, tuira son. ot 
David Pollock, saddler, of Charing Cross, by 
his wife Sarah Homera, daughter of Eichard 

and nlno 

Parsons, mwivor-gonoral of customs, 

brother of Sir David Pollock [q,v*], and. 

of Field-marshal Sir Uoorgo Pollock [q, v,"L 
was born in tho parish of St. Mai'tins-in- 
tho-Fields on i2tt JSopt, 178;$. He was odu- 
catod at, private Behoof at .St. Paul's School, 
and at Trinity (Mlogo, Cambridge, whore 
ho obtained a scholarship in ISO I, hut waft 
nevertheless HO poor that, but for tho help 
afforded him by hm tutor, tho* unluekyTavol' 
of Byron's * I ItntH from I lornco/ Iw niiiHt havo 
loft tho umvornity without- a degreo, 11( 
graduated B,A, in 1SOO, being senior wran- 
gler and first. Hmith'n pri/.etnan, WUH 
follow of hi,s college in 1807, proceeded 
in 180$), and on 27 Nov. of the Hume 
waft called to tho bar at the Middle To ...._, ... . 
Uniting a retentive mmnory, great natural 
acum<m,uud tart in tJu^ nianagenK^nt ofjurioH, 
with a profound knowledge theoretical and 
practical of the common law, and a perfect 
mastery of accounts and mercantile usages, 
Pollock rapidly acquired an extensive practice 
both at WestininKteraud on the northern tiir- 
cuit, though among bin rivals wore Brougham 
and Scarlett, lie took silk in KaMtor vaca- 
tion 18^7, and on ii May IHiH WUH returned 
to parliament in the 'tory interest for the 
cloo borough of Huntingdon, which ho con- 
tinued to represent throughout his parlia- 
mentary career, lie was knighted, S20 Doe, 
1HIU, on acflopimg tho ollieo of attorney* 
general in Sir Robert tVol*H first admini- 
Htration, which tttrminated <w tt April 1H.15 
rtmumud tho Hume otHco tm tho formation <jf 
Petd'rt Hecond administration, Sopt, 18-U, 
and held it until ho wan appoint od lord chief 
baron of the exchequer, in mtwoHsimt to Lord 
[BOO HcAitLmT, BIH JAM tin], 15 April 

Abingor [ 

In tho court of flxdiequor Pollock priwidod 
with dmthmtion for noarly a t|utirtor of a 
century, during which tho practiao of tho 
court* waH materially modillotl by t-ho Oom* 
ttion Law l*rooduro* Acts of 185i and 1854, 
He loyally acwpttul thosu rufarmtMind miri'intl 
thorn into pnuttieal ntlVci. HIH ioarnitd and 
luminouftjudffmentM aro tumtainml in tho* Ho- 
ports* of Moon and W**lnliy (vol. xii.t HO<J,) 
the ' Kxh<juw RoptjrtH/anu tho * Hivporto of 
Ilurlstono and Norman, and HurlHtono and 
Coltmau, In tho groat <ano t>f Kgt^rttm ? 
Brownlow, in tho HOUHO of Lord A, h wu al- 
most alone among the jtulgoa in th opinion 
which tho lords ultimately adopted. Though 
place cannot bo elaimml for him among tho 
most illuHtriouK of tho nagoH of tho law, ha 
yields to none in th wwond rank, On hin 
retiroment in 18UO ho rocoived, on S4 July, 
a baronetcy, In lattir life Pollock roumod 
tho fitudioi of lib youth. To tho Royal 



ciety, of which he was elected a fellow in 
1816, he communicated three mathematical 
papers (Philosophical Transactions^^ ^\Y\v. 
jNo. xiv., vol. cxlix, No. iii., and vol. clL pt. 
i. No. xxi. He was also F.S.A. and P.G.S. 

Pollock died of old age at his seat, Hat ton, 
Middlesex, on 23 Aug. 1870. His remains 
were interred (29 Aug.) in Hanworfch ceme- 

Pollock married twice. By his first wife, 
Frances, daughter of Francis Rivers of Lon- 
don (m, 25 May 1813; d. 27 Jan. 1827) he 
had issue six sons and five daughters ; by his 
second wife, Sarah Anne Amowah, second 
daughter of Captain Kichard Langslow of 
Hatton, Middlesex (wi. 7 Jan. 1834), he had 
issue two sons and five daughters [cf. MARTIN, 
SIR SA.M.TTBL, ad fin.] He was succeeded in 
title by his eldest son, Sir William Frede- 
rick Pollock [q. v.l His fourth son, Sir 
Charles Edward Pollock, is a baron of the 

[Cambridge Univ. Cal. 1804-1810; Grad. 
Cant.; Foster's Baronetage; Times, 24 Aug. 
1870; Law Journal, 2 Sept, 1870; Law Times, 
27 Aug. 1870 ; Gent. Mag. 1866, pt. ii. 393 ; 
Ann. Keg. 1870 (Obituary) ; Gardiner's Register 
of St. Paul's School ; Jordan's Reminiscences ; 
Pryme'e Autobiographic Recollections, pp. 54, 
183, 341, 373 ; Ballandne's Experiences of a 
Barrister's Life, p. 154 ; Crabb Robinson's Diary; 
Pollock's Personal Reminiscences, 1887 ; Lord 
Kingsdown's Recollections, pp. 24, 100, 115 ; 
Duke of Buckingham's Cabinets of William IV 
and Victoria, ii. 150, 412 ; Foss's Judges of Eng- 
land ; Haydn's Book of Dignities, ed. Ockerby.] 

J. M. R. 

DERICK (1815-1888), queen's remem- 
brancer and author, eldest son of Sir Jona- 
than Frederick Pollock [q. v.Tbyhis first wife, 
was born on 13 April 1815. He was educated 
under private tutors, at St. Paul's School, and 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he ob- 
tained a scholarship in 1835, graduated 
B.A. in 1836, ^ and proceeded M.A. in 1840. 
Although of junior standing to Tennyson, 
he was a member of the little society whose 
debates are celebrated in .' La Memoriam ' 

Pollock was called to the bar at the Inner 
Temple on 26 Jan. 1838, and went the north- 
ern circuit, in which he held for some years 
the post of revising barrister. He was ap- 
pointed a master of the court of exchequer 
in 1846, and in 1874 to the ancient office of 
queen's remembrancer. On the fusion of the 
courts of law and equity in the supreme court 
of judicature (1875) the office of queen's 
remembrancer was annexed to the senior 
mastership, and continued to be held by 

Pollock until September 1886, when he re- 
signed. He died at his residence in Montague 
Square on 24 Dec. 1888. 

Pollock married, on 30 March 1844, Juliet, 
daughter of the Rev. Henry Creed, vicar of 
Corse, Gloucestershire, by whom he had 
issue three sons, of whom the eldest, Sir 
Frederick Pollock, bart., is Corpus professor 
of jurisprudence at Oxford. 

Pollock was a man of liberal culture and 
rare social charm. His entertaining 'Per- 
sonal Remembrances/ which he published 
in 1887, show how various were his accom- 
plishments, and how numerous his friend- 
ships in the world of letters, science, and 
art. He was one of Macready's executors, 
and edited his 'Reminiscences' (London, 
1876, 2 vola, 8vo). His portrait was painted 
by W. W. Ouless, R.A. 

Pollock was author of * The Divine Comedy ; 
or the Inferno, Purgatory, and Paradise of 
Dante rendered into English ' (in closely 
literal blank verse, with fine plates by Dalssiel 
from drawings by George, afterwards Sir 
George, Scharf [q.v.], mostly after Flaxman), 
London, 1854, 8vo. 

[Grrad. Cant. ; Foster's Baronetage ; Times, 
20 Aug. 1886, 25 Dec. 1888; Law Journal, 
29 Dec. 1888; Personal Remembrances of Sir 
Frederick Pollock, second bart., 1887, 2 vols.] 

J. M. E. 

POLLOK, ROBERT (1798-1827), poet, 
son of a small farmer, and seventh of a 
family of eight, was born at North Moor- 
house, in the parish of Eaglesham, Renfrew- 
shire, on 19 Oct. 1798. In 1805 the family 
settled at Mid Moorhouse, about a quarter 
of a mile from their previous residence, and 
this is the Moorhouse of Pollok's letters. 
He received his elementary education at 
South Longlee, a neighbouring farm, and afc 
Mearns parish school, Renfrewshire, where, 
by excessive indulgence in athletic exer- 
cise, he permanently weakened his health. 
In the spring of 1815 he tried cabinet- 
making under his brother-in-law, but re- 
linquished the trade after constructing four 
chairs, Pollok worked on his father's farm 
till the autumn of 1815, when he and his 
elder brother, David, decided to becom.e 
secession ministers,, and we$e prepared for 
the university at the parish school of Fen- 
wick, Ayrshire, PoltoVs general reading 
had already embraced the works of various 
standard English poets,.and he began poetical 
composition, specially affecting blank verse,. 

In 1817 PoUok went to Glasgow Univer- 
sity, where he graduated M.A. in 1822. He 
was a good student, gaining distinction in logic 
and moral philosophy. H e read widely ; com- 
posed many verses j founded a college literary 


society ; began a commonplace book ; and 
gave evidence of an acute critical gift in a 
letter, entitled ' A Discussion on Composi- 
tional Thinking' (life, by his brother, p. 

From 1822 to 1827 he studied theology, 
both at the United Secession Hall and at 
Glasgow University, In spite of bad hoalth, 
he devoted his leisure to literature, and began 
in 1825 the work which developed into the 
'Course of Time/ It was prompted by 
Byron's 'Darkness,' which ho found in a 
miscellany. John Blaekwood, supported by 
the opinion of Professor Wilson and David 
Macbeth Moir [g. v.] (Delta), published the 
poem in the spring of 1827. 

After two years of preparation at Dun- 
fermline, Pollok received his qualification 


Pol ton 

most remarkable is IUH contemplative 
' Thoughts on Man/ in chap. vi. The three 
tali'B, written in IH'JI 5, * Helen of 
Gltm,' MUluli Hummel I, 1 and 'The IV 
euted Family/ treating of the covenan 
wore published anonymously, in a time of 
8trHs, for what they would bring, and 
Pollok never acknowledged them, After 
his death tho publishers issued thorn with 
his name. His wide reading 1 and di scrim i- 

displayed i 
ChriHtuui Li 

in IUH 

as a probationer under tho United 
tion Synod on 2 May 1827. Ho preached 
once in Edinburgh, and three timcH at Hlatj- 
ford, in the neighbourhood, but, his hoalth dis- 
allowed any permanent engagement. Dr. liol* 
frage of Slateford befriended him, consulted 
Dr. Abercrombie and other eminent physi- 
cians in his interest, and agreed with thorn 
that he should visit Italy. Among his many 
visitors at Slateford was Henry Mackenzie* 
[q. v.], author of the * Man of Keeling/ then 
eighty^-four years of ago. At length ho mado 
with his sister, Mrs. Gilmour, the voyage 
from Leith to London, where tho doctors 

nation arc 
1 Survey of 

[Lito of Kobort Pollok, by \m brolhw, David 
Pollok; Mwnoir pruiUml to JiUrtl twill, of tho 
Oourao of Timrt ; llliu'kwootVw Mapmms July 
1827; Noctwi AnwroNiuM, VU!M. ii, iv. ; Ktwrca* 
tioiw of OhriHtophor North, i, SJiM ; Moir'H Lots- 
turoa on Poot/u'ul Litnraturu, p. 


bor^H Dictionary of Imminent. SootHinon.) T, H, 

POLTQN, Ui> (UMJO H17), HooninH 
diro. [See (ULUKUWOOO, Stu 

n^ * u i 

POLTON, T110MAH (<L \ 

of Hereford* (^hielu^Mter, and 

^f * 

Worcester, may bo tint ThomiiH I'olt.on who 
was temporarily areluleaivm of Tnuntoit in 
1^95, and again about MO.% nittl heltl a 
beiul at Hereford bet.weeu 1410 tutd 
NWVH, i. 1(17, Him, Krom 1 IOS he 

pronounced him unfit for further travel 
sister settled with him at Shirley Common, 
near Southampton, where he died 18 Sopt, 
1827. Ee was buried in the neighbouring 
churchyard of Millbrook, and a granite obel i sk 

f\\ttx* tito ncnntrft "K/ivu +.} itiia/Y*iirtf.iArt MilH 

prtibendary <if York, of which cathedral ho 
was eleetetl dean on lift July M 10, being then 
described as bachelor of lawn, but. of what 
university dotw not tippear (tth iii* liii, 
1S)0, yi^5; d\ /'Wrm, ix. !J70). 

he had aeUul, from H June 14Matt tlw 


proctor at tlt^ pnjml 

over his f?rave bears the inscription, Poem is his monument/ His por- 
trait, painted by Sir Daniel Macnoe t lMi.S.A.) 
is in the National Portrait Gallery, Edin- 

* The Course of Time,' Edinburgh, 1827, 
8vo, is Pollok's one permanent contribution 
to literature. It is m ton books, the blank 
verse in which it is written recalling Cowper 
and Young, whoso harmonies Pollok rtigaraed 
as the language of the gods* Concerned with 
the destiny of man, the poem is conceived on 
a stupendous scale, which battled the writer's 
artistic resources^ Never absolutely feeble, 
it tends to prolixity and discursiveness, but 
is relieved by passages of sustained brilliancy. 
It reached its fourth edition in 18SJ8, and its 
- twenty-fifth in 1867. An edition, with illus- 
trations by Birket Foster and Mr, John 
Tenniel, appeared in 1857 (London, 8vo), 
and the seventy-eighth thousand appeared at 
Edinburgh in 1868. 

Of PolloVs other experiments in verse, 
published in tho ' Life ' by his brother, the 

with his ppttmotitm it) the deanery of 
York WIIH npptMnt(d one of thn l 
ambaKHadorn to the council of t-o 

(ib,) AH papnl jjrnthnnotnry ami head of 
the English *imtMn/ he took a vory pvotni- 
mmt partin tlie protMMHUu^H of the rouueil 
(Vor UMH UAUDT, VO!H. iv-v.j ST.-DHNVH, 
v, d(J7, ^H>). After the* wwm'U broke up, 
.Polton continued to nwide at H,onie LM pupal 
notary and protr iur Hnnry V, un<l r.ven 
when l*ojw Martin provided hhn by bull, 
dated 15 July M'JO, to th^ biMhopricof Here- 
ford, an<l ctnHttrat(i him at Vhwww ix 

days Itttw, he did not at 4>n<w return to 
England (Lw Nwvw, I HM)< On the death 
of Itiohard Oliilnrd, binhop of T^oudon, in 

August 14121, the o!mpti*r,ou i& l)et%,el 
l*olton in hi plne.o, but liw pope had already 
(17 Nov,) translaied John Kemp fq,v.] from 
OhicttftBtwrto Tjoudoit, and Polton from Here- 
ford to ChicluiMter (?// i, *Mfi. iJ04). In 


January 14tJO, as part of a compromiHO with 
the pope witli regard to the ftliintf up of 
several sees th*n viu*ant, the riv^v nouncil 
agroed that roltoui who was then iu Kng-* 



land, should be translated from Chichester to 
"Worcester, and this was done by papal bull 
dated 27 Feb. 1426 (Ord. Privy Council, iii. 
180, 190). 

Iii November 1432 lie was appointed to 
go to the council of Basle, with license to 
visit the 'limina apostolorum ' for a year 
after the dissolution of the council (Fcedera, 
x. 627-9). He does not seem to have set 
out until the following spring, and shortly- 
after his arrival at Basle he died (23 Aug. 
1433), and was buried there. His will, dated 
6 Dec. 1432, was proved on 18 Oct. 1433 
(Ord. Privy Council, iv. 156 ; LB NEVE, iii. 
60). In the Oottonian Collection (Nero 
E. V.) there is a fine manuscript entitled 
* Origo et Processus Gentis Scotorum ac de 
Superioritate Regum Anglise super regnum 
illud ' which belonged to Polton, and was 
bought from his executors by Humphrey, 
duke of Gloucester. 

[Rymer's Fcedera, orig. ed. ; Proceedings . . . 
of Privy Council, ed. Nicolas ; Von der Hardt's 
Concilium Constantiense, 1697, &c. ; Lenfant's 
Concile de Basle, 1731 j Godwin, De PrwsuHbus 
Angliae, ed. Richardson, 1743, pp. 466, 491, 509; 
Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Anglic, ed. Hardly; 
Stubbs's Reg. Sacrum.] J. T-T. 

P9LWARTH, LOED (1641-1724), Scot- 
tish judge. [See HUME, SIB PA.TKIOK, first 

POLWHELE, RICHARD (1760-1838), 
miscellaneous writer, claimed descent from 
Drogo de Polwhele, chamberlain of the Em- 
press Matilda. Upon Drogo Matilda bestowed 
in 1140 a grant of lands in Cornwall (Gent. 
Mag. 1822 pt. ii. p. 561, 1828, pt. i. pp. 26, 
98). The family long resided at Polwhele, 
in the parish of St. Clement, Cornwall, about 
two miles from Truro, on the road to St. 
Columb, and several of its members were 
among the Cornish representatives in parlia- 
ment. His father, Thomas Polwhele, died 
on 4 Feb. 1777, and was buried in St. 
Clement's churchyard on 8 Feb. ; his mother 
was Mary (d. 1804), daughter of Richard 
Thomas, alderman of Truro (FOLWHBLB, Corn- 
wall, vii. 43) ; she suggested to Dr. "Wolcot 
the subject of his well-known poem, 'The 
Pilgrim and the Peas' (RBDDi3sra,2^y Tears. 
i. 266). 

Richard, the only son, was born at Truro 
on 6 Jan. 1760, and was educated at Truro 
grammar school by Cornelius Cardew, B.D. 
He began to write poetry when about twelve 
years old, and his juvenile productions were 
praised by Wolcot, then resident at Truro, but 
with the judicious qualification that he should 
drop ' his damned epithets/ On his father's 
death in 1777 he accompanied his mother on 

a visit to Bath and Bristol, where he made the 
acquaintance of literary personages, including 
Mrs. Macaulay and Hannah More. He pre- 
sented the first of these ladies with an ode on 
her birthday, which was printed at Bath, with 
five others, 'in April 1777 ; and he was induced 
by the flattery of his friends to publish in 
the next year a volume of poems called ' The 
Fate of Lewellyn.' The title-page concealed 
the author's name, stating that it was * by a 
young gentleman of Truro School/ whereupon 
the critic in the l Monthly Review ' stated 
that the master of that school should have 
kept it in manuscript, and Cardew retorted 
that he was ignorant of the proposed publica- 
tion. This premature appearance in print 
impaired Polwhele's reputation. From that 
date he was always publishing, but all his 
works were deficient in thoroughness. 

Polwhele matriculated as commoner at 
Christ Church, Oxford, on 3 March 1778, 
and received from it two of Fell's exhibitions. 
He kept his terms until he was admitted a 
student in civil law, but he left the univer- 
sity without taking a degree. In 1782 he 
was ordained by Bishop Ross as curate to 
the Rev. Thomas Bedford.rector of Lamor- 
ran, on the left bank of the Fal, Cornwall, but 
stayed there for a very short time, as in the 
same year he was offered the curacy of Kentou, 
near Powderham Castle, Devonshire, the seat 
of the Courtenays* In this position he re- 
mained until the close of 1793. The parish 
is situate in beautiful scenery ; many of the 
resident gentry were imbued with literary 
tastes, and it is but a few miles from Exeter, 
where Polwhele joined a literary society 
which' * met every three weeks at tie Globe 
Tavern at one o'clock ; recited literary com- 
positions in prose and verse, and dined at 
three ' (POLWHELE, Cornwall) v. 106). The 
association published in 1792 ' Poems chiefly 
by Gentlemen of Devonshire and Cornwall ' 
(2 vols.), edited by Polwhele, and in 1796 
'Essays by a Society of Gentlemen at Exeter.' 
A quarrel over the second publication gave 
rise to a bitter controversy between Polwhele 
and his colleagues (Gent. Mag. 1796, pt. ii.) 
Meanwhile he projected his ' History of 
Devonshire/ and derived considerable assist- 
ance from the documents at Powderham, 
Mamhead, and Haldon, and from the dio- 
cesan records at Exeter (cf. $. 1790, pt. ii, 
pp. 1178-80). His list of subscribers was 
soon full, but the work proved unsatis- 

Polwhele had married in 1782 Loveday, 
second daughter of Samuel Warren of Truro, 
by his wife,Blanche Sandys, of an old Cornish 
family. On 1 Feb. 1793 his wife died at 
Kenton, aged 28, leaving one son and two 



daughters (JPouvHBM3, 
Thereupon he moved, with his children, to 
his mother's house in Cornwall, but after 
a short stay returned again to Konton, and 
married there, on 29 Nov. 1798, M ary, daugh- 
ter of Itichard Tyrrell or Terrell of 
cross. Early in 1794 he was appointed to the 
curacy of Exmoulh, on the opposite Hide 
of the Exe (Wjiuu, Memorials of J&mwuth, 

p. 30). 

On the nomination of the bishop of Exeter, 
Polwhele was appointed in 1794 to thn .small 
living of Manaccan, near JTelstou, Cornwall, 
and he also undertook for a non-resident 
vicar the charge of tho atill smaller and poorer 
living of St. Anthony in Monoago, to which 
he was appointed in 1800. Tho paraonago of 
Manaccan was a mere cottage, and Polwhele 
spent a considerable part of his resources 
in repairs and enlargements, To fleeure tho 
requisite education for hus children, he ac- 
cepted, about 180(5, tho curacy of the largo 
parish of Kenwyn, within which tho borough 
of Truro is partly situated, and obtained from 
the bishop a license of non-ronidonco at 
Mfinaccan. Crokor records in J820 that 
Polwhele, who appeared * to have vory littlo 
worldly wisdom/ watt in trouble through re- 
storing his church without proper authority, 
and that tho parishioners had threatonod him 
with law proceedings* I le vacated tho living 
of Manaccan in 1821 on his appointment to 
the more valuable vicarage of Newly n Kat, 
and he resigned St. Anthony in favour of 
his eldest eon, William, in 18S28, Though 
lie retained the bonoiico of Nmvlyn until 
his death, the last ton yoarfl of hin lift* woro 
spent on his estate ot Polwholo, whr hw 
devoted himself to the composition of hw 
Autobiographical volunuw. Ho died at Truro 
on 12 Si arch 1838, and was burid at St. 
Clement, where a monument preswrv hit* 
memory* By liis second wife he had a large 
family ; among the BOW were Robert, vicar of 
Avenbury, Herefordshire, and author of some 
small theological works ; Itichard Graves, a 
lieutenant-colonel in the Madras artillery ; 
and Thomas, a general in the army. 

Polwhele was, by turns, poet, topographer, 
theologian, and literary chronicler, and his 
fame has been marred by a fatal iiuency oi 
composition. Before ho was twenty he wrote, 
besides the works already mentioned, an odo 
called ' The Spirit of Frazer to General Bur* 
goyne' (1778), poems in the < Essays and 
Poems of Edmund Rack,* and an * Ode on tho 
Isle of Man to the Memory of Bishop Wil- 
' for the 1781 edition of Wilson's .works. 

Pol whole 

follow ing honk* hoip.g known iw 

1785 and 178(1 4. Mniluence of Local 
Attachment' (anw.\ 17JW, 17DH, and 1810, 
Thin poem gave ' iiidumtmnM of a higher ox- 
oollouoo' which worn not fulfilled (Mm it, 
/V/v,'/(7/w? of l\wti<wl Lit, \\, 'VT). Long 1 ex* 
tractH from it are givou in t)wko*N * Winter 

X f I. 1 ,_L\ J lilt * " II 1 " I* I * >iit 1 I, 

Nightjv i, *JiM ;W, n. H 1 1 1 $ \t utt, and it 
\vaH compared by Honin of tin* criticM to tho 
' Picas uroH of Memory* by Samuel KoirorH. 

fc ^^ 

I'olwhtJin tliDrtnipnu iittitpti'a to provo 
originality of his own MNIH (( !h.\vi)i-:N v / 
Lifo of b\ IfofftfM) pp. JIM l), f>, * U 
Tuition' (anon, ), 17i)t^; HupprHH<d aft^r a vtry 
low copies had b**n nohi on account of its 
satirical r'lonww it) Montaubnu (i.o, Sir 
John St. Aub.yn). <J, *&k<toln\H in V 
17imand 1797, 7. 'Tho Old Kn^lmh 

a i i f*i\*x , i i H\i If | i f ^ 

oinnn, 1/97. H, Mho unti'XM r 

1798 and iHtH). . 4 Otman PrimWHStH, 1 17W>. 
10. Fooum, 1H(), iJ vol. U. 'Tim Family 
iHctimj' (mum,), 1H<)8. 1'J. J'OIMUH, IH1(\ 

(iwum.), iHlk M/ThotairlMitholoi't'otol] 
,lHir>, ir>. * Tho Iclylln, KMigramH, and K 

Tho third 


The chief of his subsequent productions in 
poetry were: 1. 'The Art of Eloquence/ a 
didactic poem, bk, i, (anon*), 1785, tho later 

tho Klog'i<H orTyrttt'UH/ 17H(i; thin han h*un 
ol'toti roprinto<l, tho tranwintioNM of Tvrtu 
boingincludoti in n polyglot v<mon}uwirthod 
jit. HruMnlM by A, Baron in lHJtr. Tho rondor- 
ing of tho idyilt* of Thmmriturt IUIH biu tuuuh 
prainod (UitAKH, A?V, tltnirti,\i> HH), 

Tho tcwogruj>Ui<'nl wurkn of INihvholo in- 
cludod hiHtorios of I)t<vrn and of Cornwall. 
Tlu> Mowmd vohuuo of 1(1 *Tho History of 
Dovonshiro/ tho firm, part that WUH 
liwhod appoarod ourly in I7WI MM "' 
voluttio caiuo no^d limit lilw itn t 
WUH dovotod to H pimu'hial Hufvoy of \\M 
county. Tim Htyli^ of thorn* vttliuuos WUH 
ttttrnctivo, and tho dosoripiionH of tho phun^H 
which ho hud himH**U' soon woro o,\o,olhnt. 
liufc tho author WUH wimting in apiilioa- 
ti<m; largo distrlctM f tho rounty worn 
unknown to him, nnd th tupograiiiiy WUH 
not docribod on un adoquato MMUI. Tim 
fftmorttl hinttiry wf tho county wa roHorvt^l 
ior tlm flrnt voluitm, tho iirwt ]irt of which 
camo out in tho munmor of 17U7, This com* 
prinod i\w t Natural lliHtory and tho Britwh 
roriod 1 from tho llrMt HottloinontH in Unin* 
nonium to tho arrival ofMuliunUH'Han Thon 
Ctttno a quoruhiUH }OMtm*ri)t with coinpluintR 
of tho withdrawal of MubutriborM and of th 
action of Homo of hi frunwln in pnblUhing 1 
fleparttlt^ \vorkn on j)urtwnn of tho hintopy of 
tilt) county, TUt5 iirnt volume WUH at * 




completed with a very meagre sketch of its 
Inter history. Much matter wus omitted, 
and the whole work was a disappointment 
to both author and public, which was not 
mitigated by the separate publication of 
17. * Historical Views of Devonshire/ vol. i, 
1793. Four more vo^mes were announced, but 
only the first volume was published. Further 
information on these works will be found in 
the * Gentleman's Magazine ' for 1793 and 
following 1 years, Upcott's 'English Topo- 
graphy ,'L. 150-2, and the 'Transactions of 
the Devonshire Association/ xiv. 61-3. Per- 
fect copies of 'The History of Devonshire' 
are very scarce, A copy with numerous notes 
by George Oliver, D.D. (1781-1861) [q.v.], is 
at the British Museum. The ' History of 
Devonshire ' was reissued in 1806. 

Polwhele's next great labour in topography 
18. ' The History of Cornwall ' also came 
out piecemeal in seven detached volumes 
(1803-1808), and copies, when met with, are 
rarely in perfect agreement either as to leaves 
or plates. A new edition, purporting to be cor- 
rected and enlarged, appeared in 1816, when 
the original titles and the dedication to the 
Prince of Wales were cancelled. The most use- 
ful of the volumes is the fifth, which deals with 
4 the language, literature, and literary cha- 
racters/ A dull supplement to the first and 
second books, containing ' Remarks on St. 
Michael's Mount, Penzance, the Land's End, 
and the Sylleh Isles. By the Historian of 
Manchester' (i.e. John Wnitaker [q. v.]), was 
printed at Exeter in 1804. The vocabularies 
and provincial glossary contained in vol. vi. 
were printed oft' in 1836. The complicated 
bibliography of this work can be studied in 
the ' Bibliotheca Cornubiensis,' ii. 610-11, 
the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' for 1803-4, 
Upcott's 'English Topography/ i. 88-93, 
and 4 The Western Antiquary/ vol. ix. Pol- 
whele gave much assistance to John Britton 
in the compilation of the ' Beauties of Corn- 
wall and Devon.' 

The volumes of reminiscences and anecdotes 
by Polwhele comprised ; 19. * Traditions and 
Recollections/ 1826, 2 vols. 20. 'Biogra- 
phical Sketches in Cornwall/ 1831, 3 vols. 
21, * Reminiscences in Prose and Verse/ 1836, 
3 vols. The earlier part of the first set con- 
tains some civil-war letters, anecdotes of 
Poote and Wolcot, and many of his own 
juvenile poems. His chief correspondents 
were , Samuel Badcpck, Cobbett, Cowper, 
Darwin, Hayley, Gibbon, Mrs. Macaulay, 
Sir Walter Scott, Miss Seward, and John 
Whitaker, D.D. A memoir by Polwhele of 
the last of these worthies formed the subject 
of the third volume of the ' Biographical 
Sketches.' Copies of these three works, with 

manuscript additions, cancelled leaves, and 
many names, where blank in print, inserted 
in writing, are in the Dyce Library at the 
South Kensington Museum. Polwhele also 
published, in connection with the Church 
Union Society, two prize essays respectively 
on the scriptural evidence as to the condition 
of the soul after death, and on marriage ; 
printed many sermons, and conducted a 
vigorous polemic against the methodists. 
His chief opponent on this topic was Samuel 
Drew [q. v.J, who first confuted Polwhele's 
arguments and afterwards became his firm 
friend (Life of Drew, pp. 129-62). 

Throughout his life Polwhele was a con- 
tributor to the * Gentleman's Magazine/ and 
from 1799 to 1806 he was a frequent con- 
tributor to the ' Anti-Jacobin Review.' He 
also supplied occasional articles to the 
'European Magazine/ the 'Orthodox Church- 
man's Magazine/ and the ' British Critic.' 
Some of his poetry appeared in the ' Forget- 
me-not/ 'Literary Souvenir/ 'The Amulet/ 
the 'Sacred Iris*/ and George Henderson's 
'Petrarca' (1803). Several letters to him 
are in Nichols's ' Illustrations of Literature/ 
(iii. 841-2, y. 326, vii. 610-80), and some 
letters by him were in Upcott's collection 
(Catalog, 1836, pp. 41-3). 

Polwhele's portrait, by Opie, * one of the 
first efforts of his genius/ painted about 1778, 
was in the possession of the Rev. Edward 
Polwhele, his son. It was engraved by 
Audinet as frontispiece to his ^Traditions 
and Recollections/ and was also inserted in 
Nichols's ' Illustrations of Literature ' (via, 
646-7). Another engraved portrait from a 
miniature appeared in the 'European Ma- 
gazine ' for November 1795. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; G-ent. Hag. 1793 pt. 
i. p. 187, pt. ii. p. 1149, 1838 pt. i. pp. 545-9; 
Boaseand Courtney's Bibl. Cor n ub. ii. 506-17, 
iii. 1316; Boase's Collect. Cornub, pp. 745-7, 
1200 ,* Vivian's Visitations of Cornwall, pp. 377- 
378; Parochial Hist, of Cornwall, i. 210-17; 
Literary Memoirs of Living Authors, 1798, ii. 
144-6 ; Public Characters, 1802-3, pp. 254-f>7; 
European Mag. 1795, pt. ii. pp. 329-33; 
Bedding's Personal Reminiscences, i. 176-200; 
Redding's Fifty Years* Recollections, i. 2(56; 
Croker Papers, i. 165.] W. P. C. 

THEOPH1LUS (d. 1689), puritan divine, 
of Cornish extraction, was born in Somerset, 
He was entered at Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, as a sizar on 29 March 1644, and 
was under the tutorship of "William Bancroft,, 
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury. In 
1651 he took the degree of M.A. He was 
preacher at Carlisle until about 1655 (Dedi- 
cation to Treatise on iSetf-dtnialt). In 

Pom fret 


Pom fret 

he was a member of tlw eomniittoo 
ejecting scandalous ministers in the lour 
northern counties of Cumberland, Durham, 
Northumberland, and Westnioreiaud. From 
that year until 1660, when ho wan driven 
from the living, he held the rectory of the 
portions of Glare and Tideombe at f i iverton, 
The statement of the Uev. John Walker, in 
< TlieSufferhigaof theClorfry,' that fallowed 
the parsonage-house to fall into ruinH,i con- 
futed in Oalamy'a * Continuation of Baxter's 
Life and Times' (L 200-1). Polwholo Hyrn- 
pathised with the religious VJOWH of the in- 
dependents, and after the Restoration ho was 
often in trouble for his religious opinions, 
After the declaration of James II the Stops 
meeting-house wafl built at Tiverton for the 
members of the independent body ; he wan ap- 
pointed its first minister, and, on account of 
his age, Samuel Bartlett was appointed his 
assistant. He was buried in the churchyard 
of St. Peter, Tiverton, on tt April HJH. Ilia 
wife was a daughter of tho Hev. William 
Benn of Dorchester, Their daughter married 
the Uev. Stephen Lobb [q.. v."] 

Pol whele was the author of: 1, ' &v&fvrri$ t 
or a Treatise of Self-dtuiiall,' 1058 ; dedicated 
to the mayor, recorder, and corporation of 
Carlisle. 2, ' Original and Evil of ApoHtame/ 
1664. 8. 'Of ftuencing 0*0 the Spirit/ 
1667. 3. 'Choice Directions now to servo 
God every Working and every Lord's Day/ 
1667; published by Thomas Mall as an 
addition to his * Serious Exhortation to 
Holy Living/ 4, ' Of Ejoculatory Prayer/ 
1674 ; dedicated to Thomas Skinner, mer- 
chant in London, who had shown him great 
kindness. A catalogue of the * names of 
the princes with Edward III in his warn 
with France and Normandy/ transcribed by 
Mm * att Carlisle the 21st Aug. 1655/from a 
manuscript at Naworth Castle, is in Haw* 
linson MS. BodL Libr, Class B 44, foL 47. 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cormib, ii 617- 
518, iii. 1316-17; Dttmrford'e Tivwtou.pp, 331, 
371-2; Hoarding's Tiwton, vol. ii, pt, iv. pp. 
47, 70 ; Cnlamy's Abridgment of Baxter's Life 
and Times, ii. 230, and Continuation, i IMO-l ; 
Palmer's Nonconf. Memorial (1802 ed.), ii. 7fl~ 
80; Greene's Memoir of Tkoophilus Lobb, p. 5J 

w. p; a 

THOMAS WDUCJAK, fourth EABL, 1770-1833,] 


POMFKET, JOHN (1667-1702), poet, 

bora at Imton, Bedfordshire, in 1667, was 

the son of Thomas Pomfret, vicar of Lutcm, 

who married, at St, Mary's, Savoy, Middle- 

sex, oa 27 Nov. 1661, Catherine, daughter of 

William Dohwm of Ilolliom (HnrL 
PttbL 1887, XXV'L IW). Th fnthor 
duatcxl M,A, from Trinity C'ollt^n ('am* 
bridge, iu 1(501, htT.ninn chu*lain <<> 
Uruco, H^miul oarl of Kl^in uti<l 

of Ailealmry Iq. v|, and in probably \ 
tical with the Ttwmn Pom fret, author of the 
* I /lie of Ludy (/hristian, Dowager Counter 
of Devonshire ' (privately printed KWf>), 
Tho poet wa educated at net I ford gram- 
mar Hchool and at tij.ueenrt 1 College, Cam** 
bridge, graduating Jl.A. in 1 (HI, and M,A, 
in 108H, He took ordor upon leaving 
Cambridge, and, having influential eonnw> 
tions, he WRM inMtit.uted to the rectory of 
Mauldeu in Bedfordshire on 1:2 Dee. 1005, 
and to tho rectory of Miltbrooh iu the name 
county on % J June 170& lie dabbled in verso 
at leant, an early im HUH, \vhen he wrote an 
elegy iqion the death of (J>,uoen Mary, Thin 
wan pnhlUhed in KJU',*, with otlu k r pieerh iu 
heroic couplet H, rmtiarkable ehielly for theiff 
comuntnenH, under the title of * Pormn on 
Mnvoral ( hwiwitjnrt. 1 ( )nt* of tln^ longer poown, 
called 'Cruelty and Ltwt, 1 eotnmemorate 
an net of barbarity Hitid to have betm 
perpetrated by (Lionel Kirke during tho 
\vortt<eru rebellion, Potnfret'w treatutetut of 
th<j nituation in proHa'utally tatne, The Halo 
of thewe ^mtHeeilnny potnnH 1 wan greatly 
Htimnlated by l*otniVet'M publication iu 17<H) 
of his ohiot title to reiueinbranct^ 'Th 
Choice; a Poem written by a Pornon of 
Quality y (London, fl.)^ which won instant 
fame* Four quarto etiitiouH aptear<nl during 
1701* Jn the meantime hrnuret iwued l A, 
ProHpeetof Death: an ()d(** (17(H) fob), and 
*KeaHcm: a Poem' (17(K) t f<*l ( ) A neeoud 
edition of bin poemw, ineluding 4 Th ( *hoioo t f 
appeared in 1705$ UK * MiH^ltauy t'otmtH oti 
8ov()ral OwanionM, l^y the author of "Tho 
Ohoico* MI A third edition WIIH wMtuni in 171 0j 
tho tenth app( k ared in l7*i(J, liJtiut, and the 
laAt separate editii>n in 17iH), ii-Inm, When 
tho Hcslumw for tlm* Liv**H of tbe J*o<*tH ' wiw 
submitted by the boohnellnrM to Ur, Johumm, 
tho nauia of l*nfrt (together with thnto 
otUora) wafl added by bin ttdviee; Johitmrn 
remarks that * prha]> nt> jw<m in our Ian* 
giwjja ha been HO often peruwed* JIH 'Tho 
Ohoifto*' It ift an admirable exponition in 
neatly turned verne of thu everyday p 
cureanwm of a cnltivatttd man, Pomfret 
is said to have drawn Home lihttM from 
a wtudy of tho character of Bir William 

Tomplo (of. 6>. May, 1757 f p, 480), Tho 
, f it "t t % *t * * 

potjts irantcly tixpr&uiuu aH^iratton to *hav 
no wife* dittploaned th btfthop of Ixindon 
(Oompton), to wham Iw ha<l been roenm** 
mended for prefermtmt. I)<wpit<i thu fft<it that 
Pomfrotwaa married, tUy **'"' IIAI,.H* 




were not dispelledbefore the poet's death. lie 
was buried at Maulden on 1 Dec. 1702 (Qenea- 
logia Medfvrdietwisj ed. Blaydes, p. 414), 

Pomfret married at Luton, on 18 Sept. 
160*2, Elizabeth Wingate, by whom he had 
one surviving son, John Pomfret, baptised 
at Maulden on 21 Aug. 1702, who became 
rouge croix pursuivant of arms in July 
1725, and, dying on 24 March 1761, was 
buried at Harrowden in Bedfordshire (Hist. 
Xleyist. 1725 ; NOBLE, Hist, of the Cvlleqe of 
Arms,$y. 362, 394; Gent. Mag. 1761,p. 141). 

Pomlret's poems were printed in Johnson's 
''English Poets' (1779, vol. xxi.), Chalmers's 
'Poets' (1810, vol. viii.), Park's 'British 
Poets ' (1808, supplement, vol. i.), Roach's 
'Beauties of the Poets' (1794, vol. ii.), and 
PrattV Cabinet of Poetry X1808, vol. ii.) The 
exclusion of Pomfret from more recent lite- 
rary manuals and anthologies sufficiently 
indicates that Johnson's strange verdict 
finds few supporters at the present day. At 
the end of the fourth edition of * The Choice ' 
(1701) is advertised * A Poem in Answer to 
the Choice that would have no wife/ 

[Cole's Athen Cantabr. (A.ddit. MS. 5878, f. 
167) ; Graduati Cantabr. ; Cibber's Lives of the 
Poets, vol. v. j Johnson's Lives of the Poets, ed. 
Cunningham, ii. 3 ; Chalmers's Biogr. Diet. ; 
Blaydes's G-enealogia Bedfordiensia, pp. 186, 
409, 414 ; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. ii. 27, viii. 
passim; Pope's Works, ed. Biwin and Court- 
hope, ii. 239 ; works in British Museum ; Bod- 
leian and Huch Library Catalogues.] T, S. 

POMFRET, SAMUEL (1650-1722), di- 
vine, born at Coventry in 1650, was edu- 
cated at the grammar school of Coventry, 
and subsequently under Dr. Obadiah Grew 

{I. v.], and under Ralph Button [q. v.] at 
slington. "When he was about nineteen his 
mother died, and he attained religious con- 
victions* After acting as chaplain to Sir 
William Dyer of Tottenham, and afterwards 
of High ifaster, Essex, he served for two 
years m the same capacity on board a Medi- 
terranean trader. Upon his return to Eng- 
land Pomfret preached a weekly lecture in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, until he received a call 
to Sandwich, Kent, where he remained seven 
years. At length he was arrested for non- 
conformity, but escaped his captors on the 
way to Dover Castle. About 1685 he opened 
a service in a room in "Winchester Street, 
London, which was so crowded that even- 
tually the floor gave way. A new meeting- 
house, capable of holding fifteen hundred 
people, was then erected for him in Gravel 
Lane, Houndsditch. The church was in- 
variably crowded, and Pomfret administered 
the sacrament to as many as eight hundred 
communicants. The zeal which he displayed 

in itinerant preaching wore out his health, 
but when unable to walk he had himself 
carried to his pulpit in a chair. He died on 
11 Jan. 1722. His assistant from 1719, Wil- 
liam Hocker, predeceased him by a month, 
on 12 Dec. 1721. Thomas Reynolds (1664- 
1727) [q. v.] preached funeral sermons on and 
issued memoirs of both. Pomfret's wife sur- 
vived him, but all his children died before him. 
Pomfret only published two sermons (1697 
and 1701). 'A Directory for Youth,' with por- 
trait, was issued posthumously, London, 1722. 

[Works and Sermon, with portrait, in Dr. 
Wiliiams's Library ; Memoir by Reynolds, pre- 
fixed to Funeral Sermon, 1721-2, 2nd ed. 1722; 
another edition, entitled ' Watch and Remember/ 
London, 1721-2, differs slightly ; Wilson's Hist, 
of Dies. Churches, i. 165, 397, 473 ; Bogue and 
Bennett's Hist, of Dissenters, ii. 341 ; Granger's 
Hist, of Engl., Continuation by Noble, iii. 158 ; 
Toultnin's Hist, of Prot, Dissenters, pp. 572, 245, 
247 ; Meridew's Warwickshire Portraits, p. 48 ; 
Bromley's Cat. of Portraits, p. 226 ; Chaloner 
Smith's Brit. Mezz. Portraits, iv. 1701.] 

C. F. S. 

PONCE, JOHN (d. 166QP), author, a 
native of Cork, studied at Louvain in the 
college of the Irish Franciscans. He became 
a member of the order of St. Francis, and, 
after further studies at Cologne, he removed 
to the Irish College of St. Isidore at Rome, 
where he was appointed professor of philo- 
sophy and theology. Ponce contributed to 
the Franciscan edition of the works of Duns 
Scotus, issued at Lyons in 1639. He pub- 
lished at Rome in 1642 ' Integer Philosophic 
Cursus ad mentem Scoti/ in two volumes 4to, 
containing upwards of fifteen hundred pages 
of small type in double columns. A third 
volume of about nine hundred pages was issued 
at Home in 1643, Ponce dedicated the work 
to Cardinal Francesco Barberini, from whom 
he had received many favours, and who held 
the office of ' protector of Ireland.' 

Ponce disapproved of the courses pursued 
in Ireland by those who opposed the nuncio 
Giovanni Battista Rinuccini [q. v.] In the 
'Aphorismical Discovery of Treasonable Fac- 
tion ' are preserved two letters written by 
Ponce at Paris in 1648 in relation to transac- 
tions in Ireland. 

In 1652 Ponce published at Paris * Cursus 
Theologicus/ in a folio volume. His views 
on affairs in Ireland were enunciated in, 
* Richardi Bellingi Vindicise Eversee ' (Paris, 
1653), impugning the statements which had 
been promulgated by Richard Bellings [q. v. J 
and others of the Anglo-Irish party. Ponce 
was author also of the following works, pub- 
lished at Paris : * Philosophic Cursus/ 1656 ; 
' Judicium DoctriuDO Sanctorum Augustini et 



,' l(>/>7 ; * Scot us Hibftnurc Restitutun/ 
]G6(); 'OommentariiTheolotficV UW1. 

Ponce died at l*aris about 1 (WO. A portrait 
of him is in $t, laidore'A College, Roma* 

[Scriptoreu OrdmisMmorum, 1650; GUb<rt'H 
Contemporary History of AtfUirs in 1 roland, 1 870, 
and History o f Irish Confederation and Wur, 1881; 
Lowndes's BibL Man, tsd, IJohn, ] J. T, U. 

POND, AKTIIUK (170fiM758\pamtw 
and engraver, born about 1705, WIIH ediiGiitml 
in London, and made a short Hojourn in 
Home for purposes of studying art in com- 
pany with the sculptor JUoubiliuc, ilo bo- 
came a successful portrait-painter. The mot 
notable of his numerous original portraits 
are those of Alexander Pope, William, duke 
of Cumberland, and Pop "Wotting on; the lant 
is in the National Portrait Uallory. Pond 
was also a prolific otcher, and an hxduatriouH 
worker in various mixed proccflaeB of tmgrav- 
ing by means of which IN* imitated or repro- 
duced the works of masters such UH Rem- 
brandt, Kaphael, Stilvator Rosa, Parmi#umo, 
Caravaggio, and the Poussina* In 17M f> 
he published a series of IUR plates under the 
title 'Imitations of the Italian M astern.' 
He also collaborated with Ge.orgo Kimpton 
in the publication of the 'Head* of lllim- 
trioua Persona, 1 after Houbrakwi and Vortuo, 
with lives by Dr. Birch (London, 17-18- r>2), 
and engraved sixty-eight platos fop a eolioc- 
tion of ninety-five reproductions from draw- 
ings by famous masters, in which Knapton 
was again his colleague. Another of hit* pro- 
ductions was a serieA of twonty-iivo carica- 
tures after the Cavaliere Qtel t rmwblialmd 
in 1823 and 1882 ns < Eccentric Charactora.' 
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1752, and died in Great Queen fctwwst. 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, 9 Sept, 1708. His col- 
lection of drawings by the old miwtorH was 
sold the following year, and realined ov or four- 
teen hundred pounds. An anonymous ttf chtnl 
portrait of Pond is mentioned by Bromtoy, 

[Kedgwe's Diet, of Artidta; Gonfc. Majv. 17^58, 
p,462 ; Lo-wndes's BibL Alan. p. 10U,] W. A, 

FOOT), ED WARD (d. 1620), almanac- 
maker, is described on the title-page of his 
tUmanac of 1601 as <a practitioner in the 
Hathematicks and Physicke at Bidarcay 
<;p Billericay) iti Essex/ In this almanac he 
includes a diagram and description of * Man's 
Anatomy > and < Phy sicke Notes.' From 1004 
lie published an almanac eech year in London 
tinder the title ' Enchiridion, or Edward Pond 
his Eutheca*' Subsequently the periodical 
issue was christened < An Almanac by Ed, 
Pond, student of Physics and Mathematics/ 
In October 1623 the Stationers' Company 
petitioned the privy council againafc the iix- 

fraction of tho'tr monopoly us nlnmnao 

H by (Juntroll \&w\*\ printer to Cum- 
Univtn-Nity, but npnaiTntly without 
H, for from U) k J7 Pomrw nlnumntss con- 
tinued tolmiHmnMl fmtu thn t'niv<rNity prtM, 
Pond dii'd at, Pot (Thorough, ivttd \VUM* buried 
in the church of St. John th< BaptiHt in that 
city on 10 Sipt, 1<>^) (HwHKTiNa, JPurhh 
d/mw/iM round IWrrtiniitut//!), Tlio popti- 
lurity of Iii iHib1ir.nt.ioti lod to it.s cotitinunnco, 
undtir it Hlightly modUird title, until I70SK 
Tho lnttr wriiB was propnrod at SaiVron 
Waldcn, douhtlosH by a n*lutivn<>fl*oud,aud 
iMifh part WJIH clivsignati'd 4 Pcmd^an Alnuinau/ 
Th'm \vnHprint(ulal. ('ninbrid^ until tlmoloHO 
of the century, amUn Lond<nulurin^tluMuirly 
years of tin* eight wnth t^nt ury. f riu> rhyme, 
My nkiU $WH 
of a 

ardomuw to PonoVn popular reputation ntt 
an HHtrotmtner, occur* in Martin Parker^ 
ballad * When the lti^ enjoys bin own again" 
(Wu.KtNH, Mitiwl Jfatttuity i, U). 

H AlumimpH; Ciil Stnte Pupur*, Pom* 
p, t)8; Arb'r' Mtttt,, Keg. v. p. xlixS 
CollrctinnH, i, Mil, ii, 4Ha | K, 1. 0. 

POND, JOHN (1707- 1 KM), axtnmomer- 
royal, wan horn in London in 17(57* 11 U 
father mm af'terwiurdu withdrew from Imni- 
juH, with tin ample competence, to live ut 
J)ulwioh. 1*011(1*8 Mlueution, begun at thtt 
MaidHtotio granimur nchool, WHH oontinuod 
ut home under the tuition of William Wulen 
[<[. v.j, from whom he imbibed a tante tor 
uKtronomy. HIH k<nnt*MH WIIN nbown by 
<Ut<*ct.ici f when about M'tewj> of errorn iu 
the Greenwich obHtU'Vut ionn, At nixteen ho 
entered Trinity (-(dlege^ (?uwbridgt% wbera 
he dvott k d hinmelf to ohewUi ry ; tiut be wan 
obliged by ill-hwilUi to leave the univernitv, 
and went ubroud, vimting l*ortttffnl, Malta, 
OouHtuntinople, and KgypJ iiianing 1 nHtro** 
noiuical obnervationH at* IUH luiltin^-jjlueeH, 
About 17i)H ho wi^t t led at Went bury in Kowr- 
ftet, and erect ml there an alUi/aw'uth inntru- 
innt, by^Kdward Troughton [j. v,), of two 
and a half feet diameter, which In-tMime known 
us th(5 ' W f eHtbury eirtslii ' (me VhlL Trttug, xc vu 
4^4). II IH ohmirvationH with it in IK(KM. 
* On tho 1 K'cllnHtunm of Home of the l*rin<*ipa{ 
Fixyd HtnrH,' cotumunicated to the Royal 
Society on iW Jimo IBiHi (iV5>, p. >Ji*0) t gnvt> 
dockive j>roof of dforiation through ago 
in the urenwib quadrant (Bird'H), und 
rendered inuvitablo a compltito rtMU|uipmont 
of Mm Hoy d Obiwrvatory, 

Pond w(t lectt*d a fellow of th lloyal 
Society on StJ Feb. 1H07, ll ntarriud in the 
nam year, und fixed IUH bod in London, 
occupying lumttolf with pructicul atvouomy 




Troughton was his intimate friend, and Pond 
superintended, in Ids workshop, the con- 
struction of several instruments of unprece- 
dented perfection. Dr. Nevil Maskelyne 
[q, v.], the fifth astronomer-royal, recom- 
mended him as his successor to the council 
of the Royal Society; and Sir Humphry 
Davy, who had visited him at Westbury in 
1800, brought his merits to the notice of 
the prince-regent. As the result he was 
appointed astronomer-royal in February 1811, 
with an augmented salary of 600?. The six- 
foot mural circle, ordered from Troughton by 
Maskelyne, was mounted in June 1812 ; and 
Pond presented to the Royal Society, on 
8 July 1813, a catalogue of the north polar 
distances of eighty-four stars determined with 
it (ib. ciii. 280), which Bessel pronounced to 
be * the ne plus ultra of modern astronomy ' 
(Brief wechsel mit plbers, 30 Dec. 1813). In 
1816 a transit instrument, by Troughton, of 
five inches aperture and ten feet focal length, 
was set up at the Royal Observatory. A 
Ramsden telescope presented by Lord Liver- 
pool in 1811 proved of little use. In a paper 
on the construction of star-catalogues read 
before the Royal Society on 21 May 1818 
Pond described his method of treating 'every 
star in its turn as a point of reference for the 
rest ' (ib. cviii. 405). He substituted in 1821 
a mercury-horizon for the plumb-line and 
spirit-level (ib, cxiii. 35), and introduced in 
1825 the system of observing the same ob- 
jects alternately by direct and reflected vision, 
which, improved by Airy, is still employed 
(Memoirs Roy. Antr. Society, ii. 499). The 
combination for this purpose of two instru- 
ments was suggested to Pond by the posses- 
sion of a circle by Jones, destined for the 
Cape, but sent on trial to Greenwich. Pond 
obtained permission to retain it, and it was 
transferred in 1851 to the observatory of 
Queen's College, Belfast. Among his other 
inventions for securing accuracy were the 
multiplication, and a peculiar mode of group- 
ing observations. 

He showed in 1817, by means of deter- 
minations executed in 1813-14 with the 
Greenwich circle, the unreality of Brinkley's 
ostensible parallaxes for a Lyrse, a AquiltB, 
and a Cygai (PhiL Trans, cvii. 158). As a 
further test he caused to be erected in 1816 
two fixed telescopes of four inches aperture 
and ten feet focal length, directed respec- 
tively towards a Aquilse and a Cygni, and 
sedulously investigated their differences of 
right ascension from suitable comparison- 
stars. But neither thus nor by the aid of 
transit observations could any effects of pa- 
rallax be detected (ib. cvii. 353, cviii. 477, 
cxiii. 53), Pond's conclusion that they were 

insensible with the instruments then in use 
has since been fully ratified. Dr. C. A. F. 
Peters nevertheless criticised his methods 
severely in 1853 (Mtmoires de Saint-Ptters- 
bourg, torn. vii. p. 47). Against attacks made 
in this country upon his general accuracy, and 
even upon his probity as an observer, Bessel 
vigorously defended him (Astr. Nach. No. 
84). From a comparison of his own with 
Bradley's star-places, Pond deduced the in- 
fluence upon them of a southerly drift due ' to 
some variation, either continued or periodical, 
in the sidereal system' (PhiL Trans, cxiii. 
84, 529). Herschel's discovery of the solar 
advance through space appears to have 
escaped his notice. Airy, however, gave him 
credit for having had the first inkling of dis- 
turbed proper motions (Astr. Nach, No. 590). 
A discussion on the subject with Brink ley 
was carried on with dignity and good temper. 
Pond received in 1817 the Lalaude prize 
from the Paris Academy of Sciences, of wnich 
he was a corresponding member; and the 
Copley^ medal in 1823 for his various as- 
tronomical papers. He joined the Astronomi- 
cal Society immediately after its foundation. 
Directed by the House of Commons in 1816 
to determine the length of the seconds pen- 
dulum, he requested and obtained the co- 
operation of a committee of the Royal Society, 
ite was a member of the board of longitude, 
and attended diligently at the sittings in 
1829-30 of the Astronomical Society's com- 
mittee on the * Nautical Almanac,' of which 
publication he superintended the issues for 

1832 and 1833. The new board of visitors, 
appointed in 1830, caused him no small vexa- 
tion. They took exception to his neglect of 
the planets for the stars, and to the rigidity 
of mechanical routine imposed upon his 
assistants, His own mathematical know- 
ledge was very slight. The publication ia 

1833 of a catalogue of 1113 stars, determined 
with unexampled accuracy, was his crowning 
achievement. It embodied several smaller 
catalogues, inserted from time to time in the 
' Nautical Almanac ' and the ' Greenwich 
Observations,' of which he printed eight folio 
volumes. In his last communication to the 
Royal Society he described his mode of ob- 
serving with a twenty-five-foot zenith tele- 
scope, mounted by Troughton and Simms ia 
1833 (Phil. Trans, cxxiv. 209, cxxv. 145). 
Harassed by many infirmities, he retired from 
the Royal Observatory in the summer of 
1835 with a pension of 600J. a year, and 
died at his residence at Blackheath on 7 Sept. 
1836. He was buried in the tomb of Halley 
in the neighbouring churchyard of Lee. 

Of a mild and unassuming character, Pond 
neither sought nor attained a popular reputa- 



tion. Hifl work was wholly twohmcal, IIIH 
writing dry and condonsixl ; but hw rolorm 
of tho national observatory wan fumlatwmtal. 
He not only procured for it an iimtrumontal 
outfit of the modern typ, but <wt,ablwhil 
the modern system of observation. I ho 
number of assistants was incroaaod dunnff 
hifl term of office from one to six, and ho Hub- 
atitutod quarterly for annual publication ot 
results, lie possessed the truo matinct ot a 
practical astronomer. Troughlon iwetl to 
say that ' a new mBtrnmout wan at all tim 
a better cordial for the astronomer-royal 
than any which the doctor could supply. 
Ara^o visited Greenwich to acqmr^ hm 
methods ; Airy regarded him ns tho princi- 
pal improver of modern practical astronomy; 
Bessel, many of whose refinement ho antici- 
pated, was his euthuwiafltic admirer. Pond s 
double-altitude observation*, made with hifl 
two mural circles in IBitf) -35, have boon re- 
duced by Mr. 8. 0, Chandler for tho purpoiwB 
of his research into tho variation of latituuo 
(Astr. Journal, Nos, 813, ttir>). He npoakH 
of them as ' a rich mine of atdlar nuwumwi- 
ments, 7 and considers that thoir accuracy 
'has been scarcely sunmftttod any whore or at 
any time.' His catalogue am, howovor, 
somewhat marred by slight periodical wrow, 
depending probably ut>on the HVHtem of 
fundamental stars employed in tuoir con- 
struction ( W. A. ItoaBRfi, in Watuw, xxviii. 
472). A translation by Pond of Laplacu's 
' Systeme du Monde 7 was published in 1809, 
and he contributed many articles to Itaw'tt 
' Encyclopedia/ 

[Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical aoeiotjr, 
x, 357; Proceedings of tho Royal Sodotv, hi, 
434; Annual Biogmphy and OMtowry, 1H37, 
vol. xxi.; 0ent Mag* 1836, ii, 646; Report of 
the Brit. Association, I 128, 132, 136 (Airy); 
Grant's Hist of Astronomy, p, 401 ; Edinburgh 

uuai.wl, bonuno follow 01 t no roiiifo tn io*i, 
IwrHjir thoro from 15.S7 to lf)M f uu<I doun from 
1510 to Iftia. HonronMMlod D.IK iu 1A-I7. 
H(^ was a Hti*m^ uivin^ of tho ri>formin 
Hchool ; cl<V(*r, but soiuowhat uuw^rupulouH. 
OratnjuT naw bin ability, and tnado him hia 
chaplain, a promotion which imwtl 
boforo 1517 t as in tbat yoar l*e>mrt, 

to tin 1 arch}iHbo|) a hMt^r from lim 

frlond |{o4*r Awhatn, praying to b rnlinved 
from Bating linh m l^nt (STiivi'M, fmnmW) 
\. ^ 10, cf. p. r>07), Mcanwhilo otbnr pnfr- 
mcnt had como to him. Ou 15 Nov. 154JJ 
ho bncamn r i ctor ot v St,, Mir1wnlX Oriu>kiul 
Lano, .London* On \% Inno 1045 ho waw 
mado r<w*.t.or of havant-, SUHHOX, and ou 
Ii2 Jan, K>'t5--H Iw bocamt^ canon of CJantoiv 
bury, rp-signintf Lavant. In 1517 li WJVH 
prtmtor lor^ diot'OHo of (Jant^rbury. Ktir 
uonry VI tl ho mado a ruriouM dial of tho 
aawu Vmd im that <rcti<l in IftlJrt iti Mio first 
court of <{utoiw* Ot>lltfi, Whilo with Orau- 
mor ho built a wummtT parlour or * nolnr ' at 
Lambeth l*alaco, which Archbishop Parlior 
ropair<d in aftor yearw (H'ruvtn-j, PrtrAw, ii. 

Ponot WUH a groat, prono.hor, ami bad a 

cquin'tuontM, knowing matliomaticH, 
y,< lorman t ntul I talinn,boHi<loMhoin^ 
a ^oorl oliiHrttoal Hfhobir atul a t hoolo^ian, In 
Lont IftfiOho pWMic.lwwl tho Friday wormotm 
bforo Ktlwnrd VI, ami on <1 Juno 1550 bo 
appointotl bishop of H(UhoMtor^ Hft 
t bmhon ron8urnttml according to 

tho now ordinal (STiiYf'H, ttrtinmw, pp 274, 


G-eschichto der HimmelHkuntlo, vol. ii. 
passim; Aunuaire deVObsorvatoiro<loBruxt*llos, 
1864, p. 331 (Mailly); BesseVs Popultiro Vorlo- 
8utigen,p.543; Poggendorff'ft Bio^r.-lit, Haml- 
wort-erbuch ; Observatory, xiii, 204 (Lwi on 
Pond's instruments) ; Watt's Bibl. Brit, ; Hoyal 
Society's Cat. of Scientiiic Papers; AlHlK>no'H 
C3rit. Diet, of English Literature.] A* H, C. 

1556)^ biahop of Winchester, was born in 
Kent about 1514, and educated at Queum' 
College, Cambridge, under Sir Thomaa Smith 
(STBYPB, Smith, pp, 20, 159) f Ho was a 
great scholar, skilled especially in Greek, in 
which he adopted Choke's mode of pronun- 
ciation (ST&roE, Chekt) p, 18). He gra- 

wan tlw lant b'mbop wno 
allowtul to hold with hm MU \m othor _ 
formtmtH ; ami thWA WHH mnw roamm for t.U 
permiHHion in h'm UM<^ in tltat thin> wan no 
palace lor tho binhtw whrn \w wan wmwi- 
cratod. On 18. Ian, IrnKV-Uw wan appointed 
oiw of thirty-ono cwutiuHMionorH t<^ * tjrro*,t 
and iwiiiHh all anabaptint-H, and Miwh IIH <lid 
not uuly admhtmti^r Uwi MaoramontH u< 
ing to thtt Botilutf Common J.*myr * (H-i 

Ftmot wa Oftrt of tbont 1 * who 
Hoopor bwhop f tJUucHtir on 8 
15fiO-i, ll a^pmrn not to havo Hbamnn 
HooporV objtu'ttou tt> tho vostmontn, With, 
Oranmr and Itidloy, Poncsl WHH ctmHultod hi 
March 15504 about Urn difficult HNO of tlw 
Mary; and tlwnr annwor antohor 
maB * that to j(iv Itcwtao to H'UI wa 

suffer or wink at. it for a timo ' (HTHVIM, Mfi* 
mortals, H* i* 451 } nomnn to boar triwswH of hi* 
handiwork. On &* Mawsh 1 050 1 ho waa ap- 
pointed binhop of W indu*HUr,Garilinwliavmg 
been doprivod, A condition of \m appoint.- 
munt, wmoklio at o&eo carriodout, wa that 




he should resign to the king the lands of the 
see, receiving in return a fixed income of two 
thousand marks a year, chiefly derived from 
impropriated rectories. The meaning of the 
transaction was soon made plain in the grants 
made of the surrendered lands to various 
courtiers. But the blame was not solely 
Ponot's ; for the dean and chapter consented, 
and Cranmer must have had a good deal to 
say in the matter. At Winchester he had 
Bale and Goodacre for chaplains, and John 
Philpot (1516-1555) [q.v.] for archdeacon. 
On 6 Oct, 1551 he was one of the commis- 
sioners for the reformation of ecclesiastical 
law, and about the same time he was one of 
the visitors of Oxford University. When 
Mary came to the throne Ponet was deprived, 
and is said to have fled at once to the con- 
tinent. A tradition, however, preserved by 
Stow, asserts that he took an active part in 
Wyatt's rebellion. Eventually he found his 
way to Peter Martyr at Strasburg, where he 
seems to have been cheerful enough, even 
though his house was burnt down. ' What 
is exile ? ' he wrote to Bullinger i i a thing 
painful only in imagination, provided you 
have wherewith to subsist/ He died at 
Strasburg in August 1556. 

Ponet's ability, both as a thinker and a 
writer of English, can perhaps best be inferred 
from his * Short Treatise of Politique Power/ 
which is useful as an authority for the history 
of his time. It is also said to be one of the 
earliest expositions of the doctrine of tyran- 
nicide ; but there Ponet was anticipated by 
John of Salisbury. Ponet's matrimonial ex- 
periences were curious. He seems to have 
gone through the form of marriage with the 
wife of a butcher of Nottingham, to whom 
he had to make an annual compensation; 
from her he was divorced 'with shame 
enough* on 27 July 1651 (MiOKYN). On 
25 Oct. 1551 he married Maria Haymond at 
Oroydon church, Cranmer being present at 
the ceremony. This wife went abroad with 
him, and survived him. An interesting letter 
from her to Peter Martyr, some of whose 
books she had sold with her husband's by 
mistake, has been preserved, 

Ponet's chief works were : 1. * A Tragoedie 
or Dialoge of the uniuste usurped primacie of 
the Bishop of Rome, . , . ' London, 1549, 8yo. 
This translation from Bernardino Ochino 
[q.v.l brought him to the notice of Somerset, 
who is mentioned in the dedication. 2. * A 
Defence for Marriage of Priestes by Scripture 
and aunciente Wryters/ London, 1549, 8vo 
(possibly an early edition of No. 5). 8. ' Ser- 
mon at Westminster before the King,* Lon- 
don, 1550, 4to. 4. ' Oatechismus Brevis 
Christiana Discipline Summam continens, 

omnibus ludimagistris authoritate Regiacom- 
mendatus. Huic Catechismo adiuncti stint 
Articuli/ Zurich, 1553, 8vo. This was pub- 
lished anonymously, in English by Day and in 
Latin by Wolf. It was assigned to both 
Ridley and Nowell. Several editions ap- 
peared in 1558. The English version has been 
printed in ' Liturgies ' of Edward VI's reign 
by the Parker Society. 5. ' De Ecclesia ad 
regem Edwardum/ Zurich, 1553, 8vo. 6. 'An 
Apologie fully aunsweringe by Scriptures 
and aunceant Doctors a blasphemose Book 
gatherid by D. Steph. Gardiner . . , D. Smyth 
of Oxford, Pighius, and other Papists . . . 
and of late set furth under the name of 
Thomas Martin . . . against the godly mar- 
riadge of priests/ 1555, 12mo ; 1566, 8vo. 
7. *A Short Treatise of Politique Power, 
and of the true obedience which subjectos 
owe to kynges and other civile governours, 
with an Exhortacion to all true natural! 
Englishemen/ 1566, 8vo ; 1639, 8vo ; 1642, 
4to. 8. * Axiomata Eucharistise/ 9. * Dia- 
lecticon de veritate, natura, atque substantia 
Oorporis et Sanguinis Ohristi in Eucharistia/ 
Strasburg, 1557, 8vo. An English transla- 
tion was published in London, 1C88, 4to 


[Cooper's AthenaeCantabr, i, 155,547; Dixon's 
Hist. Church of Engl. iii. 151, &c., iv. 74, &c. j 
Le Neve's Fasti, i. 56, ii. 570; Heylyn's Ecclesia 
Kestaurata, i. 208, &c., ii. 91, 121, &c.; Wood's 
Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, i, 390, ii. 52 ; Wood's 
Hist, and Antiq. of Univ. of Oxford, i. 273 ; 
Machyn's Diary (Catnden Soc.), pp, 8, 320, 323 ; 
JFoxe's Actes and Monuments, vii. 203 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, pp. 32, 44 ; JMCait- 
land's Essays, pp. 97, 124 ; Lipscomb's Bucking- 
hamshire, ii. 1 62, iii. 392, 653 ; Hasted'sKent, iii. 
265 ; Hessel's Eccles. Lond. Batavise Archivum, ii. 
15, 16; authorities quoted.] W. A. J. A. 

LOTTE MARY (1817-1877), born on 17 Feb. 
1817, was the third daughter of John Wil- 
liam Ponsonby, fourth earl of Besaborongh. 
[q. v.], by his wife, Lady Maria Fane, daughter 
of John Fane, tenth earl of Westmorland 
[q. v.] Frederick George Brabazon Ponsonby, 
sixth earl of Bessborough [q. v.], was her 
brother. From 1848 till 1873 she wrote a 
number of novels, mostly published anony- 
mously ; they contain some careful and good 
writing. She died, unmarried, on 3 Feb. 1877. 

Her oooks are : 1. * The Discipline of Life/ 
3vols., 1848; 2nd edit., 1848. 2. 'Pride 
and Irresolution/ 3 vols., 1850 (a new series 
of the former book). 3. * Clare Abbey ; 
or the Trials of Youth,' 1851. 4. 'Mary 
Gray, and other Tales and Verses/ 1852, 
6. 'Edward Willoughby : a Tale/ 1854. 
6. < The Young Lord/ 1856. 7. ' Sunday 




Readings, consisting of uifflit Short'. Sermons, 
addressed to the Young,' 18T>7. 8. < The two 
Brothers/ 3 vok, 1868. 9, ' A. Mothur'H 
Trial,' 1859. 10. ' Kathlenne and her Sisters, 
1861 ; 2nd edit., 1868. 11. ' Mary Lyndwiy,' 
3 vola., 1863; published hi Now York, IMS. 
12. ' Violet Oflborne/ & vols., 1865. 1& < ISir 
Owen Fairfax,' 3 vole., 1806. 14. ' A Story 
of Two Cousins/ 1868. 15. < Nora,' 3 voK, 
1870. 16. ' Oliver Beaumont and Lord Lati- 
mer, 1 3 vols,, 1873. 

[AllibcWs Diet. English Lit ii. 1620, Sup- 
plement, ii. 1243 ; O'Dbnoghuo's Poets of Ire- 
land, pt. iii. p. 206.] & I*- 

DISH (1783-1837), major-general, born on 
6 July 1783, -was the second Ron of Fredoric 
Ponsonby, third earl of Besaborough, by 
Lady Henrietta Frances Spencer, second 
daughter of the first Karl Spencer. lie on- 
tered the army in January 1800 as a cornet 
in the 10th dragoona, and 'became lieutenant 
on 20 June of that year, and captain on 
20 Aug. 1 80S* In April 1806 he exchanged 
to the 60th foot, and served on the afcaff of 
the lord lieutenant in Ireland. lie became 
major in the army on 25 June 1807, and on 
6 Aug. he obtained a majority in the 2ttrd 
light dragoons. He went with hi reghmwfc 
to Spain in 1809, and ditttixijruished himnelf 
at Talavera. The 23rd were ordered, together 
with a regiment of German husaarfl, to (Charge 
a column of infantry advancing on the French 
right as they were in the act of deploying. 
They came in mid career on a ravine, which 
stopped the Germans and threw tlw 28 rd 
into confusion. The colonel was wounded, 
but Ponsonby led the men on against, the 
infantry, which had by tin a timo formed 
squares. Repulsed "by the infantry, tlw &kd 
were charged by two regiments of French 
cavalry, and were driven back with a loe of 
more than two hundred officers and men; 
but the delay and disorder prevented the 
French column from taking part in the 
general attack on the British position (se 
NAPXBB, iii. 559, 2nd edition, for Ponsonby'a 
own account of this affair). 

Ponsonby served on the staff as assistant 
adjutant-general at Busaco and Barosa, Gra- 
ham, in his report of the latter action, said that 
a squadron of the 2nd hussars, King's German 
legion, under Ponsonby's direction, made ' a 
brilliant and most successful charge against 
a squadron of French dragoons, which were 
entirely routed* ( Wellington Despatches , iv. 
697), 'He had become lieutenant-colonel on 
15 March 1810, and on 11 June 181 J he ob- 
tainedthecommand of the ISthlight dragoons, 
aud led that regiment for the rest of the war, 

I To played a principal part in the. cavalry 
action near Uerena on 11 April 1812, biting 
at the time in temporary command of Anaon's 
brigade, to which his regiment belonged. 
Tho French cavalry under Piorro Soult wu 
about two thousand strong, INuiMonby had 
about; nix hundred, as one regiment of the 
brigade, wn Hi ill in rear, and he wan told by 
Sir Staploton Cotton t.o detain and amuse 
the French while Le Marchant/M bri^ado 
moved round upon their Hank. The, French, 
fiooinfrhirt inferiority, ad vanc<ul,and be retired 
slowly before them into a narrow dolile 
between some Htone wallH, They wero on 
the point; of charging when hi nmsintf reg-i- 
mimt came up t and at tho namn time the head 
of Le Marelumt'H hri^adn appeared on tho 
right, Tho French turned, and wero pursued 

by tho two brigade to Uerenu, where they 
found protection from their inlantvy, having 
lot more than 150 men, Ponsonhy wn 
pateod by Cot.ton for hin gallantry and 

1'onaonby wan actively wiffatfod with his 
regimout in covering 1 the movements of tin* 
army immediately before Hulamanca, an<l in 
tho battle itHclf, $$ July iKlsJ, tcmardn the, 
Gvonixif?, Iu madeMmue clmrjgoH an<l diHj)erHed 
omo of tho already bivittm Knrh inlantry, 
bin liorHt) receiving Htivoral bayonet wouiulH, 
After th failure of tli wiege, of Burton \M 
bolpod to cover tho retreat of tlw army, and 
was wounde<l. At Vittoria IHH regiment 
formed part of the forw ttntler Graham which 
turned the French ri^ht, and barrod their re 
trat by tiws Uayonuo road. It. wan tm#a^ed iu 
th action at TolomL, when (Irahnm overtook 
Foy, and covr<i th commuuicutionH of 
Gtvaham'H corjw during the H"H^ of Han 
bawtian. It took part in tlw 
oporationft in thu Tyrnnoeft and in the 
of Franks and rutiiruod to Kngland in July 
1H14, On 4 Jun of that year Ptmwmby wnn 
mad? a bnwt colonel and*AJ),( 3, to th** king 
in rocognition of hi t*rvic,tH* 

In tli fallowing y<wr tlie^ l^th, with Pon- 
sonby Htill in command of it, formed part 
of vanddint^H light cavalry briffiuli*. At 
Waterloo thin brigade wa at* flrnt. past ml on 
the xtrm lftj but ttbout half*pnHt tm^ 
when the two Jwwvy brigades fihar^tnl, it waft 
moved t o war dtttlui cant remind two regiment K, 
the 12th and 16th, Wiir nrdtwd to ehar^^ 
to covor the retirommit of tlw mn of th 
Union brigftd<?. Thy worn told to <lHcnd 
the slope, but not. to ptiHB the hollow ground 
in front ; once launched, howvt?ir, they wwe 
not easily stopped. Ponsonby himftwli, nftr 
receiving H^veral wounds, flf from hi horB) 
ou the crtJHt of tho ridgo which wan occupied 
by the French guns* * I know,* k<j say^ * we 




ought not to have been there, and that we 
fell into the same error which we went down 
to correct, but I believe that this is an error 
almost inevitable after a successful charge, 
and it must always depend upon the steadi- 
ness of a good support to prevent serious 
consequences' (Waterloo Letters, p. 112). 
His experiences as he lay on the battle-field 
were taken down from his oral account by 
the poet Rogers, and recorded in a letter to 
his mother which has been frequently quoted 
(e.g. CREASY, Decisive Battles). He was on 
the field all night, and had seven wounds ; 
but he was ' saved by excessive bleeding/ 

He left his regiment on 26 A ug. 1820, ex- 
changing to half-pay, and on 20 Jan. 1824 
he was appointed inspecting field officer in 
the Ionian Islands. He became major-general 
on 27 May 1825, and on 22 Dec. of the fol- 
lowing year he was made governor of Malta, 
where he remained till May 1835. On 4 Dec. 
of the latter year he was given the colonelcy 
of the 86th foot, from which he was trans- 
ferred to the royal dragoons on 31 March 

1836. In 1831 he was made a K.O.B. and 
a K.C.H.; he was alsoa GKO.M.G. (1828), a 
knight of the Tower and Sword of Portugal, 
and a Imight of Maria Theresa of Austria. 
He kept up his interest in cavalry questions, 
and in the ' Wellington Despatches' (viii. 
335) there is a letter from the duke,' dated 
7 Nov. 1834, in reply to one of his upon 
details of cavalry equipment and formations. 
When in Spain he had made an abridgment 
of some e Instructions for Cavalry on Outpost 
Duty,' drawn up by Lieut.-colonel von Arent- 
schildt, who commanded the hussar regiment 
which was to have charged with the 23rd at 
Talavera, and this abridgment was printed at 
Freneda in 1813. It was reprinted, together 
with the original instructions, London, 1844. 

Ponsonby died near Basingstoke on 1 1 Jan. 

1837. He married, 16 March 1825, Lady 
Emily Charlotte Bathurst, second daughter 
of the third Earl Bathurst, and left three sons 
and three daughters. 

The eldest son, SIR HENRY FREDERICK 
PONSONBY (1825-1895), born at Corfu on 
10 Dec. 1825, entered the army on 27 Dec. 
1842 as an ensign in the 49th regiment. 
Transferred to the grenadier guards, he be- 
came lieutenant on 16 Feb. 1844, captain on 
18 July 1848,andmajoronl90ct. 1849. From 
1847 to 1858 he was aide-de-camp to Lord 
Clarendon and Lord St. Germans, succes- 
sively lord-lieutenants of Ireland. lie served 
through the Crimean campaigns of 1855-6, 
becoming lieutenant-colonel on 31 Aug. 1 855 ; 
for the action before Sebastopol he received 
a medal with clasp, the Turkish medal, and 
third order of the Mejidie. After the peace 


he was appointed equerry to the prince con- 
sort, who greatly valued his services. On 
2 Aug. 1860 he became colonel, and in 1862, 
after the death of the prince, he was sent to 
Canada in command of a battalion of the 
grenadier guards which was stationed in the 
colony during the American civil war. On 
6 March 1868 he became major-general. 
On. 8 April 1870 Ponsonby was appointed 
private secretary to the queen. Energetic 
but unobtrusive, ready but tactful, he com- 
manded the confidence not only of his sove- 
reign, but of all her ministers in turn. In 
October 1878 he added to his duties those of 
keeper of the privy purse. He was made a 
K.C.B. in 1879, a privy councillor in 1880, 
and a G.C.B. in 1887. On 6 Jan. 1895 he 
was attacked by paralysis; in May he retired 
from his offices, and on 21 Nov. died at East 
Co wes in the Isle of Wight. He was buried at 
Whippingham. He had married, on 30 April 
1861, Mary Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
John Crocker Bulteel, M.P., of Flete or Fleet, 
Devonshire,- one of the queen's maids of 
honour. He left three sons and two daugh- 
ters ( Times, 22 Nov. 1895 ; Men of the Time, 
vol. xii. ; BUKKB, Peerage, s.v. ' Bessborough ; ' 
Army Lists). 

[Gent. Mag. 1837, pt. i. ; Royal Military Gal. 
iv. 239 ; Kecords of the 12th Light Dragoons; 
Wellington Despatches ; Corabermere's Memoirs; 
Napier's War in the Peninsula; Si home's Wa- 
terloo Letters.] E. M. L. 

(1815-1895), second son of John William Pon- 
sonby, fourth earl [q, v.j, was born in London 
on 11 Sept. 1815. He was educated at Harrow 
from 1880 to 1833, and, proceeding to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, graduated M.A. in 1837. 
He studied for the law, and was called to 
the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 16 June 1840. 
He was an enthusiastic cricketer, com- 
mencing his career in the Harrow eleven, 
when on 3 Augr. 1832 he played at Lord's in 
the match with Eton. At Cambridge he 
also played in the university eleven. After- 
wards, when he was at the bar, he appeared 
in such important matches as Kent v. Eng- 
land and Gentlemen v. Players. After 1843, 
owing to an accident to his arm, he gave up 
playing at Lord's. In 1845, with J. L. Bald- 
win, he founded the I Zingari Club, and 
took part in their performances. He was a 
member of the committee of the Marylebone 
Club, and, having a great knowledge of the 
game, managed many of the matches at Lord's, 
lie had a free and forward style of hitting, 
and also excelled at long-stop and mid- 
wicket. The Harrow eleven were for many 
years indebted to him for tuition, and many 


of their successes against Eton and Winches- 
ter were due to his instruction. Ho was 
also a good actor at Cambridge in privatothon- 
tricaK With Tom Taylor, William Holland, 
fik Cavendish Bontmck, and othors, ho origi- 
nated, in 184^, the Old Stagora at Canterbury 
in connection with tho Canterbury cric.lcot 
wrtok, and for many years ho took part in 
their entertainments, 

On the death of his brother, John Ooorgo 
Brabozon, fifth earl of Besflborough, on ^8. Tan. 
1880, he succeeded as sixth earl, but aat in 
the House of Lords as Baron Ponaoaby and 
BaronDnncannon. In politico he was a liberal. 
"When Mr. Gladstone's ministry in 1880 ap- 
pointed a commission to inquire into tho land 
system in Ireland, Bessborough was nomi- 
nated a member. His colleague wore Baron 
Dowse. The O'Couor Don, Mr. Kavanagh, 
andWilliam Shaw [q.v.] Tim commission, 
which became known by Lord Beftsboroutfli's 
name, reported in 1881 , advising the wjpeal of 
the Land Act of 1870, and t.ho enaetmont of 
a simple uniform act on tho basis of lixity of 
tenure, fair rents, and free Bnlo. Tim policy 
of buying out the landlords WUH deprocatwi, 
but additional Rtate aid for tenantw anxious 
to purchase their holding was rocommnndwl. 
The Bessborough commission marks an im- 
portant stage in tho history of Irish land 
Iwprtslation, and led to Mr. Gladstone's laud 
(bill of 1881. Lord BnsBborough was himsolf 
a model landlord. He was unremitting in 
his attention to the of his tenants 
in co. Kilkenny, and through the troubled 
times of the land league thwro was never 
the least interruption of friendly relations 
"between him and them. Although' for along 
time a follower of Mr. Gladstone, ho did not 
vote in the divisions on the home rule bill in 
the House of Lords in IBM. Jlo died at 
45 Green Street, Grosvonor Square, London, 
on 12 March 1895, and was buried at Btwfl- 
borough. Ho was unmarried, and was suc- 
ceeded by hifl brother Walter William Bra- 
bazon Ponaonby, who waa rector of Oanforcl 
Magna, Dorset, from 1846 to !8(*9. 

[Thornton's Harrow, 1885, pp. 250, 270; 
LiU.vwhito'8 Cricket Scores, 1832, ii. 193; 
Cofcayne's Peerage, 1887, i. 353; Times, 15 Jan. 
1881 p. 7, 16 March p. 4, 19 March p, 14, 
30 March p. 4, 18 March 189fl,p, 10.] 0. 0. B. 

POKSONBY, GEORGE (1755-1817), 
lord chancellor of Ireland, third sou of John 
Ponsonby (1713-1789) [q. v/l, was born on 
5 March 1756. William Brabtuon Pon- 
eonby, first baron Ponsonby [q. v,] 7 waR life 
brother. After an education received partly 
at home and partly at Trinity GolW, 
Onrohridge, he waft called to the Irish bar 
in 1780, Though fonder, it is said, of fox- 


' ""n - v. am 

hunting than of tln dnul^ory of t-bo law 
courlH, ho was iu 1782, ly tlio iiiiluotiru of 
IUH fullinr aiul Min imtrona^M of tho I)UM of 
Portland, adtuil ! titl to thi i?ninr bar, and ufc 
tho Hivmo l.iiuo j^ivtMi the luemt.ivo post, worth 
1/JOO/, a year, of first, nouiwrl to thn com- 
iniMHioiKH's of rovonius of which Iw WUH ub- 
Hocjuontly, \\\ 1781), dnpr'uMMl by tho Marnuirt 
of Hurkiu^uinu ll<* iwtorod* parliannont iu 
177(J as monibor for tho borough of Wil- 
low, in tho JIIUM of Sir William I'Wuos 
d(H'.ciHid. hi 178iJ ho was rturnod for 
luisliotft* l)(m>uf(li, ro. Kilkenny, which ho 
wpwwnntiHl till 17i)7, ami wiw* <m of tho 

ro|nysnntativM of Unhvay city wlum tlm 
parlianiiMtt. of Irolaiui t'ousod it"itulopin(lmiti 
oxistonoo, 11(4 hold oiUoo HHi-hnncollorof t,iu 
oxo,ho|tior iti tho britf luliuiniHt.ratiou of tlm 
Duko of Portland in 17KL', and in February 
Riipport-od tho motion for tho postpotionion't; 
of rattan's addrosHrn^arditi^ tho nuiojxnid- 
onco of tho Irish parliainont, Thn t raditiotm 
of his family, though lihnral, nat.uraUy 
incUiu'd him to Huppnrt frovornmout ; bat; 
his intoroHt in politios ut this thn was not 
intones and his attowlnnoo in tho honsn 
far from froqttont. H* Hpolc< at nomo hngt li 
on 29 Nov. 17H:i in o|mo^tion to Flood's 
Knform Bill ; itt Mnivh I /8U bo opptmiul a bill 
to limit pensions IIH an untuiM'itod oormum 
on tho Duho of Utttland'H administ ration, 
and in tho following your ho rosiMtod a mo- 
tion by (1 rattan to imjuiro into tho suhjoot, 
of tilluw, Ho took, lwwivtr, a v^ry do'tor- 
mtnod lino on tho r<wnry <|uostion in 17Hi) ? 
urguinjjr strongly in favour of tho addross tt> 
tho lrino.(* of Walos, \\\\ \vaH in <;onso- 
quimcu doprivtvl of IUH oilioo of w>unmil to 
tho nvnu board, and from that timo for- 
ward ac;twl avowdly with tluMmpowtion, In 
tlu^following Hossion ho invinghod Htrongly 
against tho profuso tixpondtturo of govern- 
m<mt, witli a declining oxtjhoquor, and tho 
normouH inrrnwiHo in tho ponsion lint during 
tJM Martjum of Hnckinghuin'ft administra- 
tion. M IIH nxwlltncy,* ho said wirciiHt it'nlly, 
royiowing tho list of pwwms }jromoto.d to 
oiHcrt, l must Imvo hwi a profound politioinn 
to diHocwvp so inudi i**pit whwre no out* elno 
RUBptujtd it to r^sido/ 

Manwhn<> IUB r(*putatioi\ n ft lawyer had 
bon fttoadily growing, Hm i>mt4ci was a 
large and a lucrative onM ami HO gr<at, it i 
said, waR Fitxgibbon^ rt^gard for Jtis profes- 
sional abilitifts that Fir^gibbon, <m liin lva- 
tion at this^timtj to tlw woolsack, forgot his 
political animosity towards him, <ind trans- 
ferred to him hifl briwf bag, In 1 7iK), an cumwl 
with Curran, ho, nupportod tho clttiniH of t;he 
common 0unml of Dublin against tho tw>urb 
of aldermau iu thir couteat ovor the 



tion of a lord mayor, and received tlieir thanks 
for his conduct of their case. In consequence 
of the extraordinary partisanship displayed 
by the chief justice of the kind's bench [see 
SCOTT, JOHN, LORD CLONIOLL] in the famous 
quarrel between John Magee (d. 1809) [q. v.], 
the proprietor of the 'Dublin Evening Post/ 
and Francis Higgins (1746-1802) [q. v.], the 
proprietor of the ' Freeman's Journal/ Pon- 
sonby brought the matter before parliament 
on 3 March 1790. His speech, which was 

Published and had a wide circulation, was 
:om a legal standpoint unanswerable ; but 
the motion was adroitly met by the attorney- 
general moving that the chairman should 
leave the chair. A similar motion in March 
of the following year, expressly censuring the 
lord chief justice, incurred a similar fate; 
but the fierce criticism to which his conduct 
had exposed him utterly ruined Clonmeirs 
judicial character. 

In 1792, during the discussion on the He- 
man catholic question, Ponsonby, who at 
this time took a more conservative line than 
Grattan, urged that time should be given for 
recent concessions to produce their natural 
fruits, and a fuller system of united educa- 
tion be adopted before the catholics were 
entrusted with political power. Neverthe- 
less, he voted for the bill of 1793 ; and on 
the ground that government was trying to 
create a separate catholic interest inimical 
to the protestant gentry, he urged parlia- 
ment * to admit the catholics to a full parti- 
cipation in the rights of the constitution, 
and thus to bind their gratitude and their 
attachments to their protestant fellow-sub- 
jects.' Re was designated for the post of 
attorney-general in the administration of 
Earl Fitzwilliam [see FITZAVILLIA.M, WIL- 
WILLIAM], and corroborated Grattan's ac- 
count of the circumstances that led to that 
nobleman's recall. In a subsequent debate 
on the catholic question in 17y6 he again 
urged parliament to admit the catholics to a 
full participation of political power, and thus 
to deprive government of its excuse to keep 
the country weak by keeping it divided. 
Every attempt to settle the question and to 
purify the legislature having failed, Ponsonby, 
in company with Grattan, Curran, and a few 
others, seceded from parliamentary life early 
in 1797. The wisdom of such conduct is open 
to question ; but he at once returned to his 
post when the intention of government to 
effect a legislative union was definitely an- 
nounced. During the reign of terror which 
preceded the union he incurred the suspicion 
of government, and acted as counsel for Henry 
Sheares [q. v.] and Oliver Bond [q. v.] He led 

the opposition to the union in the House of 
Commons, but he spoiled the effect of his 
victory on the address by injudiciously try- 
ing to induce the house to pledge itself 
against any such scheme in the future. 

On 2 March 1801 he took his seat in the 
imperial parliament as member for Wicklow 
county, and speedily won the regard of the 
house by his sincerity, urbanity, and business- 
like capacity. He opposed the motion for 
funeral honours to Pitt, on the ground that 
to do otherwise * would be virtually a con- 
tradiction of the votes I have given for a 
series of years against all the leading mea- 
sures of that minister.' On the formation of 
the Fox-Grenville ministry in 1806, he re- 
ceived the seals as lord chancellor of Ireland, 
and at the same time obtained for Curran 
the mastership of the rolls ; but in the ar- 
rangements for this latter appointment a 
misunderstanding arose, which led to a per- 
manent estrangement between them. Though 
holding office for barely a year, he retired 
with the usual pension of 4,000/. a year. 
lie represented county Cork in 1806-7; 
but on 19 Jan. 1808 he succeeded Lord 
Ho wick called to the upper house as Earl 
Grey in the representation of Tavistock, and 
for the remainder of his life acted as official 
leader of the opposition. He offered a strenu- 
ous resistance to the Irish Arms Bill of 
1807, which he denounced, amid great up- 
roar, as an ' abominable, unconstitutional, 
and tyrannical measure. 7 In the following 
year he opposed the Orders in Council Bill, 
which, he predicted, would complete the 
mischief to English commerce left undone 
by Bonaparte, and he was very averse to 
the system of subsidising continental powers, 
' the invariable result of which had been to 
promote the aggrandisement of France.' In 
speaking in support of the Roman catholics 
petition on 25 May 1803, he added some 
novelty to the debate by announcing, on the 
authority of Dr. John Miluer (1752-1826) 
[q. v.], that the Irish clergy were willing to 
consent to a royal veto on the appointment 
to vacant bishoprics. It soon turned out that 
he was misinformed, an d his statement caused 
much mischief in Ireland ; but he did not cease 
to advocate the concesion of the catholic 
claims. On 19 Jan. 1809, in a speech of an 
hour and a half, he arraigned the conduct of 
the ministry in mismanaging affairs in Spain, 
and, in consequence, was charged with throw- 
ing cold water on the Spanish cause. In the 
following year he took a prominent part in 
the debates on the Walcheren expedition ; 
and his speech on the privileges of the House 
of Commons as connected with the committal 
of Sir Francis Burdett [q. v.] on 11 May, 



Ton son by 

wan regarded as a valuable contribution to 
the constitutional literature of tlio subject. 
During the cU'buto on tho kind's illness on 
10 Dec,, he defended the course pursued by 
the Irish parliament in 1789, and moved for 
an address in almost the saine words as had 
been adopted by the Irish parliament; wliilis 
his statement that, if tho method by address 
were followed, he should submit, another 
motion, seems to show that lie intended fol- 
lowing the form, proscribed by (Irattan, of 
passing an act reciting the deficiency in tho 
personal exercise of tho royal power, and of 
his royal higlmees's acceptance of tho regency 
at the instance and desire of the lords atul 
commons of the realm. On 7 JVIaroh 1S1L 
he animadverted strongly on WoUrsloy- 
Pole'ft circular letter, and moved for copied 
of papers connected with it ; but bin motion 
was defeated by 1$J to 48, Ho a* ill con- 
tinued to take a lively and active interest in 
tho catholic claims, but, like Onittun, ho 
had drifted out of touch with Irish national 
feeling- on the subject, and to (VQonuell bin 
exertions, bused on securities of one sort and 
another, seemed worse than UHolenH, (hi 
4 March 1817 he moved for leave to bring 1 
in a bill to prevent the necessity of renew- 
ing certain civil and military comwinHiotiH 
on the demise of the crown* The desirability 
of some such measure neoins to havo been 
generally admitted ; but he did not livo to 
fulfil his intention. The severe labouw of 
parliamentary life, and the constant, strtiin 
to which his position as lender of the oppo- 
sition subjected him, broke down a count itu- 
tion naturally robust, Pie was muzcd with 
paralysis in the houso on 80 June, and died 
a few days later, on 8 July 1817, at his lioutm 
in Curzoti Street, Mnyfair, Ho was buried 
beside his brother, Lord Jmokilly, without 
ostentation or ceremony, at Kcmunpton* 

In moving a new writ for co, Wicklow, 
which he represented at the time of his death, 
the future Lord Melbourne spoke of * Pon- 
sonby's manly and simple oratory ' as evidence 
of the 'manliness and simplicity of his heart ; ' 
and another contemporary characterised him 
as possessing, in the words of Cicero with ro 
gard to Catulus, 'summa non vitm solum 
atque nature, aed orationis etiam comitas ' 
(J?rwh, 132). 

Ponsonby married about 1780 Mary Butler, 
eldest daughter of Brinaley, seconA carl of 
Lanesborough. He left no surviving male 
issue, His only daughter, Martha, was 
nmmed to the lion, Francis Aldborongh 
Prittie, second son of Lord Dunally, MP. 
for co. Tipperary. 

[Ryan's Biogr, Hi'iernic*; Willis's Iriflh Na* 
tion j O'Flanagan's Lives of the Lord Chancel- 

lorn ; Hmyth'n Law < MlWrs of IMnwl ; Amwul 
BotfiHtor, 1817, p, 14ft; <mt, Mug. 1817 w ii 
pp. 83, HJo, 2(M ; < Wli-ml Lwj.of Mem, of A U 'K; 

swin; C,mtl 
/H LitV of 

Parliatncmtary Ri^ 

tau'H Lifo <*f llotn' (Jratlnu ; 

Oastloron^h (3o 

in tho Kifjfhtwth<Vni,ry ; I'jirl, IMmtpH 180U 
1817 panrt'un ; < 1 li*!iost,or'H IHitry and Oorro- 
8pon<1oni'o ; Hififc. MHS. (?onim, lOfh jvVp. pr. 1. 
p. 42 f pt. iv, )>. 27, IHih Hop, Apt), viii. (ic'iri 
of Chartomont/M MSS. v l, it,)| R t D. 

POWUWUY, HMN f KV (//. 17-15), of 

il, WUM tho HOC.OIM! won 

of Sir Williaiu INmsonhy by Mary, itor of 
'JJralmxon Moore, of tho'fnmily o'f (-Imrlow, 
wM!oud'viM('ountMoor(n)ro^}jrtl((j, v,] His 
fa(.h( k r, third sou of Sir .John Ponsonby, who 
ammmaniiMl <'roni\vIl to tiviuwl in l(Vit) iw 
(ioUmol of a n^'itnimi. of hoi-sr, Mat in t-h 
Irish parlinwi'ul. aw moinhnr lor ro, Kilkmttty 
in Anno*s iM'i^u, wan onll<<{ to tin* privy 
counril in 171A t nml wanuH<Ml tothonoomifM 
of Ir<hin<i a ikrou HoHMljorou^h in 1 7*J1 , In 
tlit* preamble of liin jmlnt his Nprvi<M MK a 
Holdur during th KIJ^O of Ih^rry nrn par- 
ticularly nicnt ionod, I !t WUH iiincll* N'lHoonnt 
]>utu!iumon in 17-*M f nn<l (lul on 17 Nov, 
17^4 at tho utfo of Mixt 

Itunry iNmsonby wan mudc n ouptatn of foot 
on 1^ AUJ^. 17()o t nmllMinuno colonel of urojji- 
jent (nfterwnnlH the ,'J7th or North I lamp- 
tthirt)<m UJ May 17Jir>, He ri|)i'intod Ket- 
hurcl in the Irwh pm'lmnt in Novemlwr 
17lo, nndafterwaruH nut fori-loiuueen, Into- 
tiop,n(! Njswtown, f Kehrunry 1 74 2, when 
Gnmt Britain wan prepurinj; to tnite tmrt in 
tho war of the AuMtrian HittvowioTi, ho \VHH 


Kland(*rHwilh tht k force uiuler Lord Stair, Ha 
WM prenent at I)ttin^n,Hiul WIIH promoted 
wiajor-gimwal in July 17 W, At the halt It) 
of Fonttwoy on II Muy 1745, m one of tlm 
Ninjor-gc.noralM of tho'llpHt lints !** wan at. 
thnhun<i oftlmlirHt haltttlum of the Int foot- 
fjuardH, and therefore in the forefront of tho 
famoiiH<;hftr4umu1*< by the HritiHh utl Ihmo- 
yerian infantry, He wiw in the itt*t of luuul* 
ovw hiR^rin utul wntoh to his won, 

a lientenant in IUM own 
., \vhm ho wan killed by a cannon- 
Bhot, By IUH wifts Ludy FrnnceM Brabuxon, 
dauffhtw of th<! flftli Karl of Mouth, 
a* loft ono oa and oim daughter, 

frx)dgo* I*Hwitt?fl of Iri'lund ; n*ut. Mni?, 
1742-5; Cumphll Mcl4whlun* Dnk of Oum 
, p, 18.l K. M, L. 

,of tlu^ Irish Houw* of OouimonM, born on 
29 March 17UJ, WUH tho wu-ond nun of Bra- 
teazon Poiisonby, second vbuouiit Dunivin- 



non, and first earl of Bessborough, by his first 
wife, Sarah, granddaughter of James Marget- 
son [q. v.], archbishop of Armagh, and widow 
of Hugh Colvil, esq., of co. Down. William 
Ponsonby, second earl of Bessborough [q.v,], 
was his elder brother. His great-grandtather, 
Sir John Ponsonby, of Hale in Cumberland, 
born in 1608, commanded a troop of horse in 
the service of the Commonwealth, and had 
two grants of land assigned him in Ireland 
under the acts of settlement. He repre- 
sented co. Kilkenny in parliament in 1(561, 
and, dying in 1678, was succeeded by his son 
William [see under PONSONBY, HBNRY], ; 
Ponsonby entered parliament in 1739 as 
member for the borough of Newtown, co. 
Down, vacated by the elevation of Kobert 
Jocelyn, first viscount Jocelyn [q. v.], to the 
lord-chancellorship. Shortly afterwards, in 
1742, he was appointed secretary _ to the 
revenue board, and, on the death of his father 
in 1744, succeeded him as first commissioner. 
He held the post with credit for twenty-seven 
years, and on his dismission in 1771 hereceived 
the unanimous thanks of the merchants of 
Dublin. On the occasion of the rebellion of 
1745 he raised four independent companies 
of horse, and was specially thanked by Lord 
Chesterfield in the king's namefor his loyalty. 
Besides being the first to be raised at that time, 
his troopers were notable for their discipline 
and handsome uniform, which,with the excep- 
tion of the sash, was the same for the men as 
the officers, In 1748 he was sworn a privy 
councillor, and on 26 April 1756 was unani- 
mously elected speaker of the House of Com- 
mons "in succession to Henry Boyle, created 
lord Shannon [<j. v.l (cf. a curious account 
of his election m Letters from an Arme- 
nian, $c. p. 45, attributed to Edmond Sexton 

Pery [q. v.]) 

Ponsonby's connection by marriage with 
the Duke of Devonshire and the great parlia- 
mentary influence of his own family rendered 
him an important political factor in a country 
of which the government practically lay in 
the hands of three or four great families. On 
the change of administration which occurred 
shortly after his election to the apeakership, 
Ponsonby entered into an alliance with, the 
primate, George Stone [q.y.], with the object 
of securing a dominant ' influence in state 
affairs. In this he was successful. For the 
commons having, in October 1767 ; passed a 
strong series of resolutions against pensions, 
absentees, and other standing grievances, the 
lord lieutenant, the Duke of Bedford, who 
had formed the design of governing inde- 
pendently of the undertakers, was, much 
against his will, compelled by a threat of 
suspending supplies to transmit them to 

England in the very words in which they 
had been moved, This was regarded as a 
great triumph for the speaker, and on the 
departure of the viceroy in May 1758, he 
had the satisfaction of being included in the 
commission for government along with the 
primate and the Earl of Shannon. Several 
unsuccessful attempts were made to diminish 
his power, especially during the viceroy alty 
of the Earl of Northumberland in 1763-4, 
but nothing occurred to permanently shake 
his authority till the arrival of the Marquis 
of Townshend in 1767. In 1701 he was re- 

turned for Armagh borough and the county 
of Kilkenny, but elected to serve for the 
latter, which he continued to represent till 

The appointment of the Marquis of Town- 
shend as resident viceroy marks the beginning 
of anew epoch in Irish history. Hitherto it had 
been the custom of the lord lieutenant for the 
time being to spend only two or three months 
during the year in Dublin for the purpose 
mainly of conducting the business of parlia- 
ment. In consequence of this arrangement 
the government of the country had for many 
years rested in the Hands of a few families, 
among whom the Ponsonbys were pre-emi- 
nent; they practically controlled parliament, 
and for their service in managing the king's 
business whence the name 'undertakers' 
were allowed to en gross to them selves the chief 
emoluments in the country. So far, indeed, 
as Ireland was concerned, there had hitherto 
been little to complain of in regard to this ar- 
rangement. But in England the growing inde- 
pendence of the Irish parliament was regarded 
with increasing suspicion, The appointment 
of Townshend was intended as a blow against 
the authority of the ' undertakers, 7 and all 
the influence of the crown was accordingly 
placed at his disposal. Immediately on his 
arrival he set himself resolutely to form a 
party in parliament wholly dependent on the 
crown. The Octennial Bill was a serious 
blow to the dominion of the undertakers, 
Ponsonby and his friends instantly recognised 
the danger that menaced them, and by their 
united effort succeeded in frustrating the 
viceroy's attempt to force through parliament 
a money bill, which had taken its origin in 
the privy council. For this he was mme* 
diately deprived of his office of commissioner 
of revenue, and the effect of his punishment 
wassuchthat at the close of the session parlia- 
ment passed a vote of thanks to the viceroy. 
Rather, however, than consent to present an 
address so antagonistic to his feelings^ Pon- 
sonby preferred to resign the speakership (cfl 
Chftrlemont MSS. i. 39). He no doubt ex- 
pected to be re-elected, but had the additional 




mortification of fleeing it conforml on Ed- 
inond Soxton Very. A 8l.ronuou but UUHUC- 
ct'wful effort was mack to recover the chair 
for him in 1770. He still retained his enor- 
mous parliamentary influence, mid was till 
his death, on 12 Dec. 1789, a firm supporter 
of tho patriotic party ; but after hw cloioat 
in 1776 he gradually ceawid to take an activo 
personal part in politics, yielding tlio post of 
leadership to his son (-teorge, flubsiMjuimtly 
chancellor of the exchequer. 

Ponsonby married, on 2i2 Sopi. 1/48, Lady 
Elizabeth "Oavendwh, daughter of William, 
third duke of Devonshire, by whom he hud, 
with other issue, W illiain Brabazon Pomonby, 
first baron Ponsonby of InioldHy, who suc- 
ceeded him, and is separately noticed ; John, 

i~ mt m N rf 1 "*^ I _^ ^ , . I .,.!...< to.* *..jtll*t. V* t k V 

JrreuencK, wuo cuco. m IUUIU^Y, <tmM VMH..V- 
rine, who married Richard HoyUs, nocond 
earl of Shannon; FraucoB,who marriodOor- 
nelius O'Callaghan, firflt earl of Linmoro; 
Charlotte, who married the Kig'Kt lion, Donis 
Bowes Daly; and Henrietta. 

His portrait was painted by Gavin, and 
engraved by T. Gainer ; a poor onffraviny, 
representing him in hit* robes as speaker, in 
in the 'Hibernian Magazine 7 for 1777 (cf. 

[Bin-Ms Extinct Peerage; Hibornian Hag. 
1777 ; NicolHon and Buru's Hittt. of Wewtmoriv 
land and Cumberland, ii. 30 ; Ofllcial I^int of 
'irliamont. Ireland; Wiffon'HHouHO 

* _. ^i.^^ _ ^ ^ , 

of Russell; Fronde's KngliBh in Ireland; Hint.. 
MRS. Comm. 32th Hop. A pp. ix. (Karl of 
Donrrtwbraoro's HAS.), App. x. (Ifcirl of Oluwio- 

BONBY (1770P-185r>), diplomatist, nldest son 
of AVill'am Brabazon Ponsonby. first baron 
Ponsonby fq. v.l, and brother of Hir William 
Ponsonby [q, v.j, was born about 1770, Ho 
was possibly the John Brabaxon Potmonby 
who was successively member for Tallagh, 
co. "Watorford, in the Irish- parliament of 
1797, for Dunf?arvan, 1798-1800, and for 
Galway town, in the first parlianwmt of tho 
"United Kingdom, 1801-S. On the death of 
Iris father on 5 Kov, 1806 he succeeded him 
as second Baron Ponsonby, and for some time 
held an appointment in the Ionian Islands* 
On 28 Feb. 1826 he went to Buenos Ayros 
as envoy-extraordinary and minister-pleni- 
potentiary, and removed to Bio Janiero in 
the same capacity on 12 tfeb, 1888. An ex- 
ceptionally handsome man, he was sent, it 
was reported, to South America by George 
Canning to please GeorffeIV,who was envious 
of the attention paid him by Lady Conyng- 
.. lie was entrusted with aspocial misaiou 

to Helfjfmw on I Doe, 1SJX), m connection 
with the o.imdidaturr of Prinn* Leopold of 
Saxtv-Colwrtf to tho throno, and nnnainod in 
BniHstdn until Leopold wan ohv.tod king 1 of 
tho Boltfians on 4 Juno IS.'U, His dealing 
with thin matter w<ro advorwoly mtH*.i,Htd in 
'Tho (Juot-iV-Potw Diplomacy, or Lord Pon- 
Hotibvat, HrusHolHj , , ,' London, IWU, But 
Lord Uroy onlog'isod him in tho HOUHO of 
.Lords on &"> Juun IHttl. Ponwonby WUH 
envoy at NajnVn from H June tnMNov. I8tt2, 
timhuHHiulor at (JonMtantinoplt 1 , from "27 Nov. 
18JW to I March 18.17, nud uwbiiHuudor at 
Vienna from 10 Atitf. 181(5 to HI Ma ( y IHOO. 
Through Lord Urry, who had married his 
HiHtcr Mary Klixah<'th,hnhnd tfivatinllutttuw, 
but hifl roiiduet an an ainbiiNHatlor Hoimtims 
occaniojicd ouibnrraMHuu'Ut to tin* ministry, 
llo WQM, h<)\vvr, H. krru diplomat iM- of t.ho 
old w.hool, a Hhnuvd olmorvcr, and a man of 
largo vicww and Htron^ \viU ( (LomiM, />//)/- 

wan ^a/^M<ul (I.O.Hi <n JJ March IHM, and 
cri'aU'cl Vi,M<!ount Ponwmby of hnokilly, v.o, 
(3ork, on a<) April IW. I'ln puhtishtHl Mri- 
vnto,L<tt(M'8ou tlM'MrtKtvvt^iurHtioi^writtt'n 

at Brighton on'Jl K<h. iH/m, 'I'hoviwt'ouuty 
thereupon lap.M<d, but tho barony dovolvod 
on his nrphow WilliuiM, non of Sir William 
Ponsonby, Thtu'inrount nwrriiMUou litJnn 
IHOli, KliV.alM^th KmuocH Villi(rw, tiftluluu^h- 
tor of (i'or|4 v o, foitrt h oari of Ji i rm\y Shn <liKl 
at <>li (Jluwt^r Suuuw, London, ou !4 April 
'JHWJ, having had no iasuo. 

KnwAiu* PONHONHV (177*2 IHfiJJ), bwhop 
of Dnrrv, bvotlu'f of tho aliovt*, WHH born at 
JDublinin 177a,au<h'<lucnt'dut Dublin Uni- 
vm'Htty, -wlur ho ^ratlualod B,A, in 17U4, 
and Vt.A. in lHl, During 17*i ho ww or- 
dainotl diMuum and prit*Ht,ud \VUM pn)iutod 
]>rbi'iidirv of Tipptn* in St, Patrick 1 ** Oa- 

thodml ll HUmuMhul hy patent to tho 

contnrHhip of St, Patricks on 'J5 J\tly 1 
and buranw douii ou iJ Jumi 1817^ hi 
})runry IH*28 ho wan <'tmrtHU'atcd binhop of 
Killafoo and KiHVnora, WUH lruHlta to 
JDmny on %\ S*pt. 1H;H, and b<u*uuio nlw> 
binhop of Ruphot*, in purnuancc of the Church 
Temporal itiiiH A<.t, in Siptmb*r 1HJJ4, lie 
was pnwuU^ut of thw CHuirch Kducutlon Bu- 
cioty, and died at tho piilntui, 1 >nrry,ou 'J7 ( )ut. 
1853, llo nwrriwl, in 1804, IUH COUK'UI Fran- 
ct;a, Hcond daughter of thw Hight lion. John 
Staple. Who <lid on 1ft i)*. IHfitt, having 
had iwwtt William Umbnwm, ftnirth nud inut 
baron PonBonby, who died on board IUH yacht. 

100, iil aa, UoB, Buppl IH78, p 



[Lamington's Days of the Dandies, 1890, pp. 
75-9; Greville Memoirs, 1874 ii. 155, 172, iii. 
405 ; Malmesbury's Memoirs of an Ex-Minister, 

1885, p. 345; Foreign Office List, 1855, p. 66; 
Gent. Mag. April 1855, p. 414 ; Burke's Peerage, 
1854 p. 806, 1877 p. 1329; Doyle's Baronage, 

1886, iii. 55; Sir H. Lytton Bulwer's Historical 
Characters, 1868, ii. 369-70; Morning Post, 
24 Feb. 1855, p. 6; Gent. Mag. April 1855, 
p. 414.] G. C. B. 

EARL OF BEBSBOROUGH (1781-1847), eldest 
son of Frederick, the third earl, by nis wife, 
Lady Henrietta Frances Spencer, second 
daughter of John, first earl Spencer, and 
grandson of William Ponsonby, second earl 
of Bessborough q. v.], was born on 31 Aug. 
1781. In early life he bore the courtesy title 
of Lord Duncannon. He matriculated from 
Christ Church, Oxford on 14 Oct. 1799, and 
was created M. A. on 23 June 1802. In 1805 
he entered parliament in the whig interest for 
Knaresborough, one of the Duke of Devon- 
shire's seats ; he then sat for Bigham Ferrers 
in 1806 and 1807, and for Malton from 1812 
to 18:26, both the latter boroughs belonging 
to Earl Fitzwilliam. In 1826 he contested 
Kilkenny, and, after a hard struggle with his 
opponent, Colonel Butler, he was returned, 
in spite of O'Connell's opposition. At the 
election of 1831 he again won the seat by 
the narrow majority of sixty-one, Bishop 
Boyle, by the exercise of his episcopal 
authority, having prevented the Roman 
catholic priests from opposing him. Such a 
victory was equivalent to a defeat, and he 
did not risk another contest. He stood at 
the next election for Nottingham, and was 
returned by a very large majority. A warm 
supporter of catholic emancipation and par- 
liamentary reform, he acted as chief whip of 
the whig party, and shared in its councils by 
virtue of his shrewdness, though he was an 
unready speaker, and held aloof from debate. 
"With Lord Durham, Lord John Russell, and 
Sir James Graham, he prepared the first Re- 
form Bill in 1830. In February 1831 he was 
appointed by Lord Grey first commissioner of 
woods and forests, and was sworn of the 
privy council. Affcer a very successful tenure 
of that office he was transferred^ to the home 
office, when Lord Melbourne, his brother-inr 
law, succeeded Lord Grey as premier in 
August 1834. This appointment was made 
to conciliate O'Connell, now a friend of 
Life of Lord Melbourne, ii. 17). Duncannon 
had introduced O'Connell on taking his seat 
for co, Clare in 1829, when O'Connell refused 
to take the oath. Duncannon was called up 
to the House of Lords on 18 July 1834 as 

Baron Duncannon of Bessborough, and re- 
tired from office with his colleagues when. 
Peel became premier in December 1834. He 
returned to the woods and forests on 18 April 
1835, when Melbourne resumed the premier- 
ship, and held also the office of lord privy 
seal till 1839. As first commissioner, Bessr 
borough was officially responsible for the 
design of the new houses of parliament, and 
took an active part in the improvement of the 
metropolis [see PENNETHOKNE, SIK JAMES]. 

He succeeded to the earldom of Bess* 
borough in February 1844, and in July 1846 
was appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland, 
the first resident Irish landlord who had 
held that office for a generation. His good 
relations with O'Connell recommended him 
for the post. Though he held it only two 
years, he was active and successful in coping 
with disaffection. He died on 16 May 1847 
at Dublin Castle of hydrothorax, and was 
privately buried in the family vault at Bess- 
borough ( Greville Memoirs, 2nd ser. iii. 80). 
He was married in London, on 11 NOT. 1805, 
to Lady Maria Fane, third daughter of John, 
tenth earl of Westmorland, by whom he 
had eight sons and six daughters. His second 
son, Frederick George Brabazon, sixth earl 
of Bessborough, and his daughter, Lady 
Emily Charlotte Mary Ponsonby, are sepa- 
rately noticed. 

Bessborough was held in general esteem. 
for his high principle, easy manners, manage- 
ment of men, good sense, accurate informa- 
tion, and industry. In an elaborate estimate 
of his character, his friend Charles Greville 
says of him (Memoirs, 2nd ser. iii. 83} : 4 He 
had a remarkably calm and unruffled temper, 
and very good sound sense. The consequence 
was that he was consulted by everybody, 
and usually and constantly employed in the- 
arrangement of difficulties, the adjustment 
of rival pretensions, and the reconciliation 
of differences. . * . In his administration, 
adverse and unhappy as the times were, he 
displayed great industry, firmness, and know- 
ledge of the character and circumstances of 
the Irish people, and he conciliated the good- 
will of those to whom he had' been all his 
life opposed.' 

[Greville Memoirs; Fitzpatriek's Correspon- 
dence of O'Connell; Gent. Mag. 1847,ii8l ; Ann. 
Beg. 1847 ; Times, 19 May 1847.] J. A H. 

1831), recluse of Llangollen. [See under 

PONSONBY,WILLIAM (1646 P-4604), 
publisher, was apprenticed for ten years from 
25 Dec. 1560 to William Norton [q. v.], the 
printer (AEBER, L 148). He was admitted 



to the Stationers 1 Company on 11 Jan, 1571, 
and in 1577 botfun business on his own ac- 
count at tho sign of tho .Bishop's Head in St. 
Paul's Churchyard. lie Miii#ed his first, ap- 
prentice, Paul I/mley, on 2*5 March 1570, and 
his second, Kdward Jf Mount [<],. v.], on 24 .1 nno 
1578. llis earliest publicution, for which 


he secured a liceiwo on 17 Juno 1,57, was 
< Praiso and Dispraise of VVoimm/ by John 
Alday [q. v,] A fo\v political and religious 
tracts followed in tho noxt iivo yours, Ln 
1582 Ponsonby issued tho first part of Robert 
Greene's romance, * JMumillia, and in 1584 

a now o<lition of Sir 
ii's^ivat triWMlntion of Plutiu-ch,*") July 
. llo diod boforo Woj1iinlMr HH)4, whu 
c,hi(f copyright H wr tnuisl'^rrcd to 

Simon Wrttorson. Thoy iiu-ludiM bi,sid(*H 

tho 'Arcadia' and thn * i^u 

inont M<lnitm<lsV '(VsarV 

and thn CountowH of INMnbrokp'n tmualatiou 

of Oo Mornuy 1 H * lalV mul Hnath.' 

H; ("olHor's 

(jtuum, 1 Olo- 


i, -17.1 
ii. Iil( 


which was then bwng generally circulated 
ii manuscript. His proposal was not re- 
ceived with much enthusiasm by Sidney's 
representatives, but Poiwonbv secured a 
license for its publication on $5 A tig*. IfiHH, 
and in 1590 he publishod it, lie liberally 
edited and rearranged tho text. A new 
issue of IfiOfaitnumtod iltu ^ ende,d t 7 intro- 

ov liHHHiiouomui (l7(M"I7i:t) ( born in I70-I, 
son of jirnim%nn T iiwt curl of 

borough f ly hw iirHl \vilV, Sarah, widow of 
Ilug'h ( 1 (iUill(* of Niwto\vn, ro. Down, and 
dau^htor of Major John Miu'^oiMon (noti uud 




duced a i'ow changes, but in 1 TMH Sidney's 
sister, tho countess of Pembroke, by arrange- 
ment with Ponsonby, rovisod t.ho whole and 
added Sidney's 'Apologia for Poolrio' and his 
poetic remains* Ponaonby had in 1595 dis- 
puted the claims of Henry Olnay to publish 
tho first edition of Sidney's 'Apologioior Poo- 
trie,' but the first edition camo from ( )ln\y* 
press. With tho Count oss of Pembroke ho 
seems to have boon on friendly forms, and in 
1 592 published for her, in a single volumo, her 
translations of Do Movnav's *Lite and Death ' 
and Garnier's * Anton ius,' Tho first pieco 
Ponsonby reissued Roparatoly in 1000. 

Ponsonby chiefly owes llis fame to his 
association with Spenser, No less than ton 
volumes of SpenserV worlc appeared under 
IUH auspices. In 1590 he published tho first 
three books of Sptmser'n ' Faerie Queene/antl 
next year he brought together on his own re- 
sponsibility -various unpublished piwo.a by 
Spenser in a volume to which he gavo the. 
title of ' Complaints.' lie prefixed an ad- 
dress to the reader of his own composition. 
Subsequently be issued in separate volume 
'The Tears of tho Muw'and 'Daplmaida/ 
both in 1591 j < Amoretti' and < Colin Clout's 
come home again' in Ifl95; and in 1590 the 
fourth, fifth, and sixth books of the < Faeria 
Queene,' as well as a collected edition of the 
six books, and two other volumes, respec- 
tively entitled 'Fowre Hymns' and 'Pro- 

He was admitted to the livery of his 
company on 6 May 3 588, and acted as warden 
in 1597-8. llis latest appearance in tha 
Stationers' * Registers* is aa ouc of tho pro- 

of Armagh). .John Tonsonby [(]. v,|, 
of the Iriwli Uousn of CommnitH, wan hin 
younp'Nt brother, Williitm wim elertod to 
tlit Irish HtMiMe of (-tmmttmM in 17;i5 fnrtho 
borough of Nowtnwu. At the general elee,~ 
tion in 17^7 he was returned for the county 
of Kilkenny, which hermit inned to repnsent 
until his fat her'n dent h in htly IVfjH. In I7$i) 
he WUH appointed Meeretury lit hin father- 
in-law, '\Villinm, third dulte of DovoiiHhiro, 
thtm lord lieutenant of Ireland^ niul in 17-11 
WUH Hworn a member of the Irish privy 

council, In Murr.1i 174U ho wiw <huloti to 
thn British Houw* of rouunonw for Ihphv. 
ami cnnt'ttuu'd to rtpn i wMit tttat town until 
tlu* disMohttinu in April 17 r )1, iln wan 
a Uwl of t JM lulinivnll^v on *J-t Jtino 
at tlw ^cniM'ttl i*h*r/lm tit April 
WHH <.ltH'ttil tor Saltawh, but vacated 
IUH Htiat for that hnrott^h in Nnvimber 17r>(J 
on hi proiuot'uiu from the admiralty to tho 
treasury board* lie was returned to tho 
of C^mntorjs for Harwich at a by- 

and sucu'eeded 

on the. tlwlh of bis fathm* ou 
took his seat iu 

tteticm in 
to thu 
4 July 


th English llunst* of Lords UH swond Huron 
PouHonby of Hysonby in tint county of 
ou *jiJ*Nov. 1758 (Jnnrnnl* <>f thtt 

), llownMappointod 


joint poHtinust e,r-gnoml on ii Jtuui 
bo'mg Huctetdid ut tlwi treasury by Lord 
North (Ohathnm (hrrtwHuu/ntM )H3B 40 

i. 40i>)* On tlw dismissal of his hrtUhor-in- 

law, th Dtiko of Dtn'onshm% from tlw 
of lord clwmbwlain, in October 
borough r(*Hig'iu>d oilkn, 

1 1 attttdtd tlm innttinj(of whig ledm*H 
held at the Duke of Newrusth^s on 'JO 



8 9 

Marquis of Rockwyham, 18o2, i. 218-20), 
and on 12 July following kissed hands on 
hisreappointmeut as joint postmaster-general 
(Grenoille Papers, 1852-3, iii. 217), being 
at the same time sworn a member of the 
privy council. On 25 Nov. 1766 Bessborough 
offered to resign the post office in favour of 
Lord Edgcumbe, who had been dismissed 
from the treasurership of the household, and 
to accept a place in the bedchamber instead. 
His oifer, however, was refused, and Bess- 
borough thereupon resigned (Chatham Cor- 
respondence, iii. 180). In company with the 
Duke of Devonshire, and Lords llockmg- 
ham, Fitzwilliam, and Fitzpatrick, he pro- 
tested strongly against the proposed Irish 
absentee tax in 1773 (FROTTDE, English in 
Ireland, 1872-4, ii, 150, 162). lie died on 
1 1 March 1793, and was buried on the 22nd 
of the same month in the family vault of the 
Dukes of Devonshire in All Saints' Church, 
Derby, where there are monumental busts 
of him and his wife by Nollekens and Rys- 
brach respectively. 

He married, on 5 July 1739, Lady Caroline 
Cavendish, eldest daughter of William, third 
duke of Devonshire, by whom lie had iive 
eons all of whom died young with the ex- 
cept ion of Frederic, viscount Duncannon 
(born 24 Jan. 1758), -who succeeded as third 
Earl of Bessborough, and died on 3 Feb. 1844, 
and whose son, John William, fourth earl, is 
separately noticed and six daughters, all of 
whom died young with the except ion of Cathe- 
rine, who married, on 4 May 1763, the Hon. 
Aubrey Beauclerk (afterwards fifth Duke of 
St. Albans), and died on 4 Sept. 1789, aged 
46; and Charlotte, who married on 11 July 
1770 William, fourth earl Fitzwilliam, 
and died on 13 May 1822, aged 74. Lady 
Bessborough died on 20 Jan. 1760, aged 40, 
and was buried in All Saints', Derby. 

There is no record of any speech delivered 
by Bessborough in either the Irish or British 
parliaments, though he signed a number of 
protests in the British House of Lords (see 
KOGBES, Complete Collection of the Protests 
of the Lords , 1875, vol. ii.) He was ap- 
pointed a trustee of the British Museum in 
1770. The pictures at his house in Pall Mall, 
and the antique* at Bessborough House, 
Koehampton, which Bessborough and his 
father had collected, were sold at Christie's 
in 1 80 1 . A catalogue (in French) of his gems 
was published by Laurent Natter in 1761 
(London, 4to). A portrait of Bessborough 
was painted by George Knapton for the Dilet- 
tanti Society, and there is a mezzotint en- 
graving by JR.. Dunkarton after J. S. Copley. 

[Walpole's Memoirs of the Reign ofGeorgelll, 
18-15, i. 200-1, ii. 22, 194,381-2, 30o ; Walpolo's 

Letters, 1857-9 passim ; Glover's Hist, 
shire, 1833, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 491 ; Cox a 
Chronicles of All Saints', Derby, 1881. pp. l*2$t 
132,133; Nichols's Leicestershire, 1795-1815, 
vol. ii. pt. i, p. 283 ; Brayley and Britton's 
Surrey, 18nO, iii. 483; Lysons's Environs of 
London, 1792, i. 433-4, "Supplement, 1811, 
p. 64; G-. J2. C.'s Complete Peerage, i. 351-2; 
Kdmond son's Baronngium Genealog. v. 448; 
Poster's Peerage, 1883, p. 78; Lodge's Peerage 
of Ireland, 1789, ii. 281-2; Collins's Peerage, 
1812, vii. 265-7; Gent, Mag. 17<30 p. 46, 1763 
p. 257, 1770 p. 344, 1789 pt. ii. p. 866, 1793 
pt. i. p. 285, 1801 pt. i. pp. 323-4, pt. ii. p. 783, 
1822 pt. i. p. 472, J844, pt. ii. p. 87; Official 
Rtiturn of Members of Parliament, pt.ii. ; Haydn's 
Book of Di.rmtios, 1890.] GK F. E. B. 


1815), major-general, born in 1772, was the 
second sou of William Brabazon Ponsonby, 
first baron Ponsonby [q.v.l by the lion. 
Louisa Molesworth, fourth daughter of the 
third Viscount Molesworth. John, first vis- 
count Ponsonby [q. v.], was his eldest 
brother. Sir William was second cousin of 
Sir Frederic Cavendish Ponsonby [q, v,], 
both being great-grandsons of the first Karl 
of Bessborough. After serving- for a year and 
a half as ensign and lieutenant in the inde- 
pendent companies of Captain Bulwer and 
Captain Davis, he obtained a company in the 
83rd foot in September 1794, and on*15 Dec. 
of that year became major in the loyal Irish 
fencibles. On 1 March 1798 he was trans- 
ferred to the 5th dragoon guards, and obtained 
the command of that regiment on 24 Feb. 
1803, having become lieutenant-colonel in 
the army on 1 Jan. 1800. He became colonel 
on 25 July 1810. Up to this time he had 
seen no foreign service, but in 1811 he went to 
Spain with his regiment, which formed part 
of Le Marchant's brigade. His was the lead- 
ing regiment of that brigade in the affair at 
Llerena on 11 April 1812 [see PONSONBY, SIB 
FKEDBRIC CAVENDISH"], and he won the com- 
mendation of Sir Stapleton Cotton. At Sala- 
manca he took part- at the head of his regi- 
ment in the charge of the brigade which brolce 
tip the French left and took two thousand 
prisoners, and after the .fall of General La 
Marcliant in that charge he succeeded to the 
command of the brigade. He was defini- 
tively appointed to this command three days 
afterwards, 25 July 1812, and he led the 
brigade at Vittoria. He was promoted major- 
general on 4 June 1813, and on 2 Jan. 1815 
he was made K.C.B. 

In the campaign of 1815 he was given 
command of the Union brigade of Heavy 
cavalry (Royals, Scots Greys, and Innisldl- 
lings), and led it at Waterloo in th** famous 
charge on d'Erlon's shattered corps, Lord 




first HAUON I'ONMONHY (17-1 1 180(), born ou 
15 Sept. 17-14, was the eldest son of the Ui^'ht 
lion, John Ponwonby (i], v,|, spealvcr of tho 
Irish House of (niumons, by hi wife, Lady 
Klmibeth ('UventRsh, Hecond daughter of 
William, third dnKe of Pevonshirc, George 
Ponsnnby |q, v, , lord chancellor of Ireland, 
was his brother, lie was returned in 17(M to 
the Irish House of Commons for Cork city, 
which hn continued to represent until tho 
dissolution in 1770, He represented Handou 
Bridge from 177<J to 1788, At tho general 
election in ITH.'t ho was returned both for 
Newtoxvn and Kilkenny county, bntt'loetcd 
to sit for Kilkenny, awl continued to repre- 
sent that county until his elevation to tho 
peerage. He voted uptinst Flood's Parliamen- 
tary HHbrm BUI on UN Nov. 17HIJ (Lift* nnd 

oy' order was that the Royals and 
lungs should charge and the Ureys 
/"should support, but the latter came up into 
front Lino before the other ro.gimeuU were 
halfway down the slope. The French columns 
"broke up, and two thousand prlsoncra wuro 
taken. Sir Do Lacy Kvnns, who wan acting 
as extra A.D.C. to I'onwmby, ways: 'Tho 
enemy fled as a flock of sheep across tho valley, 
quite at the mercy of the dragoons. In fact 
our men were out of hand. The genera I of 
the brigade, his .stall*, and every officer within 
hearing exerted thonwlvtfH to tho utmost, to 
re-form the men ; but tho helplessness of tho 
enemy offered too great a tomptation to^tho 
dragoons, and our efforts were, abortive.' 
They mounted the ridgu on which the Knmeh 
artillery were drawn up, and, meeting 1 two 
batteries which had moved forward, wihrnd 
the gunners and overturned the guns, Tho 
household cavalry brigade, which had charged 
at the same time on the right, became to some 
extent intermixed with tho Union brigade, 
Napoleon, seeing the situation, sent two regi- 
ments of cuinwmerft to fall on tho front and 
flank of the disordered cavalry, and t hoy were 
joined by a regiment of PoliNluancm-H, '"Mvury 
one,' says Evans, 'saw what wut happen. 
Those whotiG horses were best, or leant blown, 
got away. Some attempted to escapo back 
to our position by going round tho left OK 
the French lancers. Sir William PonHonby 
was of that number' ( Waterloo Letter*,?. 1 ), 
lie might have escaped if he had boon better 
mounted, but the groom with his cheHtnut 
charger could not be found at the moment 
of the charge, and he waH riding a nmall bay 
hack which soon etude fast in the luiavy 
ground. Seeing he must be overtaken, he 
was handing over kit* watch and a immature 

to his brigade-major to deliver to hia family, brought forward a parliamentary 
when the French' lancers camw up and killed bill, which WHH HubHtantially tho wuno art 
them both on the wpot, lie was buried at tho bill which ho had introduced in tho 
Kensington, in the vault of tho Molosworth provioiw your, HB principal feature^ being 
family, and a national monument wan erected tlus oxttrnwoti of the njjht of voting in tho 
to him in St, Paul's, The Puko of Welling- boroughs, awUlw addition of a third uiem- 
ton, in his report of the battle, expressed hm ber to each of the count IH and to the eitioH 

* otiaf -fAr t.lttt f*it*)i t\$ nvi f \tt\iim\* w\it\ lm/1 

of rnrt/ *rttttn. , 
in July 17H1 NVHH appointed joint 
general (if Ireland utid sworn H member of 
\,\w Irish pHvy council, ttnvin^ (!e<dared 
hw opiiutm that thi houst* rn^ht * to iuvest 
the I'rinee of Wnlen ns regent with nil the 
authority of the crown fully ami nnlhmtedly' 


m tlw MUM* uf 

ix. W), he, WUM select <1 as <UK of 
th bearers of tht* IM It I POSH to the prince, 
which the lord Uentemmt refused to transmit. 
lie joined those who opposed the Murtjnisof 
Bnclimgham's policy in simu'ngthe nwnd- 
robiw ajjrienunt *f s!7 Feb. 1780 (BAIMINU- 


TON, llitfuri? Mvmmr* */ hvhttttj, I8l?:i, vol. 
ii, opp. p, H77), and WUM shortly afterwavdg 
tinnovoil from t-he, ulluw of Mistnuistci^ 


He was elected an ori^innl niein- 

Wr of the whig club foitndtul in I>nMiu 
on a Juiw I7ft. On 4 March 1 70 1 ha 

grief for the fate of an oiliotjr who had 
already rendered very brilliant and important 
services, and was an ornament to his pro- 

Ponsonby married, 20 Jan, 1807, tho Eon, 
Georgians ifttzroy, sixth daughter of tho first 
Lord Southampton, and he left one son, Wil- 
liam, who succeeded his uncle John Ponsonby 
as third Baron Ponsonby a title now sx* 
tinct and four daughters, 

[Oent. Mag. 1815 ; Burke's Extinct Peerage* ; 
Becords of the 5th I)ragoon Chiards; Sil)orn*fl 
^Waterloo Letters j Statement of Service in Public 
OfficoJ B. M. JU 

of Dublin unil Oork 



It was warmly HUpportudbyCimttim, 
but was wjw.fcwdi by the house by a majority 
of nimJty-H^hfc votes, Ponsonby appears to 
have beiiu mjownwndttd by Kitsiwillitun for 
the post of principal ecret.ary of state, hi 
1705 (Litf*KY, JJhtury <tf /%/?, vii, r>7), 

In May 1707 h brought forward a series of 
ruaolutiontt in favour of reform, but wns da* 

foatod bll7voU8 to 

vii, 5tel48). 

II voted against the union in 17$3U and in, 
iiaTO wwfaMwMir* lrt* 


land,l .H74). Ou 10 March 1 801 ho took 

port in tlxo dubntu ou the Iribh Martini 



Law Bill, and warned the house that < it 
would be the wisest policy to treat the 
people of Ireland like the people of Eng- 
land ' (Parl. Hist, xxxv, 1037-8). He was 
created. Baron Ponsonby of Imokilly in the 
county of Cork on 13 March 1806, He took 
his seat in the House of Lords on 25 April 
(Journals of the House of Lords, xlv. 574), 
but never took any part in the debates. He 
died in Seymour Street, Hyde Park, London, 
on 6 Nov. 1806. 

Pousonby was a staunch whig and a steady 
adherent of Charles James Fox, He is said 
to have kept * the best hunting establishment 
in Ireland/ at Bishop's Court, co. Kildare, 
where he lived t in the most hospitable and 
princely style' (Gent. May, 1806', pt. ii. p. 
1084). He married, in December 1709, Louisa, 
fourth daughter of Richard, third viscount 
Molesworth, by whom he had five sons viz. : 

(1) John Ponsonby, viscount Ponsonby fa.v.]; 

(2) Sir William Ponsonby [q.v.]; (3) feiolwrd 
Ponsonby [see under PONSONBY, JOHN, VIS- 
COUNT PONSONBY] ; (4) George Ponsonby of 
"Woolbeding, near Midhurst, Sussex, some- 
time a lord of the treasury , who died on 5 June 
1863 ; and (5) Frederick, who died unmarried 
in 1849 and one daughter, Mary Elizabeth, 
who married, on 17 Nov. 1794, Charles Grey 
(afterwards second Earl Grey), and died on 
26 Nov. 1 86 1 , aged 86. Lady Ponsonby mar- 
ried, secondly, on 21 July 1828, William, 
fourth earl Fitzwilliam, and died on 1 Sept. 

[Authorities cited in text ; Hardy's Memoirs 
of the Earl of Charlernont, 1812, ii. 18G,2H-15; 
Lodge's Irish Peerage, 1789, ii. 279 ; 
Collins'a Peerage, 1812, ix. 843-4; Foster's 
Peerage, 1883, pp. 77-8 ; Burke's Extinct Peetv 
age, 1883, p. 617; Gent. Mug. 1794 pt. ii. 
p. 1054, 1800 pt, ii. pp. 1248-9, 1823 pt ii. 
p. 368, 1803 pt. ii. pp. 630-1, 1862 pt. i. p. 105 ; 
Official Return of Lists of Members of Parlia- 
ment, pt ii.; Haydn's Book of Dignities, 1890, 
p. 564.] G-. R R. B. 

ROBEKT (1524-1606), Scottish reformer, 
born in 1524 at or near Culross, Perthshire 
(BucHAKAN", De Scriptoribus cotis Illustri- 
bits), was the son of John Pout of Shyresmill 
and Catherine Murray, said to be a daughter 
of Murray of Tullibardine (Blackadder's ma- 
nuscript memoirs in Advocates' Library, 
Edinburgh, quoted in App. A to WODWVV'S 
Collections upon the Lives of the Hefoi t mers) t 
The statement of Dr. Andrew Orichton (note 
in Life of the Rev .John Blackadder) fasti the 
father was a Venetian, who, having been 
banished for his adherence to the protestant 
faith, arrived in Scotland in the train of Mary 
of Guise, is essentially improbable, as well as 

inconsistent with well-known facts ; and the 
evidence for the statement has not been ad- 
duced. The son received his early education 
in the school of Culross, and in 1543 was in- 
corporated in the college of St. Leonards in 
the university of St. Andrews. On com- 
pleting the course of philosophy there he is 
supposed to have studied law at one of the 
universities on the continent. Nothing, how- 
ever, is definitely known of his career until 
1559, when he was settled in St. Andrews, 
and acted as an elder of the kirk session 
there. As a commissioner from St. Andrews 
he was present at a meeting of the first gene- 
ral assembly of the reformers at Edinburgh 
on 20 Dec. '1560 (CALDKRWOOD, Hist, of the 
Kirk of Scotland, ii. 44), and he was one of 
twenty within the bounds of St. Andrews 
declared by this assembly to be qualified for 
ministry and teaching (&. p. 4G). The esti- 
mation in which he was held was evidenced 
by his being chosen one of a committee to 
'sight' or revise the 'Book of Discipline, 7 
printed in 1561 (*&. p. 94), At a meeting of 
the general assembly in July 1/562 Pont was 
appointed to minister the word and sacra- 
ments at Dunblane, and in December of the 
same year he was appointed minister of Dun- 
keld. He was also the same year nominated, 
along with Alexander Gordon (151GP-1575) 
[q. v.], bishop of Galloway, for the superin- 
tendeutship of Galloway ; but the election 
was not proceeded with (KNOX, ii. 375; 
CALDEBWOOD, ii. 207). On 26 June 1563 he 
was appointed- commissioner of Moray, In- 
verness, and Banff. After visiting these dis- 
tricts he confessed his inability, on , account 
of his ignorance of Gaelic, properly to dis- 
charge his duties, and desired another to be 
appointed ; but, on the understanding that 
he was not to be burdened ' with kirks speak- 
ing the Irish tongue/ he accepted a renewal 
of the commission (ib. ii. 244-5). To the 
' Forme of Prayers,' &c., authorised by the 
general assembly in 1564, and printed, in 
1565, Pont contributed metrical versions of 
six of the Psalms ; and at a meeting of the 
general assembly in December 156*6 his 
'Translation and Explanation of the Helve- 
tian Confession* was ordered to be printed 
(ib, ii. 33:2; JBook of the Universal 3rk,L 90). 
On 13 Jan. 1567 he was presented to the par- 
sonage and vicarage of Birnie, Banffshire. By 
the assembly which met in December 1567 he 
was commissioned to execute sentence of ex- 
communication against Adam Both well, bi- 
shop of Orkney, for performing the marriage 
ceremony between the Earl of Both well and 
Queen Mary ; by that which met in July 1 568 
he was appointed one of a committee to revise 
the ' Treatise of Excommunication ' originally 



* ,*. , * 

penned by Knox (CUuH-wwooi), ii, 4-MO ; 
and by tluit oi l K>(>9 he was naimul one of a 
committee to proceed against the Karl of 
lluntly tor his adherence to popery. By tho 
latter of these assemblies a petition was pro- 
seuted to the result and council that .Pont 
wight be appointed where hus labours might 
< be more fruitful than they can be at pnwont 
in Moray* (& ii.4H5); and in July 1570 ho 
also craved the assembly to be disburdtmod 
of his commission, but was request <"1 to con- 
tinue until the next assembly. At tho as- 

tended the convention which mot at Leith 
in Junuary 1571 -2, and by this convention 
he was permitted to accept the oflico of lord 
of suNsiou bestowed on him by tho regent 
Mar on account of his great knowledge of 
the laws. The license was, however, 
granted only on condition that he loft. * not 
the otlico of the ministry,* and it wart more- 
over declared that the license wns not. to be 
regarded as a precedent (ib. iii, 101); llwk 
of the. Uniwmtl Kirk, p. 54). When, there- 
fore, in March 1572-tt tho regent Morton 
proposed that several other ministos should 
be appointed lords of session, tho assembly 
prohibited any minister from accepting' snoU 
an oiltce, Pont alone being exempted from the 
inhibition (tV>. p. 50). Pont was, along with 
John Wynram, commissioned by Knox to 
communicate his hint wishes to the general 
assembly which met at Perth in 1572 (KNOX, 
Works, vu OaO). 

In 1573 Pont received a pension out of the 
thirds of the diocese of Moray, At the as- 
sembly which mot in Angunt of this year he 
was ' delated for non-residttnco in Moray, for 
Dot visiting kirks for two years except In- 
verness, Klgin, and Forres and for not as- 
signing manses and glebes according to act 
of parliament ;' and at the assembly hold in 
March 1574 he derail, tod lua oflice ' in re- 
spect that George IXwglaH, bishop of Moray, 
was admit/ted to the bishopric' (OALDisu- 
WQQi> 5 iiu 304). The name year he was trans- 
lated to the second charge of St. Cuthbort/8 
(or the West Church), Edinburgh; and in 
1578 to the first charge of the same pariah. 
He was chosen moderator of the general as- 
sembly which mot in August 1575 ; and from 
this time he occupied a position of great 
prominence itx the assembly's deliberations, 
his name appearing as a member of nearly all 
its principal committees and, commissions. 

Pont was one of those who, after the fall 
of Morton in. 1578, accompanied the English 
ambassador to Stirling to arrange an agree- 
ment between the faction of Morton aud tko 

faction of Atholl atul Aiyyll; ami he WUH 
also one, of those who^ nominally nt the re- 
questor tho king, 'convened' in the castle of 
Stirling, on -^ Doe, K)7H, for tho prepara- 
tion of articles of a * Book of Policy, 1 after- 
wards known as tho *' Second Hook of Disci- 
pline/ Ho again acted as moderator at the 
assembly of 1 581 , A (Yer < )ct obor of t he mum* 
year ho, on invitation, became minister nt 
St Andrews ; Imt for want of an adequate 
stipend ho wus in loK'l relieved of this charge, 
and returned to that of St.CuthbortX Kdh> 
burgh, 1 fo took a prominent, part in tlws pro- 
ceedings in 158^ against Robert Montpnnerio 
(<L HK)0) q, v,'| in regard to his appointment 
to the bis iopric of (Glasgow, and at a tnoet- 
ing of tho tirivy council on 1:J April he pro- 
tested in tne name of the presliyteries of 
I'ldinburgh, Stirling, and Dulkcilh that., *tho 

cause b(-ing (cclesiaHt.ira,l,' it * properly ap- 
pertained to tho judgement and jurisdiction 
of tho kirk 1 (%/ /*. </. SV-r*//. iii. 477; (Ur,~ 
DHUWoon, iii, <V,)() 8), In IfiM ho was ap- 
pointed <no of a oommissiotj for collecting 
tho acts of < ho assembly (//>, p. 7 1 J) ; and 1 1m 
same yoar was dirertotl, along with David 
Lindsay and John Davidson, to admonish 
tho king to beware of innovations \\\ religloa 
(//;. p. 717). At UK* giMierul assembly lield 
at Kdinburgh in October of the stum* year ho 
upfiiin actod an moderator. When the iie.tft 
of parliament, regurdinjy tho jurisdiction of 
tho kirk wo,ro proclaimed at. thn unirket-c>roHfl 
of ICdinburgh on "J5 May 15H4, Pont, uinnjy 
with Walter l)nlctintpinl f ap]ieare<l 'at this 

lie document ft in the nanw of the kirk of 
Scotland that they protested against- t,lnm ' 
(it>. iv. W5). Fur this \w was on the t>7t-h 
deprived of Inn seat on the lionelMiml imme- 
diately thereafter lw tookrefugo in I'lngluml, 
On 7 'Nov. he wii Hi;nmnnw(1 by the privy 
coniH^l to appear bofort^ it. on 7 Dot*,, nud 
give rfMisons for not subscribing the * obliga- 
tion of ecclesiastical conformity' ( AV//, P. (I 
tirotl, iii. 70tt). Shortly Imtore this he had 
returned to Scotland, and hud been put in 
ward, but iKtlong afterwards lie received his 
liberty, He penned th*> * Animadvtn'sions of 
C)iTV%nct)n cont^Mived upon tho Acts of Parlia- 
ment nwuVin the Ytare 1R84 in tiw JMonoth 
of M ay f presented hy the ('omml^iuniM's of 
the Kirk to the KingV Majesty at the Parlia- 
ment of LinHthgow in DiWnub<*r 1585,* In 
May 1580 he again acttrni amtlerator of tho 
general assetubly. In 1587 he WIJB appointed 
by tho king to the bishopric of OaithnoHH ? 
but, on his referring tlw mattwr to th gene- 
ral RflHombly, it refused to ratify tlw ap- 
point inimt, on the ground that the oiliat* w 
not ttgrwittblo to the word of Uo4. f Tlio 




same year he was appointed by the assembly 
one of a committee for collecting- the various 
acts of parliament, against papists, with a 
view to their confirmation on the king's 
coming of age (CALDURWOOD, iv. 627); and 
in 1588 he was appointed one of a committee 
to confer with six of the king's council regard- 
ing the best methods of suppressing papacy 
and extending the influence of the lurk (ib. 
p. 652) ; and also one of a commission to visit 
the northern parts, from Dee to the diocese of 
Caithness inclusive, with a view to the insti- 
tution of proceedings against the papists, the 
planting of kirks with qualified ministers, and 
the deposition of all ministers who were un- 
qualified, whether in life or doctrine (ib. pp. 
671-2). On 15 Oct. 1 589 he was appointed by 
the king one of a commission to try beneficed 
persons (ib, v. 04). He was one of those sent 
by the presbytery of Edinburgh to hold a 
conference with the king at theTolbooth on 
8 June 1591 regarding the king's objections 
to < particular reproofs in tho pulpit ; J and 
replied to the king's claim of sovereign judg- 
ment in all things by affirming that there 
was a judgment above his namely, l God's 
put in the hand of the ministry ' (tft.pp. 130- 
131). On 8 Doc, he was deputed, along with 
other two ministers, to go to Holyrood Palace 
' to visit the king's house,' when after various 
communications they urged the king * to have 
the Scriptures read at dinner and supper' 
^ib. p. 139). At tho meeting of the assembly 
at Edinburgh on 21 May 1592 he was ap- 
pointed one of a committee for putting cer- 
tain articles in reference to popery and the 
authority of the kirk ' in good form ' (ib. p, 
156). Wlion the Act of Abolition granting 
pardon to the Earls of Hunt ly, Angus, Enroll, 
and other papists on certain conditions was 
on 26 Nov. 1593 intimated by the king to 
the ministers of Edinburgh, Pont proposed 
that it should be disannulled rather than, re- 
vised (ib. 289), He again acted as mode- 
rator of the assembly which met in March 
1596. On 16 May 1597 lie was appointed 
one of a commission to converse with the 
king ' in all matters concerning the weal of 
the kirk* (Ib. p. 645); and he was also a 
member of the renewed commission in the 
following year (ib. p. 602). At the general 
assembly which met in March 1597-8 he was 
one of the chief supporters of the proposal 
of the king that the ministry, as the third 
estate of the realm, should have a vote in. 
parliament (ib. pp. 697-700). By th as- 
sembly which met at Burntisland on 12 May 
1601 he was appointed to revise the trans- 
hit ion of the Psalms in metre. On 15 Nov. 
of the following year he was ' relieved^of the 
burden of ordinary teaching.' He died on 

8 May 1G06, in his eighty-second year, and 
was buried in the churchyard of St, Cuth- 
bert's, Edinburgh. He had had a tombstone 
prepared for himself, but this was removed 
and another set up by his widow. There- 
upon the session of St. Cuthbert's, on 14 May 
1607, ordained that the stone she had set up 
*be presentlie taen down.' Against this 
decision she appealed to the presbytery of 
Edinburgh, and from it to the privy council, 
which on 4 June ordained ' the pursuers to 
permit the stone made by her to remain, in- 
stead of that made by her husband ' (Reg. 
P. C. Scot I. vii. 381). 

Pont was three times married. By his 
first wife, Catherine, daughter of Masterton 
of Grange, he had two sons and two daugh- 
ters: Timothy [q. v.]; Zachary, minister of 
Bower in Caithness, who married Elizabeth, 
daughter of John JKnox ; Catherine; and 
Helen, married to Adam Blackadder of 
Blairhtill, grandfather of Rev. John Black- 
adder [q. v.J By his second wife, Sarah Den- 
holme, he had a daughter Beatrix, married to 
Charles Lumsden, minister of Duddingston. 
By his third wife, Margaret Smith, he had 
three sons : James, Robert, and Jonathan. 

Wodrow states that Pont * had a discovery 
of Queen Elizabeth's death that same day 
she died,' He came to the king late at 
night, and after, with difficulty, obtaining 
access to him, saluted him * King of Great 
Britain, France, and Ireland.' The king 
said ' I still told you you would go distracted 
with your learning, and now I see you are 
so.' 'No, no,' said Pont, *1 am not dis- 
tempered. The thing is certain ; she is dead, I 
assure you ' (finalecta, ii. 341-2). The * dis- 
covery ' was attributed either to a revelation 
or to his knowledge of the science of the 

Besides several of the metrical Psalms, 
1565, his translation of the Helvetic Con- 
fession, 1566, his contributions to the ' Se- 
cond Book of Discipline,' his calendar and 
preface to Bassandyne's edition of the ' Eng- 
lish Bible,' 1579, his recommendatory verses 
to * Archbishop Adamson's Catechism, '1681, 
and to the ' Schediasmata ' of Sir Hadrian 
Damman, 1590, and his lines on Robert 
Rollock (Sibbaldi Moyia, p 66, in the Advo- 
cates' Library, Edinburgh), Pont was the 
author of: f. * Parvulus Catechismus quo 
examinari possunt juniores qui ad sacrum 
coenam admittuntur/ St. Andrews, 1573. 
2. ' Three Sermons against Sacrilege,' 1599 
(against the spoiling of the patrimony of the 
kirk and undertaken at the request of the 
assembly in 1591). 3. 'A New Treatise on 
the Right Reckoning of Yeares and Ages 
of the World, and Mens Liues, and of the 



Pen tack 

Estate of the last decay ing ape thereof, this King- JhuneH gave inHtructiotiH that, they 
itiOO vear of Christ (erroneously called a ahould be pureluihed from bin heirs and pro- 

ti - _ \ j*. m* * . 'Id* 1 ^ * J * !....* A 

Yoar</bf lubilee), which in from the Gmition 
the f>548 yare ; containing Huudrio aingu- 
larities worthie of observation, concerning 
courses of times and revolutions of tho 
I leaven, and reformation of Kaloudara and 
Prognostications, with a Discourse of Pro- 
phecics and Signs, preceding the, last claye, 

puml lor publication, but on account of 

which by manie arguments appimreth now 
to approach,' Edinburgh, 1591). A more 
ample version in Latin under the title ' Do 
Sabbaticorum annonuu Pcriodis Chrouo* 
log-in,' London, 1019 ; 2nd ed, K52;i. 4. < Do 
llntone Britannue, sou d Ri^norum Angliio 
et Scotia oniniumqutt adjacent-urn insularum 
in imam monarcliiam consolidatione, deque 
multiplici ejus unionw ntilitate, dialegun, 7 
Edinburgh, 1004. David Buchanan (l)e 
Script. Scot Z#.) mentions also his < Aurmun 
Seoulum, 1 his 'Translation of Pindar's 
Olympic Odes,' hia * Dissertation on the 
Greek Lyric Metres, 1 his ' Lexicon of Three 
Languages/ and his ' Collection ol' Homilies; ' 
"hut none of these manuscripts arc no\v 
known to bo extant, 

[Histories by Kwth, Caldorwood, and Spofcis- 
wood; Knox's Works; Wodrow's Misiurtbiny, 
vol. i. ; Wodrow's Awiloeta; Hubert Hudlio's 
Letters and Journal (Batniatyno Club) ; Diary of 
Jam8 Melville (Wodrow Soc,); Hrunton and 
Huitf's Senators of the Collide of Ju8li<o ; How 
Scott's Fasti Ecclos. Scot. i. 118- 10,fi. 388. 715, 
78ft, iii. 150.] T,F. H. 

PONT, TIMOTHY (1600 P-1614 P), topo- 
grapher, elder son of llobert Pout [q. v.], 
Scottish reformer, by his first wife, Cathe- 
rine, daughter of Masterton of U range, was 
born about 1 500. He matriculated a student 
of St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, in 
1579-80, and obtained tho degree ot MA. 
in 1583-4. In 1601 ho was appointed mi ta- 
ster of Dunnet, Caithness-shire, and WUH ton- 
tinued 7 Dec. 1610; but he resigned some 
time before 1614, when the name of William 
Smith appears as minister of the parish. On 
25 July 1609 Pont was enrolled for a nharo 
of two thousand acres in connection with the 

scheme for the plantation of Ulster, th price 
K*;rt./Lnrw CJ*M p ti. &**+] vii; ;vn. 

the diHorderw of tlu titru* they were ntMtrly for* 
gotten, when Sir J olin Seot of Seol Htarvet pi'o- 
vailcd on Robert Gordon (l/iHO-HHU) [q, v.] 
of Straloeh to utidortako their revinion \vitli 
a view to publication. The task of revision 
was completed hy< ^>rdon'N son,.] amen Uordon 
. v.'|, pawon of Ivothiemay, and they were 
iblished in BlaeuV ' Atluw/ vol.v. Amnter- 

dam, 105-1 (r*MHHd in UHW in vol. vi). Tho 
Topographical A ccou tit. of thnl )int riot of Oun- 
nin^hame, Ayrnhiro,])il(nl about tin* Ywir 
HiOO by Mr.'Timothy Pont,/ wan ]MibliHhd 
iu IBHO; and wan roprodunnl undor tho titlo 
* Cuniiinghamcs tojM^mj)hiwcl, by Timothy 
Pont, A.M., 1004-IOOH; with dtmtinuatioim 
and tlluntrativt^ Noticon by tlu* lut Jamas 
Dobio of ( -rummock, KS.A, Scot,, oditod }>y 

, John Shoddon Dobin/ ( Uasy;ow t 

Caliulmtia ; l*rofMK U> Iho 
tioim ofhiH <3iimnnf;him; Soti/H l\iMt.i K 
Scot iii. 3G-.J T, Jb\ U, 


kto]usr, WHM th won of Arnaiul 

nidunt of tlu^ parliatiUMtt of HonltMiux frnni 

1058 to HJ7.S, who diml in KMl. Anollmr 

-, t 

Arnaud dt^ Pontac had been binhup of Ham 
at the close of the nixteeuth eerit.ury, and 
weveral t(mil>erHof the family held the - ni 
of * grotlier eu ehef du parlement 1 ,* and 
pot iu Kranee (1/AHtu'; O'H-vnM^v, //i 
ctwiplMfl fit 1 /to/v/ww, lHUJi,p|., i. vol, ii, p. 1 "2 
vol. iii. p, 4*2, vol. iv, m, % J7-I, frnO). After tl 
dentruction of the \Vhite U<^ir tavern nt t] 
great ii re of London, Pontiusk, whttse ehris-^ 
tian name is unknown, opened a new tavern 
in Abeluwh Lane, Lombard Street, and, 
taking hm fat her'n port-rait an the Hign, cmiletl 
it the Pontack'n I lead. 1 1 in father WU.H owr, 
aft Kvelyu telln UH, of the excellent, vineyard* 
of Ponfaq and Obrien (llaut. BrionF), and 
tho choice Bordeaux wuien which Poutawk 
WOH ahleto supply largely contributed to tlm 
RUCCOHS of IUH hou:40| whieh wreinM to have 
occupied part of the nite ( 1 (i and 1 7 Lombard 

being 400J. (Key. P. C. Scotl viii* 

Pout was an accomplished mathematician, 
and the first projector of a Scottish atlas. In 
connection with, the project he made a com- 
plete survey of all the counties and islands 
of the kingdom, visiting even the most remote 
and savage districts, and making drawings 
ou the spot. He died before 16:45, probably 
in 1614, having almost completed his task. 

Strtwt) whtffe MtMnrn, UohartH, Lubbtutk, 
Co/s bank HOW HtiuidH (Jtntnml of the 
ttituteaf Rttntow, May !HH,vii, n^, * 8ot 
Account of Lombard BtroHt' by F, <,K H. 
Price), Tlu* win* cannot havo IWMMI t ho 
an that of Lloyd's coiftw-hou8n, for 

and Lloyd'n flourwhed at the* name period, 

Pontaek'n became the intwt. fiwhionablrt 
eatin|?-hort in London, and there th Hoyal 
Society Club dined annually utJtil 174(1, On 

"velyu wrote in hin 'Diary:' 
much diHftoum* with Mon- 
to tho famuua aud 




prime president of Bordeaux. ... I think I 
may truly say of him, what was not so truly 
said of St. Paul, that much learning had 
made him mad. He had studied well in phi- 
losophy, but chiefly the rabbines, and was 
exceedingly addicted to cnbalistical fancies, 
an eternal hablador [babbler], and half dis- 
tracted by reading abundance of the extra- 
vagant Eastern Jews. Re spake all lan- 
guages, was very rich, had a handsome per- 
son, and was well bred, about 45 years of age. 7 
. These accomplishments are not usually ex- 
pected of a successful eating-house proprietor. 
Ten years later (30 Nov. 1693) Evelyn, speak- 
ing of the Royal Society, says: ' We all dined 
at Pontac's as usual;' and in 1699 he * there 
met at dinner Bentley, Sir Christopher Wren, 
and others. 7 The eating-house and the wine 
named Pontack are mentioned in Montagu 
and Prior's ' The Hind and Panther trans- 
vers'd ' (1687), and in Southerae's ' The Wives' 
Excuse' (1692). In 1697 Misson (Travels, 
p. 146) said : * Those who would dine at one or 
two guineas per head are handsomely accom- 
modated at our famous Pontack's; rarely and 
difficultly elsewhere. 7 On 17 Aug. 1695 Nar- 
cissus Luttrell records (Brief Relation of 
State Affairs, iii. 513) that Pontack, 'who 
keeps the great eating-house in Abchurch 
Lane/ had been examined before the lord 
mayor for spreading a report that the king 
was missing, and had given bail. 

Tom Brown speaks of * a guinea's worth 
of entertainment at Pontack's,' and the* mo- 
dish kickshaws' to be found there are men- 
tioned in the prologue to Mrs. Centlivre's 
4 Love's Contrivance/ In the same year 
(1703) Steele (Lying Lover, i. 1) makes 
Latine say, * I defy Pontack to have prepared 
a better [supper] o' the sudden.' In ' Reflec- 
tions ... on the Vice and Follies of the Age,' 
part iii. (1707), there is a description of a 
knighted fop dining at Pontack's, at disastrous 
expense, on French ragouts and unwholesome 
wine. On 16 Aug. 1 7 1 1 Swift wrote : ' I was 
this day in the city, and dined at Pontack's. 
. . . Pontack told us, although his wine was 
so good, he sold it cheaper than others he 
took but seven shillings a flask. Are not these 
pretty rates?' On 25 Jan. 1713 < the whole 
club of whig lords' dined at Pontack's, and 
Swift was entertained there by Colonel Cle- 
land on 30 March of that year. The house 
is mentioned in ' Mist's Journal ' for 1 April 
1721, where it is hinted that, through the 
losses arising from th'e ' South Sea Bubble/ 
the brokers at the Royal Exchange went to 
a chop-house instead of to Poutack's, and that 
the Jews and directors no longer boiled West- 
phalia hams in champagne and burgundy. In 
1722 Macky (Journey through Enylandji, 175) 

spoke of Pontack's, * from whose name t he best 
French clarets are called so, and where you 
may bespeak a dinner from four or five shil- 
lings a head to a guinea, or what sum you. 
please.' Pontack's guinea ordinary, according 
to the* Metamorphosis of the Town '(1730), in- 
cluded < a ragout of fatted snails' and ' chickens 
not two hours from the shell.' 

Ifc is not known when Pontack died, but 
in 1735 the house was kept by a Mrs. Susan- 
nah Austin, who married William Pepys, a 
banker in Lombard Street. Pontack's head 
is seen in some copies of plate iii. of Hogarth's 
'Rake's Progress' (NICHOLS, Biographical 
Anecdotes of Hogarth, 1785, p. 214). 

[Wheatley and Cunningham's London Past and 
Present; Ashton's Social Life in the Reign of 
Queen Anne, i. 186-7; Burn's Descriptive Cata- 
logue of London Traders, Tavern, and Coffee- 
house Tokens, p. 13 ; Timbs's Chib Life in Lon- 
don, i. 68, ii. 130-1; Larwood and Hotten's 
History of Signboards, 1867, pp. 93, 94 ; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. vi. 375, 7th ser. ii. 295 ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Rep. pt. ii. p. 354 ; 
Tatler, No. 131.] <*. A. A. 


1181) [See ROGEH.] 

PONTON, MUN&O f 1803-1 880), pho- 
tographic inventor, only son of John Ponton, 
farmer, was born at Balgreen, near Edin- 
burgh, on 23 NOT. 1802. He was admitted 
writer to the signet on 8 Bee. 1825, and 
was a founder and subsequently secretary of 
the National Bank of Scotland. 

Ill-health caused him to relinquish Lispro- 
fessional career, and he devoted ms attention 
to science. On 29 May 1839 he communi- 


cated to the Society of Arts for Scotland 
*a cheap and simple method of preparing 
paper for photographic drawing in which the 
use of any salt of silver is dispensed with ' 
(Edin. New Phil. Journal, xxvii. 169). In this 
paper he announced the important discovery 
that the action of sunlight renders bichro- 
mate of potassium insoluble, a discovery 
which has had more to do with the produc- 
tion of permanent photographs than any 
other. It forms the basis of nearly all the 
photo-mechanical processes now in use. The 
developments of Ponton's method are stated 
in t Reports of the Juries of the Exhibition 
of 1862,' class 14, p. 5. In 1849 he com- 
municated to the * Edinburgh New Philo- 
sophical Journal,' xxxix. 270, an account of 
a method of registering the hourly varia- 
tions of the thermometer by means of photo- 
graphy. A list of his papers , which mainly re- 
late to optical subjects, is inthe* Royal Society 
Catalogue of Scientific Papers/ He became 
fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
in 1884. He died at Clifton on 3 Aug. 1880. 


9 6 


I, and Photographic Ne\v, 
20 L AnR. 1880, pp. 40'2-S; ^ruemli.p of ihc 
Royal Swu'tyof Kdinlwvh. xu 100; Lift ot 
Members of the Society of Writer* to 
p. 108.] 

]HHU), divmo and author, wtiM honi m 1S01), 
and mlnt'iili'd nt ( lambriil^s whoro ho was a 
Bchohirof Ktnmanmd rolh^v, Ho gradualtul 
in lH:U,and promidod M,A. in isrtrt 
Ki)/rWf/.(V///rt/>r. p. il">). Ho took holy 
orderHin lS:W,mul wuHOimiloMtin'.msivcl of 

Jl I <HJ.\jl*:n t* i.v* w . v ^ -,. 7 - 

bury on 6 Aitfr. 1852, and educated at 
Shrewsbury school. At the, ng of Bovtmtcori 
he proceeded to Worcester Collo^o, Oxford, at 
Michaelmas 1809, and took a third class m 
classical moderation* in 1871, and a third 
clfiEN in tlu final classical school m 18/tt. Il 
ffradnuti'd B.A. in 1873, M.A, in 1870, and 
1),D. in 1883, On leaving Oxford Poole be- 
came a tutor. Afterwards ho thought j)l 
medicine as a prolWion ; but in 1M>, 
having abandoned a leaning towards the 1 ly- 
month brethren, he wtia orduinod deacon, 
and licensed to the curacy of St. Ablates, 
Oxford. Early in boyhood 1'nohs had wished 
-to be a missionary, and the old desire was 
renewed in March 1876 by an appeal for 
men to aid in educational work at Miumli- 
iwtoijii. After some hesitation, Poole oilered 
himself to the Church Missionary Society on 

Twickenham, of St. John tho Kvan^list, 
Edinburgh, and of St., OlmdX Shrownbury. 
On Hi March I SM ho wan appointed pwpo.tnal 
ciirato of St. JiuucnX Lwlrt (KoHTKK, VWftt? 
ctf/. p. 1 -J i2 V In 1 8-1 '* ho waw proKontod to tho 

, NortlianipUmfiliiro.whicK 

hnhold unlil, in 1870,luMvs pnwontwl by tho 
hirthop of Poturborouffh to tin* nt.ory of Win- 
wick, mwr Ku^by, in tho *nmo county. tin 
uctod for a fow y<*iirn as nmd donti of tho dis- 
trict. Ho diod at, Winwiflt W Sopt. !, 
tinirrit'd adntig'hterofjonathau Willw 

of St, AnnV, Hurh^y. 

Ho wan a Htvonj? niufli cliurrhman ; hut. tht> 
work of hiwlifn wiw topvoinott^ tluMwivulof 
Gothic archit .odun k , and, noxtto John Iloury 
Parker and M, IU Hloxunu In* was tho most 
prominent among 1 tlw literary advonil^oC 
this inovc.uKMit. Hn was, In^sidcs, a prolific, 
writ or on other Huhjtu'tH, Ui worlt-s, 

' M . 

nself to the Church Missionary Society on \ various Hurmonn and t ruH-s \voro : I, 'Tho 
Juno 187(5. lie was accepted, and naded ^ K [\ ( ^ Return; oni( 1 iit'H.Imrn<w from CUiw 
India in October 1877. At MuHuHpatam, i w ^KdinhiirtfU/ a tulo for children, Kdin- 

. %< < /^ * i ii ..!-_ . i * i k j k ' T^ - r* ' . .taM* >^* , * tiii. 

for India in October 1877. At Mncmliputam, 
Poole threw himself into tha work of ^tluj 
Noble High School, fostered tho RTOV '" 
Christian literature in tho vernacular 
made many friends among tho odn % 
natives, tiarly in 1879 siprnfl of conrtuniption 
showed themselves in Poole, and, after twice 
visiting the Neilghorry hills, lio was in- 
valided home in June 1880. Thm-e wa 

little prospect of nis boinff able to return to 
India, and lie resigned in October 1882, At 


_ ... tho very t.rue Li^ht of tlte World, 

Btiitwi and dotVndtui; London, IHtO, Hvo. 
> t/ift* and TinuiH of St, dyprinn,' <)x- 
IRIO, Hvn. 5, ()n th* wnwnt SUt 

los in tho Church of Kn^hmd, with 

India*and' lie resigned in October 1882. At OM t UH ,i u l r*(Vnnco to 1 1m nlh^d totid(iH< k 
the anniversary meeting of the Church Mis- ] (jf t ,i m Oxiord School to the Doctrines nmJ 
flionary Society in May 188 a speech by o t)mmun i <m O f Uorni*, 1 London, 1HM, Hvo 
Poole attracted the attent.ion of tho arch- $ t^\ w Appropriate Characttu* of Ohinvl 

bishop of Canterbury, who oftforeA him the mis- Architecture; I^cdn, 18.^, Hvo; - ; '" : ' 

eionary bishopric in Japan which it had j ust 

been resolved to establish. After much hesi- 
tation and reassuring reports from the medi- 
cal board, Poole accepted the ottw, atid was 
consecrated at Lambeth on St, Luke's day 
1883. lie was warmly received in^ Japnn, 
and at once began to visit tho chief HUH- 
fiionavy stations in Ilia diocese. But, h'w 
health failing, he spent tho winter of 1884- 
1885 in California, He did not recover, but 
returned to England, and died at Shrews- 
bury on 14 July 1885, Foole married, in 
1877, Sarah Ann Pearson, who survived him, 
and by her he had issue. 

lH45o l Chuwhi8: tlusir Slnicttms A 
motit, and Dtusfirntion/ Ltmdon, 
7, 01umh<rt of Yorkshire/ dtw.ribjd ntui 
oditod (with otiiiTH 1 ), 1H-J5S, Hvo, H. ' A UIH- 
torv of tho Ohurcth in Am^'ira ' (part of vol 
ii, of 'TheCVwtiiw'H MiHc^llanyMi I^^dH, 
1842, Hvo. 9. < A U'ustory of Kujrlund, from 
Iho, Firnt InviiHion b thti Homann to tho 

[Record, 17 July 1885; Church Millenary 
Intelligencer, November 1885 ; pritate informa- 
tion.] . A. E, B. 

Acco.H8ion of Q,wn Victorin,' London, l*U4-< 
1840, 2 vols. 1'Jmo. 10, 'The (5hur<'hw ot 
Rcarboroufrh,Fiityi and tho Neighbourhood, 
London, 1848, lmo '(in collaboration with 
J. W, 1 iusall), 1 L ' A Iliwtory of J5<wliwiH- 
tical Architecture inEn^lunti; London, 184H, 
8vo, 1*2. *Sh* Uaoul do Hro and bin Sou 

8vo. IS. *8iv Hiionl do Hro and bin ou 
TviHtram,' a talo of th twelfth century, 
London, 1849, ittroo. 1^. ( Au hwtorietti 




and descriptive Guide to York Cathedral 7 
(with Hugall), York, 1850, 8vo. 14 ' Archi- 
tectural, historical, and picturesque Illus- 
trations of the Chapel of St. Augustine, 
Skirlaugh, Yorkshire' (edited by Poole), Hull, 
1855, 8vo. 15. * Diocesan History of Peter- 
borough/ London, 1880, 8vo. 

[Tim*s 28 Sept. 1883; Guardian, 3 Oct. 
1883 ; Brit,. Mus. Cat. ; Northamptonshire Notes 
and Queries, January 1884; PooLe's Works.] 

E. G. H. 

POOLE, JACOB (1774-1827), antiquary, 
son of Joseph Poole and his wife Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Jacob Martin of Aghfad, co. Wex- 
ford, was born at Growtown, co. Wexford, 
11 Feb. 1774. His parents were members 
of the Society of Friends, and he was seventh 
in descent from Thomas and Catherine Poole 
of Dortrope, Northamptonshire. Their son, 
Richard Poole, came to Ireland with the 
parliamentary army in 1649, turned quaker, 
was imprisoned for his religion at Wex- 
ford and Waterford, and died in Wexford 
gaol, to which he was committed for refusing 
to pay tithe in 1665. Jacob succeeded to 
the family estate of Growtown, in the parish 
of Taghmon, in 1800, and farmed his own 
land. He studied the customs and language 
of the baronies of Bargy and Forth, on the 
edge of the former of which his estate lay. 
The inhabitants used to speak an old English 
dialect, dating from the earliest invasion of 
the country, and he collected the words and 
phrases of this expiring language from his 
tenants and labourers. This collection was 
edited by the Rev. William Barnes from 
the original manuscript, and published in 
1867 as 'A Glossary, with some pieces of 
verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony 
in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy.' The 
glossary contains about fifteen hundred words, 
noted with great fidelity. The dialect is now 
extinct, and this glossary^ with a few words 
in Holinshed and some fragments of verse, 
is its sole authentic memorial. Poole com- 
pleted the glossary and a further vocabulary 
or gazetteer of the local proper names in the 
last five years of his life. He died 20 Nov. 
1827, and was buried in the graveyard of the 
Society of Friends at Forest, co. Wexford. 
lie married, 13 May 1813, Mary, daughter of 
Thomas and Deborah Sparrow of Holms- 
town, co. Wexford, and had three sons and 
three daughters. A poem in memory of Poole, 
called 'The Mountain of Forth/ by Richard 
Davis Webb, who had known and admired 
him, was published in 1867, and it was owing 
to Mr. Webb's exertions that the glossary 
was published. 

[Barnes's edit, of a glossary of the old Dia- 
lect, London, 1867; Mary Leadbeater's Biogra- 

phical Notices of Members of the Soc. of Friends 
who were resident in Ireland, London, 1823; in- 
formation from his grandson, Benjamin Poole of 
Ballybeg, co. Wexford.] N. M. 

POOLE, JOHN (1786P-1872), dramatist 
and miscellaneous writer, was born in 1786, 
or, according to some accounts, in 1787. 
His dedications to his printed works prove 
him to have held some social position, and 
his success as a dramatist was pronounced 
in early life. On 17 June 1813, for the bene- 
fit of Mr. and Mrs. Liston, he produced at 
Drury Lane * Hamlet Travestie/ in two acts, 
in which Mathews was the original Hamlet, 
Mrs. Listoii Gertrude, and Liston Ophelia. 
This, written originally in three acts, was 
printed in 1810, and frequently reprinted. 
'Intrigue/ described as an interlude, followed 
at the same house on 26 March 1814, and was 
succeeded by l Who's Who, or the Double 
Imposture/ on 15 Nov. 1815, a work earlier in 
date of composition. To Drury Lane he gave 

I Simpson & Co.,' a comedy, on 4 Jan. 1823; 
'Deaf as a Post/ a farce, on 15 Feb. 1823; 
The Wealthy Widow, or They're both to 
blame/ a comedy, on 29 Oct. 1827; 'My 
Wife ! What Wife ? ' a farce, on 2 April 
1829; 'Past and Present/ a farce, and 
'Turning the Tables/ a farce. To Covent 
Garden, ' A Short Reign and a Merry one/ 
a comedy in two acts, from the French, 
on 19 Nov. 1819; 'Two Pages of Frede- 
rick the Great/ a comedy in two acts, from 
the French, on 1 Dec. 1821 ; ' The Scape- 
Goat/ a one-act adaptation of ' Le Pr6- 
cepteur dans Tembarras/ on 25 Nov. 1825 ; 
' Wife's Stratagem/ an adaptation of Shir- 
ley's 'Gamester/ on 13 March 1827; and 
' More Frightened than Hurt.' And to the 
Havmarket, 'Match Making/ a farce, on 
25 "Aug.- 1821 ; * Married and Single/ a 
comedy from the French, on 16 July 1824 ; 
"Twould puzzle a Conjuror/ a farce, on 

II Sept. 1824; 'Tribulation, or Unwelcome 
Visitors/ a comedy in two acts, on 3 May 
1825; 'Paul Pry/ a comedy in three acts, 
on 13 Sept. 1825 ; ' Twixt the Cup and the 
Lip/ a farce (Poole's greatest success), on 
12 June 1826 ; ' Gudgeons and Sharks/ 
comic piece in two acts, on 28 July 1827 ; 
* Lodgings for Single Gentlemen/ a farce, on 
15 June 1829. 

In these pieces Charles Kemble, Liston, 
William Farren, and other actors advanced 
their reputation. Most, but not all, of them 
were successful, and were transferred to 
various theatres. Genest almost invariably, 
while admitting the existence of some merit, 
says they were more successful than they 
deserved. Some of them remain imprinted, 
and others are included in the collections of 



Lacy, Buncombe, and Pick Other pieces 
to be found in the same publications tiro 
1 The Hole in the. Wall,' ' A Soldier's Court- 
ship; ' Match Making/ < Past and Present,' 
'Patrician and Parvenu/ Poole also pub- 
lished 'Byzantium, a Dramatic Poem/ 

' Phineas Quickly, or Sheer Industry/ $ vols. ; 
' Sketches and Recollect ions/ 2 vols. ; l Village 
School improved, or Pariah Education.' 

In 1831 ho was living at Windsor. For 
many years, near the middle of the century, 
Poole resided in Paris, and was constantly 
seen at the ComMie Fran^aise. lie was ap- 
pointed a brother of the Charterhouse, but, 
disliking the confinement, threw up the posi- 
tion, Afterwards, through tho inlluonce of 
Charles Dickens, he obtained a pimmon of 
100/. a year, which he retained until his 
death. For the last twenty years of his 
life he dropped entirely out of recognition, 
lie died at his residence in Highgute Koud, 
Kentish Town, London, and was buried at 
Highgate cemetery on 10 F<b, 1B7& Ho 
supplied in 18*31 to the l Now Monthly Maga- 
zine/ to which he was during many roars an 
active contributor, what purported to b ' 
'Notes for a Memoir.' This, however, is 
deliberately and amusingly illusive. A por- 
trait, prefixed to his * Sketches and Recol- 
lections ' (1835), shows a handaomo, clear- 
cut, intelligent, and very gentlemanly face. 

[Private inf jrmatipn ; Forstor'B Life of 
Dickens; Letters of Dickons ; CKmont's Account 
of the FttgHuh Stage; Poole's Sketches and Ro- 
collect) ns ; Brit, Mns, Cab. ; London Catalogue 
of Booka; A.llibone'8 Dictionary of Authors; 
Mon of the Reign ; Xhrewov's Hcadore' Handbook; 
Scott and Hownrd'H Lifo of 13. L. Blanelmrdj 
Biographical Dictionary of Living Authors, 1816; 
Bail} Telegraph, 10 Fob. 1872; Era, 11 Fob. 
1872; NotoB and Queries, 8th ser, vL 37^,1 

J\ K. 

FOOLE, JONAS (<L 1612), ttarincr, 
made a voyage to Virginia in 1607 in tho 
employment of Sir Thomas Smythe [q. v.] 
In 1610 he commanded the Amity, set forth 
by the Muscovy Company * for a northern 
discovery/ which sailed in company with the 
Lioness, commanded by Thomas Edge, under 
orders for Cherry Island and the whale 
fishery. In May the Amity made Spitz- 
bergen, which Poole named Greenland, and 
continued on the coast durinpr the summer, 
examining the harbours and killing morses, 
with the blubber of which they filled up, 
and so returned to England, carrying also 
the horn of a narwhal, or ' sea-unicorn? In 
1011, again in company with Edge in the 

Mary Mar^arnt, which was to fish ' uoar 
Greenland,' Poolo .sailed in thn KVwaboth of 
sixty tons burden, with iustrurtioMH from 
S my the ' to HOO if it; worn posMiblo, to puss 
from " Greenland " towards tho polo,' Ac- 
cordingly, parting from IMjjo near Spitr- 
borg'ou, hn stood to tho north, hut in Lit, 80 
he foil in with tho itnpmu'truhln iei>-(iol<l, 
which ho ftltirtod towards tho w<t, tiovor 
iindhipp an oponmtf, till ho <siitnUul that ho 
must bn near Hudson's Hold with Hopo on 
the eat coont of (ji'tumluiKi. A wt\st(rly 
wind thon curritMl him back to Oho.rry 
Islatid, whons through July, thoy killed 
somo two hundnul morscm, an<l filled up tho 
Klixubot'h with* thoir fat. h'ulns and toeth/ ( )n 
^5 July ICdjyn and most of tho mni of tho 
Mary Mar^amt arrived with tho nows that 
their ship ha<l been wrwlcwl in Foul Sound, 
n-)W known UH Whnh^'s Bay ( Nordonskjuld, 
lM(M-4), Kd^o ord(M*od a gront part of tho 
JlJlixaboU/Hcar^o to bo landed, aiui t.I vessel 
wont to Foul Sound to ship as much of tlw 
Mury Marj^nrot/H oil as possihlo, There thti 
ship, owin^ to her It^httiess aft or hor oar^o 
was retnovod, Hllod and wont down ; I'oolo 
oscapexl with ditlu'.ulty, wit.h many }>roken 
bonoH. They ufttrwur<lH g'ot. a pnssnjxo to 
Kiifjfltind in tho HopnwoH of Hull, which 
Kdjre eharteml to carry home tho oil. In 
1(51^ Poohi npiiti wont* to $pit/,bor#on, hut 
a|)tmroutly only for tho ilshintf, and, huvin^ 
killed a groat many wlmlon, brought homo a 
full cargo, HhorMy aftnr his relurn ho was 

'ably mid basoly murdered betwixt 

iile and London/ 

'ft OWIUIHW of th Utnlivl iSiat( k H; Pur- 


iii. 4C-t, 711, 7UJ. | 

J. K, L* 

uu'tttHl a Htibsisiar at Claro Hall, (^ambridg^ 
on 17 Jan, HOJfci, and waH placed undor the 
tuition of IkruabaB Olny, 11(5 gradtiattKl 
MA., and for Hom timo had char|i of a 

l*arna$UB/ Poolw, who cU^d Iwforu 

^Thts KnjfliMh Accidom^, or a 
Short and Easy Way for tho mortj 8pody 
Attaining to tho Latino Ton^uo/ 4to, 1 6 10 ; 
reprinted 1655, and, with a ftlightly diiftwmt 
title, 1670, ' Tho Kngliah Parna8HU, or a 
Holpo to EngUtih Poaio,* Bvo, 1657 (reprinttid 
1677), though a posthumous publication, haa 
a dedication to Frandn AtWnfton, in -whofte 
house it was compiled, signed by Poole, 
who has alo pretxed ten pagea of verso ad* 
dressed to * tho hoi>eful young gentlemen his 




He also wrote and prepared for publica- 
tion a work on English rhetoric, but it does 
not appear to have been printed. 

[Information kindly supplied by the master 
of Clare College ; the English Parnassus ; Addit. 
MS. 24491, f. 325.] GK T. D. 

POOLE, MARIA (1770 P-1833), vocalist. 

1679), biblical commentator, son of Francis 
Pole, was born at York in 1624. His father 
was descended from the Poles or Pools of 
Spinkhill, Derbyshire ; his mother was a 
daughter of Alderman Toppins of York. He 
was admitted at Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, on 2 July 1645, his tutor being John 
Worthington, D.D. Having graduated B. A. 
at the beginning of 1649, he succeeded 
Anthony Tuckney, D.D., in the sequestered 
rectory of St. Michael-le-Querne, then in the 
fifth classis of the London province, under 
the parliamentary presby teriamsm. This was 
his only preferment. lie proceeded M.A. in 
1652. Two years later he published a small 
tract against John Biddle [q. v.] On 14 July 
1(357 he was one of eleven Cambridge gra- 
duates incorporated M.A. at Oxford on 
occasion of the visit of Richard Cromwell 
as chancellor. 

In 1658 Poole published a scheme for a 
permanent fund out of which young men of 
promise were to be maintained during their 
university course, with a view to the ministry. 
The plan was approved by Worthington and 
Tuckney, and had the support also of John 
Arrowsmith, D.D. [q.v.], Ralph Cudworth 
[q. v.], William Dillmgham, D.D. [q. v.],and 
Benjamin Whichcote. About 900/. was raised, 
and' it appears that William Sherlock, after- 
wards dean of St. Paul's, received assistance 
from this fund during his studies at Peter- 
house, Cambridge, till 1660, when he gra- 
duated B.A. The Restoration brought the 
scheme to an end. 

Poole was a jure divino presbyterian, and 
an authorised defender of the views on ordi- 
nation of the London provincial assembly, 
as formulated by William Blackmore [q. v.] 
Subsequently to the Restoration, in a sermon 
("26 Aug. 1660) before the lord mayor (Sir 
Thomas Aleyn) at St. Paul's, he endeavoured 
to make a stand for simplicity of public 
worship, especially deprecating ' curiosity of 
voice and musical sounds in churches.* On 
the passing of the Uniformity Act (1662) he 
resigned his living, and was succeeded by 
R. Booker on 29 Aug. 1662. His ' Vox Gla- 
ir antis' gives his view of the ecclesiastical 
situation. Though he occasionally preached 

and printed a few tracts, he mnde no attempt 
to gather a congregation. He had a patri- 
mony of 100 a year, on which he lived. 
He was one of those who presented to the 
king ' a cautious and moderate thanksgiving* 
for the indulgence of 15 March 1672, and 
hence were offered royal bounty. Burnet 
reports, on Stillingfleet's authority, that Poole 
received for two years a pension of 50. 
Early in 1675 he entered with Baxter into 
a negotiation for comprehension, promoted 
by Tillotson, which came to nothing. Ac- 
cording to Henry Sampson, M.D,[q. v.], Poole 
' first set on foot ' the provision for a noncon- 
formist ministry and day-school at Tunbridge 
Wells, Kent. 

On the suggestion of William Lloyd (1627- 
1717) [q. v.J, ultimately bishop of Worcester, 
Poole undertook the great work of his life, 
the ' Synopsis 'of the critical labours of biblical 
commentators. He began the compilation 
in 1666, and laboured at it for ten years. 
His plan was to rise at three or four in the 
morning, take a raw egg at eight or nine, and 
another at twelve, and continue at his studies 
till late in the afternoon. The evening he 
spent at some friend's house, very frequently 
that of Henry Ashurst fq. v.], where ' he 
would be exceedingly but Innocently merry/ 
although he always ended the day in * grave 
and serious discourse/ which he ushered in 
with the words, t Now let us call for a reckon- 
ing/ The prospectus of Poole's work bore 
the names of eight bishops (headed by Mori ey 
and Hacket) and five continental scholars, 
besides other divines. Simon Patrick (1626- 
1707) [q. v.], Tillotson, and Stillingfleet, with 
four laymen, acted as trustees of the subscrip- 
tion money. A patent for the work was ob- 
tained on 14 Oct. 1667, The first volume was 1 
ready for the press, when difficulties were 
raised by Cornelius Bee, publisher of the 
4 Critici Sacri ' (1660, foL, nine vols.), who ac- 
cused Poole of invading his patent, both by 
citing authors reprinted in his collection, and 
by injuring his prospective sales. Poole had 
offered Bee a fourth share in the property 
of the 'Synopsis/ but this was declined. 
After pamphlets had been written and legal 
opinions taken, the matter was referred to 
Henry Pierrepont, marquis of Dorchester 
[q. v.J, and Arthur Annesley, first earl of 
Anglesey [q. v.], who decided in Poole's 
favour. Bee's name appears (1669) among 
the publishers of the ' Synopsis/ which was 1 
to have been completed in three folio volumes, 
but ran to five. Four thousand copies were 
printed, and quickly disposed of. The merit 
of Poole's work depends partly on its wide 
range, as a compendium of contributions to 

textual interpretation, partly on the rare skill 





which condenses into brief, crisp notes the 
substance of much laboured comment. Kab- 
bmical sources and Roman catholic com- 
mentators are not neglected ; Httlo is taken 
from Calvin, nothing* from Luther. The 
'Synopsis' being in Latin for scholars, Poole 
"began a smaller series of annotations hi Eng- 
lish, and reached Tsaiah Iviii. ; this work was 
completed by others (the correct list IB given 
in CATAMY). 

In his depositions relative to the alleged 
' popish plot (September 1678), Titus Oaten 
[q.v.] had represented Poole as marked for 
assassination, in consequence of his tract 
(1666) on the * Nullity of the Romish Faith.' 
roole gave no credit to this, till he got a 
scare on returning one even ing from Ashurnt's 
house in company with Jomali Ohorloy [q. v.] 
"When they reached the * passage which goCiS 
from Clerkenwell to St. John's Court/ two 
men stood at the entrance ; one cried * Here 
he is/ the other replied * Let him alone, for 
there is somebody with him.' Poole made 
up his mind that, but for Ohorley'a presence, 
he would have been murdered, Tins, at. any 
rate, is Chorley's story. lie accordingly left 
England, and settled at Amsterdam. Here 
lie died on 12 Oct., new style, 1(>79. A. 
suspicion arose that he had been poisoned, 
but it rests on no better ground than the 
wild terror inspired by OnWs infamous 
fabrications. lie was tuned in a vault of 
the English presbyterian church at Amster- 
dam. Ilia portrait was engraved by 11. White. 
His wife, whose maiden name IR not known, 
was buried on 11 Aug* 1(5(58 at St. Andrew's, 
Holborn, Stillin^fleet preaching the funeral 
sermon. He left a won, who died in Ktf)7. 
The commentator spoiled his name Foolo, 
and in Latin Polus. 

^He published : 1. ' The Blasphemer slain 
with the Sword of the Spirit; or a Plea for 
the Godhead of the Holy Spirit . , . against 
. . . Biddle/ &c., ICG4, 12mo. 3, < Quo War- 
ranto ; or an Enquiry into the , . , Preach- 
ing- of. . . Unordained Persona/ &c., 1658, 
4to (this was probably written earlier, as it 
was drawn up by the appointment of the 
London provincial assembly, which appears 
to have held no meetings after 1655 ; Wood 
mentions an edition, 1659, 4to). 8. < A Model 
, for the Maintaining of Students ... at the 
University ... in order to the Ministry/ &c,, 
1058, 4to, 4. 'A Letter from, a London 
Minister to the Lord Plootwood/ 1659, 4to 
(dated 13 Dec.) f>. * Evangelical Worship 
is Spiritual Worship/ c., 1660, 4to; with 
title ' A Reverse to Mr. Oliver's Sermon of 
Spiritual Worship/ &c. , 1698, 4to. 6. ' Vox 

Clamant i in Deserto/ &c., 1606, 8vo (in 
Latin), 7. 'The Nullity of the Romish 

Faith/ &c., Oxford, ]<UW, 8vo (Wooi>)- 
Oxford, 1 607, l&no. 8. <A Dialoguo IwZ 
tweon a Popish I'riost and an Kiitfltah Pro- 
testant/ e,, I0(>7, Hvo, oft on reprinted ; re- 
cent editions are, 1H-IO, IrJmo (oditfd by IVt<r 
TIall [q. v.]); 1850, 12mo (edited by John 
Gumming [q. v.]) 1). < SynopHw Oilicoriim 

aliorumqiw Saerw Scriptunu 
&c.,vol.i.,HJ(tt),fol.; vol. ii., 1071, iol> vol. 
iii., HOT, ibl.; vol. iv., 1(174, fol, ; vol. v., 
1070, ibl.; 2nd wlit,, Krankfnrt, Ki78, Ibl, 5 
VO!H.; 3rd olit.,Utrucht f UW4~tt, ibl., 5 vols. 
(edited by John I^inwdmO; 4th <Mlit., Knink- 
fort, 1694, Jto, 5 VO!H. (with lifo) ; 5th edit., 
Frankfort, I70J>-1^ iol., VO!M. (with com- 
ment on the Apocrypha). The * Synopsis' 
was placed on the Roman Iwlex by deeivo 
dated BI April I(m. 10, <A Seasonable 
Apology for Ht^li^ion/ cHrc. f 1(578, -Ito. POH- 
thumouM were 1 L ' HIM lute Sayings a little 
before hia Death/ &o. Jl(J7t)l bronclshottt, 
13. t AtmotatioiiH upon t lie Holy Bible/ <S:c,, 
J 083-5, foL, $ voln. ; often reprinted; hwt 
edit. 18 10, Hvo, Jl VO!M. Four of hinHermona 
are in 1he Morninjf KxorciwoH/ 10007fi,4to, 
He had a hand in Jf^hn Toldervy's * The Foot 
out of thn Wnare/ l(jr>0, -Ito (a*1rt a^ain-st 
(makers) ; 1m Aul>H(*nht(l the (^)istle commen- 
datory prefixed to Christopher Love'w ]>os- 
thumowH SSinner's Lepinv/ 1057, -Ho; ho 
a preface and memoir for the posthu- 

mous sernumH ( l<J77)of JntnesNalton fq.v.]; 
also elegiac, vrws in memory of Jacob Stock, 
Richard Vines, and Jeremy 'Whi taker, 

[OHhini^'H Accotint, 1 7 1 <% ||. 1 4 sq. ; (, 1 alamy*H 
Oontinmuion, 17*27, i, 16 seq, ; Wood's Mintl 
(BIifi-.)-S05j UoUquiu* HaKtHwj, 1000, iiu 
157; Bwmfc f H Own Time, 1724,5.308; High's 
Lifo of TillotHmi, 17r>ii, pp, J17 S<KJ.; Omntftr' 
Bio^r, Hint of Knglnntl, 1770, iii, 811 ; INvk's 
DesiuVratn (hiriosn, 1770, il 64(J; (^halmw' 
(Inn^ral Hio^r. Diet,, 1810, xxv, JM nwq, ; 
GluiiVn Diction nn,iro Univttrsol tls Ht-ioncnH Ko- 
cl6sift8tt(|uoft, 18%, ii, 181(J ; oxtwct from Swnjp- 
BOHH l)ny-book, in Christian ttIVirmw 1802, p, 
247; Foster's Alumni Oxmu 1891, iii. 1175;) 

A, O. 

1870), historical prtititer, fourth sou of Jrtmea 
Paul Poole, <v Htuall gro<^r, WUH born at 4tt Cu\ 
lege Street, Bristol, on i^B l)c. 1B07. An 
eldw brother, Jatnen Poole, u merchant, was 
mayor of Bristol in 1 858-9, and chairman of 
the Tail* Valo Railway Company, and of 
the Bristol Docks Coramitteu. liti died ou 
24 Dec. 1B7^ T a^d 7f>, 

Paul was baptised in 8t, Augnstin(j* Church 
in that city on ^ July 1B10 by the names of 
Paul * Fawkmjr,' Ho roomvttcl little general 
education, and aft an aitiBtwas almost entirely 
self-taught, to which cnuao muat be ascribed 




the imperfect drawing that is observable in 
much of his work. He came to London early, 
and in 1830 exhibited at the Royal Academy 
his first picture/ The Well, a scene at Naples/ 
but during the next seven years his name does 
not appear in the catalogues. He, however, 
contributed to the exhibitions of the Society 
of British Artists and of the British Institu- 
tion, and from 1833 to 1835 appears to have 
been living at Southampton. In 1837 he sent 
to the Royal Academy t Farewell ! Pare- 
well ! ' and was afterwards an almost constant 
contributor to its exhibitions. 'The Emi- 
grant's Departure ' appeared at the Royal Aca- 
demy in 1838, and was followed in 1840 by 
* The Recruit ' and ' Hermann and Dorothea 
at the Fountain,' in 1841 by ' By the Rivers 
of Babylon/ a work of fine poetic feeling, and 
in 1842 by * Tired Pilgrims ' and ' Margaret 
alone at the Spinning- Wheel.' All these 
works were idyllic, but in 1843 he attracted 
much notice by his highly dramatic picture 
of * Solomon Eagle exhorting the people to 
Repentance during the Plague of the year 
16(35/ a subject taken from Defoe's * History 
of the Plague/ and described by Redgrave 
as representing ' the wild enthusiast, almost 
stark naked, calling down judgment upon the 
stricken city, the pan of burning charcoal 
upon his head throwing a lurid light around/ 
The Hey wood gold medal of the Royal Man- 
chester Institution was awarded to him for 
this picture in 1845. He also, in 1843, sent 
to the Westminster Hall competition a 
spirited cartoon, the subject of which was 
<The Death of King Lear? In 1844 he sent 
to the academy ' The Moors beleaguered by 
the Spaniards in the city of Valencia/ and in 
1846 t The Visitation and Surrender of Syon 
Nunnery,' He was elected an associate of the . 
Hoyal Academy in 1846, and in 1847 gained 
a prize of 300. in the Westminster Hall com- 
petition for his cartoon of ' Edward's Genero- 
sity to the People of Calais during the Siege 
of 1 346.' H is subseq uent contributions to the 
Royal Academy included, in 1848, * Robert, 
Duke of Normandy, and Arietta ; ' in 1849, 
a picture in three compartments, containing 
scenes from Shakespeare's l Tempest ; ' in 
1850, 'The Messenger announcing to Job the 
Irruption of the Sabseans and the Slaughter 
of the Servants/ a work which has been de- 
scribed as ' a painted poem not unlike Mr. 
Browning's verse;' and in 1851 'The Goths 
in Italy/ now in the Manchester Art Gallery. 
These were followed by ' The May Queen pre- 
paring for the Dance' and 'Marina singing to 
her father Pericles,' in 1852; 'The Song of 
the Troubadour/ in 1854; 'The Seventh 
Day of the Decameron : Philomena 5 s Sonpr/ 
in 1855 ; * The Conspirators the Midnight 

Meeting/ in 1856; 'A Field Conventicle/ in 
1857 ; 'The Last Scene in King Lear (The 
Death of Cordelia)/ in 1858, now in the 
South Kensington Museum : and * The Es- 
cape of Glaucus and lone, with the blind girl 
Nydia, from Pompeii/ in 1860. In IbUl 
Poole was elected a royal academician, and 
presented as his diploma work ' Remorse/ 
His later works include the ' Trial of a Sor- 
ceress the Ordeal by Water/ 1862; 'Light- 
ing the Beacon on the coast of Cornwall at the 
appearance of the Spanish Armada,' 1864 ; 
< Before the Cave of Belarius/ I860 ; ' The 
Spectre Huntsman/ 1870; ' Guiderius and 
Arviragus lamenting the supposed death of 
Imogen/ 1871 ; ' The Lion in the Path/ 1873 ; 
'Ezekiel's Vision/ 1875, bequeathed by him 
to the National Gallery, but not a good 
example of his powers ; ' The Meeting of 
Oberon and Titania/ 1876; 'The Dragon's 
Cavern/ 1877; ' Solitude/ 1878 ; and 4 May 
Day ' and ' Imogen before the Cave of Bela- 
lius/ 1879. These were his last exhibited 
works, and were typical examples of his 
idyllic and dramatic styles. His pictures owe 
much of their effect to his fine feeling for 
colour, the keynote of which was a tawny 
gold. He was elected a member of the Insti- 
tute of Painters in Water-Colours in 1878. 
Two of his drawings are in the South Ken- 
sington Museum. Twenty-six of his works 
were exhibited at the winter exhibition of 
the Royal Academy in 1884, together with a 
portrait- sketch by Frank Holl, K.A. 

Poole, who was a painter of great poetic 
imagination and dramatic power, died at his 
residence, Uplands, Hampstead, on 22 Sept. 
1879, and was buried in Highgate cemetery. 
In manner unassuming, he was, in person, tall 
and spare, with grey eyes and a short beard. 
He married Hannah, widow of Francis Dauby 
q. v.], A.R.A., who also in early life resided 
in Bristol, and whose son, Thomas Dauby, 
lived much with him. 

[Athenaeum, 1879, ii. 408 ; Art Journal, 1879, 
pp. 263, 278 ; Encyclopaedia Britannicu, 9th 
edit. 1875-89, xix. 461 ; Redgraves* Century of 
Painters of the English School, 1890, p. 367; 
Boyal Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 1830- 
1879; British Institution Exhibition Catalogues 
(Living Artists), 1830-42 ; Exhibition Catalogues 
of the Society of British Artists, 1830-4-1 , 
Graves's Dictionary of Artists, 1760-1880; 
information kindly communicated by Mr. H. B. 
Bowles of Clifton, and Mr. W. George of Bris ol, 
and by Dr. Richard Garnett, C.B.] K. E. G. 

1895), archaeologist and orientalist, born in 
London on 27 Feb. 1832, was the younger 
son of the Rev. Edward Richard Poole, M.A., 
of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and Sophia Poole- 




[q. %.], sister of Edward William Lone [q. v.] 
From July 1842 to October 1 8-19 he lived wit h 
his mother and her brother at Cairo, where 
his education was directed by Lane and by 
the Rev. G. S. Cautley. He began very early 
to devote himself to the study of ancient 
Egypt, made minute researches in private 
collections of antiquities at Cairo and Alex- 
andria, and twice ascended the Nile for 
the purpose of studying the monument^ The 
fruit of these labours was seen in a series of 
articles contributed, before ho was seventeen, 
to the 'Literary Gazette/ and ropublished in 
18ol under the title of < Horiw ^'EgyptiucM, 
or the Chronology of Ancient Egypt, at tho 
instance of Algernon Percy, fourth duke of 
Northumberland [(}. v.l B*y the dulio's in- 
fluence he was admitted as an assistant in the 
department of antiquities in tho British Mu- 
seum, 20 Feb. 1852, When that department 
was rearranged in its present Bubtlivisions, 
he was assigned to tho new department of 
coins and medal ft, of which ho became assis- 
tant keeper in July 180(5, and keeper, 29 Oet 

Poolers work as head of tho coin depart- 
ment is specially memorable for the initiation 
and superintendence of a system of scientific 
catalogues, While koopor he editod awl 
collated thirty-five volumes, four of which 
and part of a fifth he wrote himself: via, 
(in the < Catalogue of Greek Coins)/ * Italy/ 
3873; part of ' Stcily/1876 j < Ptolemaic Kings 
of Egypt,' 1883 j and Alexandria/ 1894 ; 
and in the oriental series, * Shahs of Persia/ 
1887. Durmgliis administration anew feature 
was introduced in the exhibition of electro- 
types of select Greek coins and English and 
Italian, coins and medals in the Museum public 
galleries, for which * Guides ' were written by 
ttienibors of his stall*; and a plan was carried 
out of exposing to public view ucce,ssivo 
portions of the original coin collections. By 
these methods, as well as by frequent lec- 
tures and by a vast amount of individual 
instruct ion freely given to numerous students, 
he did much to encourage the study of numis- 
matics and medallie art, while inspiring his 
assistants with an exalted standard of learned 
work. Outside his oilicial work, he com* 
piled a laborious ' Catalogue of Swiss Coins ' 
in the South Kensington Museum (1878), 
and wrote articles 6n Greek, Arabic, Persian, 
and other coins in the 'Numismatic Chronicle* 
and in the ' Transactions of the Itoyal Society 
of Literature/ in some of which he was the 
iirst to point out the value of Greek coins 
in illustrating classical literature and plastic 
art (FtrBTWABNaLBB, Mattery-facet of Qreek 

Seulyture, od, Sellers, 1894, p. 106). lie also 
contributed au introductory essay to tho 

volume on * Coins and Medals/ edited by 
his nephew, S, Lane- Poole, in 1885. During 
his keepership tho department acquired the 
"VVigan collection, the South Indian rieof 
Sir Walter Klliot, and Sir Alexander Cun- 
ningham's liaetrian cabinet, while it was 
owing to roolo'fl negotiation that the colluo 
tionsoftho Batik of England and of tho India 
Oilice were incorporated hx tho British 

On Egyptology Poole lectured and wrote 
frequently, and some of hi essays were col* 
lected in 1.8H2, with the title, 'Cities of Egypt/ 
llo contributed numerous articles to Smith's 
' Dictionary of the .Bible * ( 1 8<>0 et sea.) ; wrote 
* Egypt/ * Hieroglyphic,' ' Numismatics/ 
&c,,for the eighth and ninth editions of the 
' Encyclopedia Drit tinmen;' read papers on 
Egyptian subjects before tho Uoyal Asiatic 
Society and the Hoy ul Society of J atorature ; 
and was an occasional reviewer in the * Aca- 
demy/ In 1809 he wus Hent by tho trustees 
of the Brit fall Miifloum to reporUm antiquities 
at Cypruw and Alexandria, and the result was 
the acquisition of the JLimg and IlarriHOollec* 
tionft* 1 n lK8JJ-'5ho WUN appointed to lecture' 
on C-JreeU, Egyptian, and medallie art to the 
ofthelvoyal Academy, nnd in 18^9 
dedSir( liu.rlcHNewtou us VnteHpro- 
of arehuHilogy at University (College, 
where he converted what hud bten a special 
chair of Greek archaeology int-o a centre for in- 
tttruetiou in a wide range of arehmologicnl 
stud io. Ills own Htiiuulatitig teaching of 
Egyptian, AMsyrian, und Arab art und anti- 
quiUes, und uuwiwnaticH, waw stipplementod 
by the <;oo]>t^nt ion of special istn m othor 
branches. In lH8tf hn joined Misn Amelia B, 
Edwards in founding the Egypt Exploration 
Fund, to which he, devoted immtof his spare 
time and energy during his kst twelve years, 
and of which he was honorary Heorelury and; 
chief supporter until his death, lie also 
founded, in conjunction with Mr, Legros, iix 
1HB4, tho Kode'ly of English Medallists, in 
the hopt^ of dev(lop'utg an in\pjwvd style o 
inwdallic art In 1H7(J he was elected a cor* 
reapondwntof th Aeudfanw dos Inscriptions. 
tt ftl les-Lettres of tht^ Frendi IuHtitt4, and 
in 1HBO ho rtwoivod the honorary degree of 
LL.l), at Oumbridgo, In 18U8, after forty- 
one years* public uorvico, ho retired from tho 
lec])ewhip of coins, and, having resigned hi& 
profesHorHuijnu IH94 in (Mme<juenceof fulling 
health, died on 8 Kb, 1H95 tit Wtwt Kensing- 
ton, lie married in 1H01 KHzu Ohnstina 
Forlonpfe, by whom ho had four children, of 
whom three survived him* 

Besides the worlm mentioned above, Ponlo 
edited a flhort-liviul inftpizino, the * Monthly 
U-7, to which ho was uu 




sive contributor; and wrote, in collaboration 
with his mother, the descriptive letterpress of 
Frith's * Views in Egypt, Sinai, and Palestine. 7 

[Times, 9 Feb. 1895; Athenaeum, 16 Feb. 
1895 ; Lane-Puole's Life of E. W. Lane, pp. 1 1 1- 
121; information from F. A. E^ ton, secretary of 
the Eoyal Academy; personal knowledge and 
private information.] 

POOLE, ROBERT (1708-1752), medical 
and theological writer, was born in 1708, 
but his parentage cannot be traced. Nearly 
all that can be found out about this singular 
man is derived from his own writings. He 
states that after studying some years in the 
' Congregational Fund'j academy of arts 
and sciences under Professor Eames [see 
EAMES, JOHN], and attending some courses 
of anatomy under Dr. Nichols, professor of 
anatomy at Oxford, and of chemistry under 
Dr. Pemberton, professor of physic at Gresham 
College, he entered (2 March 1738) as a 
physician's pupil at St. Thomas's Hospital, 
where he followed the practice chiefly of 
Dr. Wilmot. His studies continued about 
three years, and in May 1741 he set out on 
a journey to France, his chief object being 
to obtain a degree in medicine from the uni- 
versity of Rheims. On 15 July 1741, after 
one day's examination in Latin, he received 
his diploma, and, having visited the hos- 
pitals in Paris and studied there, returned 
by way of Holland to his home at Isling- 
ton after three months' absence. He would 
seem subsequently to have practised as a 
physician, for on the foundation of the Mid- 
dlesex Infirmary (afterwards the Middle- 
sex Hospital) in 1745 he became physician 
to the institution, but resigned in October 
1746, when the constitution of the infirmary 
was altered (see ERA.SMTTS WILSON, History 
of the Middlesex Hospital, 1845, pp. xiv, 3, 
182). He was appointed in 1746 physician 
to the small-pox hospital, which he had as- 
sisted to found, but resigned this office in 

- Poole's medical career was not a long one, 
for in October 1748 he embarked on a voyage 
to Gibraltar and the West Indies, chiefly, it 
would seem, for the sake of his health, and 
visited Barbados, Antigua, and other islands. 
In June 1749 he was attacked with fever. 
His diary, which is minutely kept, ends on 
6 July. He returned home, however, since 
he was buried at Islington on 3 June 1752 
(LYSONS, Environs of London, 1796, iii. 158). 
The journals of this voyage were published 
after his death, under the title of - The Bene- 
ficent Bee/ with an anonymous preface which 
ends with these words : ' The present and 
eternal happiness of his fellow-creatures was 
his principal concern, and he spent his for- 

tune, his health, nay, even his life, in order 
to promote it.' These words indicate Poole's 
high character and aims. He was not only 
a physician, but a religious enthusiast, who, 
as a friend and follower of George Whitfield, 
was not ashamed of being called a methodist. 
During his hospital studies and on his travels 
he busied himself in religious exhortation 
and in distributing good books* His profes- 
sional life was too short to be productive. 
He was a most industrious student and an 
indefatigable taker of notes, but evidently 
by his private fortune independent of his pro- 
fession. He appears not to have been married, 
and never belonged to the College of Phy- 
sicians, His portrait, a mezzotint by J. Faber 
after Augustus Armstrong, is prefixed to his 
first volume of travels. It gives his age, in 
1743, as thirty-five. 

Poole's writings form two groups. The 
first group were published with the pseudo- 
nym of Theophilus Philanthropes. They are 
as follows, all being printed at London in 
8vo. The editions mentioned are those in 
the British Museum. 1. 'A Friendly Cau- 
tion, or the first Gift of Theophilus Philan- 
thropos/ 1740. 2. 'The Christian Muse, or 
Second Gift of Theophilus Philanthropes/ 
2nd edit. 1740. This is in verse. 3, ' The 
Christian Converter the Third Gift of Theo- 
philus Philanthropes/ 1740. 4. ' A Token 
of Christian Love, or the Fourth Gift of 
Theophilus Philanthropes/ 1740. 5. A 
Physical Vade-mecum, or Fifth Gift of Theo- 
philus Philanthropes/ 1741. 6. e Seraphic 
Love tendered to the Immortal Soul, or 
the Sixth Gift of Theophilus Philanthro- 
pes/ 4th edit. 1740. The first four ' Gifts ' 
and the sixth are all of the same kind, 
being short books or tracts of an edifying 
and devotional character. They are adorned 
with extraordinary allegorical frontispieces, 
engraved on copper, in some of which the 
author's portrait is introduced. These tracts 
were on sale at 8& or 1$. each, but were also 
to be had, if desired, gratis, with a small 
charge for binding, being evidently meant also 
for private distribution. The fifth ' Gift' is 
entirely different. It contains a full de- 
scription of St. Thomas's Hospital in his time, 
its buildings, arrangements, and staff, with 
a complete copy ot the 'Dispensatory' or 
pharmacopoeia ot that hospital, as well as of 
those of St. Bartholomew's and Guy's Hos- 
pitals. Drawn up with great care, it is an 
important historical memorial of hospital 
affairs and medical practice in the eighteenth 
century. This also has, in some copies, a 
curious allegorical frontispiece, and in one 
copy we have found the portrait of the 
author. The authorship of these works is 




established not only by the dedications and 
otlier personal dotailft, but by nlhwiona to 
them in the acknowledged works of tko 

The works published in Pooled own name 
are : 1. 'A Journey from London to Franco 
and Holland, or the Traveller's Useful Vado- 
mecmn, by K. Poole, Dr. of Phyick/ v l- * 
2nd edit. London, 1740; vol. ii.' 1750. This 
work contains a minute journal of tho au- 
thor's travolH, with interest in|? nun arks ou 
the Paris hospitals, freely intorspowd with 
religious and moral reductions. The bulk 
is made out with u French grammar, a 
sort of gazetteer of Kuropo, and other infor- 
mation for travellers. SJ. 'The Hondieout 
Bee, or Traveller's Companion: a Voyage 
from London to Gibraltar, Barbados, Anti- 
gua, &c., by li. Poole, ALP,/ London, ITfiJJ, 
This is a traveller's' journal of tho same 
character as the former. All Pooled works 
display minute accuracy, a thirst for in- 
formation of all kinds, and a passion for sta- 
tistics, besides the personal characteristics 
already mentioned, 

f Poclo's Works ; of. a fuller account of snmo 
of them by Dr. W. S. Church m St. Bart-holo- 
mow's Hospital UoportH, xx. '270, and xxi, 2tt2 ; 
Notes and QuoruiB, 2nd wu\ i. 77 J J. Ji 1 . P. 

POOLE, SOPHIA (1804-1891), author 
of the * Kn^lishwoninn in Kgypt/ wan t,ha 
youngest child of tho Roy. Theophilus Lana, 
IXC.L., prebendary of lluroforu, whore aho 
was born on 10 Jan. I HOI, mid tho Hifttwof 
Kd ward William Lane [<j.v.'J In 18^9 who 
married Edward Kioharu Poolo, M.A. of 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, barmter-at-law, 
but recently admitted to holy ordera, a 
notable book-collector and bibliographer, an 
intimate of Thomas Frognall Dibdin [q. y.], 
and anonymous author of 'The ClaHHicai 
Collec.tor's Vade JVIoeum' (18:$). In 1842 
Mrs. Poole and her two sons accompanied 
her brother to Egypt, and lived in Cairo for 
Hoven yenr-s where ahe vim'ted wmio of the 
h&iitutt of Mohammad 'Aii'n family, and ob- 
tained a considerable knowledge of domestic 
life in Mohammadan Hocioty, a yet but 
slightly modified by western influenc< > s. Tho 
results of her experiences were embodied in a 
series of letters, published, under the title of 
4 The Englishwoman in Egypt,' in Knight ' 
weekly volumes (^ vols. 1844, and a second 
series forming vol. ii'u 1B40). The book sup- 
plies a true and simple picture of tho life 
of the women of Kprypt, toprethor with his- 
torical notices of Cairo these last wore 
drawn from Lane's notw and revised by him, 
After Mrs, Pooled return to Enflluwl with 
her brother in 1849, she collaborated with her 

younger won, Reginald Stuart Poolo [q. v.], 
in a HorioH of dosc.ript iotm of Krith's * .Photo- 
graphic Viovvfl of Hgypt, Sinai, and Palos- 
tino ' ( 18(10- 1 ), A ft or tho early (nlucation of 
her children, her lifo \va mainly devoted to 
her brother, Kdward Lane, up to IUH death 
in 1870; and horla,st y( k ar wtsro pont in her 
younger on*s IIOUMO at tlus 'Hritmh MviBeum, 
whoro who died, (J JMay 1891, at tho ago of 

(1H;H)-1H07), wan an Arabic scholar, and 
edited tho now edition of hi undo Lane's 
* ThouHnnd a<M)no NiglitH ' (tt vole. 1850), 
atidtbe tifth edition of 'The Modern l%yp* 
tiana' (1800); ho ulw> wrott* many art ides 
for Smith's ' l)i<'ti<mary of tho BiblcV bewidea 
contribut \ni* to tho eighth odition of tho ' En* 
cycloim'dia Jirit annum/ nnd occasionally to 
periodical litcrat uro. 1 1 o became chief clorlc 
of tho Hcionco and art, department, and died 
premattiroly on Ii2 Marc)i 18(17, loaviug two 
wnwj Stantey Lune-Poolo and Uoginald L, 


[Pma*o information.] 

POOLE, THOMAS (17(15-1 887), frioiul 
of Oohtridgo, old<Ht< HOU of Thomiut Voole, 
tannor, of Nothor Htowoy, SoiuorHot., wiw 
bornat Notlu^rStowoyon 14 Novoinlnu' 17(15. 
Tho fathor, a roug'h t rmUwuan, brought up 
tho HOU to hirt own IwmnoMH, and thought 
book-karning undtMiml>lo. Tho yowngvr 
Thomas WH uovor wmttoa good nchool, and 
rtwntod his fatlior*H nyHttnn, llo managed 
to oducato himnolf, and learnt. Frtmch and 
Latin with tho help, in lator yoarn, of a 
Fronch omi^rant }>rioHt, llo Htuck to his 
btiHinwH not tho ICHH; and in 17iK) was 
doctod ddogato by a meeting of tatnuTH at 
Bristol, who wiahod to obtain from Fitt 
Homo diangoM in tho dutioH af1bct>iug the 
trade, llo vmitod .Lomloti on this errand in 
1791, and was afterward** ongagod in pre- 
paring momoriulH to Pitt. About 179JJ ho 
otin to havo carnod out a plan for improv- 
ing hi* hnowlcdgo of btiH'n^oHM by working 
as a common tunuw in a yard noar London* 
A 8tory tlmt -whilo tluw working lu^ made 
acquftintanco with (Jolevidgo, uum in the 
(IrugoonH, Buonw to bo inconwHt mt with 
dattH (SANWKOKD, ThtmM* jWa nnd /> 
FrifttdA, pp, 54, 70-84). Upon IUH futhor'a 
death in July 17*)5,'Poolo inhontod tho 
ljuin<fts. flo imit (^oloridgo, nrobubly for 
tiie iirwt time, in 17iH, au<l utmcribtiH the 
* PanttHOoracy ' Hdumo, Pool*) was a %vhig 
rather than a Jacobin, but HVW pa tinned \vitli 
tho revolution in itH onriior phunos, Oolo- 
ridgo and his frindH w<*ro on t.ho same HI do 
at this time* An intwwuy oon began, and 




1 !*! 

in September 1795 Coleridge again visited 
Stowey, when Poole wrote an enthusiastic 
copy of verses about his friend. Poole sup- 
ported the l Watchman ' in 1796, in which 
Coleridge also published a paper of his 
upon the slave trade. He got up a small 
subscription of 40, which was presented 
to Coleridge on the failure of the periodical, 
and which was repeated in 1797. Poole 
found Coleridge a cottage at Nether Stowey 
at the end of 1796. He also became inti- 
mate with Thomas "Wedgwood and his 
brothers, to whom he introduced Coleridge. 
A lifelong friendship with Sir Humphry 
Davy was another result of the same con- 
nections. The friendship with Coleridge 
continued after Coleridge's voyage to Ger- 
many, and Mrs. Coleridge wrote annual 
letters to Poole for many years, showing 
her confidence in his continued interest. In 
October 1800 he wrote some letters upon 
* Monopolists and Farmers ' which Coleridge 
published, with some alterations, in the 
' Morning Post,' and which are reprinted in 
Coleridge's 'Essays on his own limes' (ii. 
413-55). In 1801 a slight tiff, arising from 
Poolers unwillingness or inability to lend 
as much as Coleridge had asked, was 
smoothed over by an affectionate letter from 
Coleridge on the death of Poole's mother. 
In 1807 Coleridge again visited Poole at 
Stowey after his return from Malta, when 
De Quincey, then making his first acquain- 
tance with Coleridge, also saw Poole. In 
1809 Poole advanced money for the * Friend.' 
He corresponded with Coleridge occasionally 
in later years. He contributed to the 
support of Hartley Coleridge at Oxford, 
received him during vacations, and took 
his side in regard to the expulsion from 
Oriel. He saw Coleridge for the last time 
in 1834, and offered help for the intended 

Coleridge's correspondence shows that he 
thoroughly respected the kindness and 
common sense of Poole, who even ventures 
remarks upon philosophical questions. Al- 
though self-taught, Poole had made a good 
collection of books, and he was active in all 
local matters. He kept up a book society ; 
was an active supporter ot Sunday-schools, 
and formed a 'Female Friendly Society/ 
He was also much interested in the poor laws, 
and in 1804 was employed by John Rick- 
man [q. v.lin making an abstract of returns 
ordered by the House of Commons from 
parish overseers (printed in May 1805). In 
1805 Poole took into partnership Thomas 
"Ward, who had been apprenticed to him in 
1795, and to whom he left the charge of the 
business, occupying himself chiefly in farm- 

ing. Poole was a man of rough 
with a loud voice injured by excessive snuff; 
abnormally sharp-tempered and overbearing 
in a small society. His apology for call- 
ing a man a * fool ' ended, ' But how could 
you be such a damned fool ? ' He was, how- 
ever, heartily respected by all who really 
knew him ; a staunch friend, and a sturdy 
advocate of liberal principles j straightfor- 
ward and free from vanity. He died ot 
pleurisy on 8 Sept. 1837, having been 
vigorous to the last. He never married, but 
was strongly attached to his niece, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of his brother Richard, a 
doctor, who died in 1798, just at the time 
of her birth. Elizabeth was the * E ' of Mrs. 
Kemble's ' Records of my Childhood/ and 
married Archdeacon Sandford. 

[Thomas Poole and his Friends, by Mrs. Henry 
Sandford, 2 vols. 8vo, 1888; Life of Oolerit'ge by 
J. Dykes Campbell.] L,. fcJ. 

1217), bishop of Salisbury, was son of Ri- 
chard of Ilchester, bishop of Winchester [see 
RICHARD] (MADOX, Formulare Anylicanum, 
pp. 47, 5:2). Richard Poor [<j. v.],'who suc- 
ceeded him as bishop of Salisbury, was his 
younger brother. Dr. Stubbs suggests that 
he was connected with Roger Poor [see 
ROGER], and therefore also with Roger of 
Salisbury and Richard FitzNeale. Canon 
Rich Jones conjectured that Poore was in 
this case the equivalent not of l pauper,' but 
of, ' puer ' or the Norman ' poer/ a knight or 
cadet of good family (cf. Anglo-Saxon * cild '). 
He has also pointed out that near Tan-ant in 
Dorset, where Herbert's brother Richard was 
born, there are places called Poorstock and 

Herbert was probably employed under 
his father in the exchequer, but the first 
mention of him is in 1175, when he was one 
of the three archdeacons appointed by Arch- 
bishop Richard of Canterbury ; afterwards, 
in 1180, the archbishop reverted to the 
ancient practice, and made Herbert sole 
archdeacon. On 11 Dec. 1183 Herbert, in 
his capacity of archdeacon, enthroned Walter 
de Coutances [q. v.] as bishop of Lincoln. 
On 25 July 1184 he was one of the com- 
missioners sent by Henry II to the monks 
of Christ Church, Canterbury^to warn them 
to prepare for the election of an archbishop 
(QEBVASE, L 309). From 1185 to 1188 he 
had custody of the see of Salisbury (MADOX,, 
Hist, of Exchequer, i. 311, 634). Herbert 
was a canon of Lincoln and of Salisbury. 
In May 1186 the chapter of the former see 
elected him as their bishop, but Henry II 
refused his consent. A little later the 


1 06 


of the canons of Salisbury, in their Herbert and Gilbert do Ulanville were en- 
turn, chose Herbert for bishop, and on trusted with a mission to release the Hoots 
14 Sept. 1186 the king gave his assent ; but ' * * nnnm.i. f. Jitim n,,:,.~ i.~ 
the minority appealed to the pope, on the 
ground that Herbert was the sou of a con- 
cubine, and the election came to naught 
(Qeata Jjfewrict, i. 34, 353), On 29 Sept. 
1186 Herbert enthroned his successful rival, 
Hugh, as bishop of Lincoln. In May 1 193 
he appealed to the pope against the election of 
Hubert Walter as archbishop, on the ground 
that the king was in captivity and the Eng- 
lish bishops were not present at the election 

^. . u ^.i ** ** . 4. .* . .. L MM M -* k i .V 

the canons 

(Ro<*. Hov. iii, 21tf). In 

of Salisbury, having no dean, unanimously 
elected Herbert for their bialiop. The elec- 
tion was confirmed by Archbishop Hubert on 
29 April Herbert was at this time only 
in deacon's orders, but on 4 June he was 
ordaxtied priest, and on 5 June wan conse- 
crated by Hubert in St Katharine's Chapel 
at Westminster. He waa enthroned at 
Salisbury on 1J Juno. 

From 1195 to 1108 Herbert was one of 
the juuticefl before whom fiuos were levied. 
On 'itt June lli)($ ho was at Roumi with 
Walter of Ooutanees. At the council of 
Oxford in February 1198, when Hubert de- 
manded in the king's name a force of three 
hundred knights to bo paid throo shillings a 
day each, Herbert, who represented the older 
traditions of the exchequer, supported St. 
Hugh of Lincoln in his successful resistance 
to the demand (Mttgna Ftta & Hut/urns,^* 
248-9). For his share on this occasion 
Herbert was, by .Richard's orders, deprived 
of his poRftotisionft in Ktifrland, and compelled 
to cross over to Normandy ; but lie was soon 
reconciled to tho king, and returned home on 
8 June. lie was pre.-out at tlio coronation 
of John on 27 May 1 11)9, On 11) Wept, 1200 
ho waa one of tho papal dolegates who aat 
at "Westminster to effect a reconciliation 
between Archbishop Geoffrey and theehupter 
of York, and on $2 Nov. waa at Lincoln 
when the king of Scots did homage to John. 
On 14 Dec, 1201 ho waa summoned to join 
the king in Normandy. Ilia name occurs 
on 52 Jan. 11205 as receiving a present of six 
tuns of wine ((JaL Hot* Vlam* i, 37). In 
1207 Herbert fled to Scotland with Gilbert 
de Glanville [q. v.] to escape the constant 
vexation from the king. However, on 
27 May 1208, he was present at Uamshury 

from their allegiance to John. During the 
interdict Herbert had been deprived of the 
lands of his see, but restitut ion was ordered 
to be mado on 18 July [$[$ ((fat. Ifat. Pat. 
p. 101), After this there is no reference 
of importance to Herbert, Ho died in 1217, 
according to some statements on 9 May, 
but other authorities give Fob. His obit 
was observed at Hulls! wry on 7 Jan. He 
was buried at Wilton. Herbert Ls note- 
worthy in the history of tho seo of Salisbury 
for having conceived tho design of removing 
it from Old Bur urn to a moro suitable site 
on the plain, 11 obtained th sanction of 
Hicham I through the aid of Hubert Walter, 
and his design, which was delayed by tho 
troubles of the next reign, was eventually 
carried out by his brother and succoasor, 
Kichard Poor (/fry/, $ ()*mwid) ii. ft, 4j 
PMTIW OF HUOIH, Kpistola 104). A letter 
from Pot or of Blois to Herbert consoling 
him on his nilHtttitms apparently belongs to 
11 08 (/A. Kpwt. 5M). 

[Annalos Moimsticl Kogw of Hovoden, "Ralph 
do l>i(u k t.o t tiM*vn off (-uutorbury, Uogor of 
Wenduvur, (Uwta Hnnrici Hdcundt (uttrihutnd to 
B(no(l'u'ti of IVuirlMH*oiigh), HgiHter of 8, 08" 
inuml, Sanim Oharterw (all iu Kolls Hwr,) ; Lo 
Kwt.i Mt*fl. Angl. i, 8H, ii. MM ; HtuWm's 
i ti> Hovidoti, vol. iv. p. xri ; (laNsiuiv 
f HmhopNolfHatiHlinry; Wi It nhiro Arvlwo- 
Msigiwiiui, xviii,ttl7-2'l,Hrt, by W, It. R. 
KUHH'H .hulgeH of Knglaml, i. 405-0; 
Kytxm'H Jt.inm'rtpy <>t" Hi'iiry H ; ljoat**H History 
of WiltBhiro, vi, 37j other muhoritirH quoted ,1 

0. L, K. 

Ht(MlARl) (d* I^*i7), bishop of <JliiluHlor, 
Salinbury, and Uurlnuu, \VH younger brotluT 
of Ui.Hhop Herbert Poor [q.v.J and non of 
Kiwhard of Ihrhewter, biwluip of \Vindiusler 
[HO Rtnuiu| (MAUOX, Mm. Ant/l*, noted 


. & Omwd, L 190), On 21 Jan, 1209 
Innocent III wrote to Herbert with regard 
to the dower of Berengaria, widow of Ri- 
chard I, and on 14 May directed him, in con- 
junction with Gilbert do Glanville, to publish 
the interdict (Cat. Papal Refffotera, i. 311, 
35 5 UxetfB, Patrologia, ccxvi. 38). la 1213 

Uy Srir8 t Inirwl* to //w/r ( vol. iv, p, 
xci ,) lie wan therefure technically ilkv- 
gitimate,and obtitined on that aewumt 1 . a difl- 
ptnation to hold bin btuiofuu'H iu January 
1201$ (HMKH, Ityxtl 7^w^w p. ii4). In 
1197 or 1198 lw wart oloctod dimn of (Old) 
Saruni, wliero ho held the prebend of: Ohur- 
minst^r (Am. At on. ii. 0">; OIOKTO, ii. ir>9). 
A man of ability and learning he WH iiwtru- 
mental iu periwsting tho cathedral Htatute 
by thu important * Nova Cwmtitutio * of 
4 (printed in Ity. A Onmuntl, i.74- 
In 1^04 h want to Home to jpro* 
IHH oandidafcurB for tho bishopric of 
\Viut!htr; but Poter dw llodien [q. v.] 
wau eonHec.ratud, Similarly, about I2'lft,hia 
ductiuu by the miwlw to the u of Dur-* 




ham, after being ' hidden under a bushel ' for 
five months, was quashed by Innocent III 
(CoLDiNGHAM, xxi, xxiii, in Hist. Dunelm. 
Script, pp. 29-31). In 1214, on the removal 
of the papal interdict, he was elected to the 
see of Chichcster. To his cathedral he gave 
the manor of Amport, Hampshire, and en- 
dowed a prebend with the cnurch of Hove 
(STEPHENS, Chichester, pp. 72-3). In 1216 
he is mentioned as one of the executors of 
King John. 

In 1217 he was translated to Salisbury, 
to the general joy, as he had been ' pugil 
fidelis et eximius ' against the anti-national 
claims of the dauphin Louis (WANDA, pp. 4, 
5). In 1222 he was one of the arbitrators who 
gave the award exempting the abbey of West- 
minster from the jurisdiction of the bishop of 
London (MATT. PAKIS, iii. 75 ; WILKINS, Cone, 
i. 598). In August 1223 he was one of the 
four bishops sent on the death of Philippe Au- 
guste to demand Normandy from Louis VIII 
(MATT. PAKIS, iii. 77 ; Ann. Mon. iii. 81). 

Bat the most important work of Poore's 
life was the removal of the see of Salisbury 
to New Sarum, and the erection of the pre- 
sent magnificent Early-English cathedral of 
Salisbury. This plan had been long con- 
templated (see letters of PETER OF BIOIS, 
e.g. No. 104 ; MATT. PABIS, iii. 391 ; Sarum 
Charters, pp. 207-9 ; Hcff, 8. Osmund, vol. ii. 
pp. cii-cvi, 1-17, 37 sqq. ; WILKINS, Cone. 
i. oo 1 sqq. ; DoDSWoimi, tiali&bwy, pp. 107- 
121). Eventually the bishop, with the chap* 
ter's concurrence, sent special envoys to 
Rome, obtained from Ilonorius III a bull 
dated 29 March 1219, and chose a site 'in 
dominio suo proprio' named Myrfield or 
Mtryfield, i.e. Mary field (WiLLis), Merry- 
field (GODWIN), or Maerfeide boundary-field 
(JoNES). A wooden chapel and cemetery 
were at once provided, and some of the canons 
sent to collect funds in various dioceses. The 
formal ' transmigrate ' was on 1 Nov., and 
the foundations were laid with great solem- 
nity on 28 April 1220, the bishop laying five 
stones for the pope, Langton, himself, Earl 
William and Countess Ela of Salisbury 
and the work soon received the support of 
the king and many nobles (WANDA, pp. 6-lo; 
MATT. PABIS, iii. 391 ; Ann. Mon. i. 66, 
which says that Pandulph laid the five 
stones). A potm on the subject by the 
court poet, Henry d'Avranches (cf. W"AII- 
TON, Hist, of Poetry ', i. 47), exists in the 
Cambridge University Library, and is quoted 
by Matthew Paris, 

The work went on quietly for five years, 
cftid the bishop must have full credit for the 
organisation and the provision of funds for 
the work. On 28 Sept. 12&5 he consecrated 

a temporary high altar in the lady-chapel, 
and two others at the end of the north and 
south aisles, endowing the ' vicars choral * 
with the church of Bremhill (Sarum Char* 
ters, pp. 116-19), or possibly that of Laver- 
stock (LELAND, Inscr.), which is still served 
by them. Next day the public consecra- 
tion of the whole site took place, Langton 
preaching to an enormous audience; the 
king and the justiciar (De Burgh) came on 
2 Oct. and again on 28 Dec. (WANDA, pp. 
38-40). In March 1226 Poore administered 
the last sacrament to William de LongespSe 
[q. v.], the first person to he buried in the 
cathedral (ib. p. 48 j MATT. PAEIS, List. Min* 
ii. 280), and on 4 June translated from Old 
Sarum the bodies of Bishops Osmund, Roger, 
and Joscelin. A letter dated 16 July 1228, 
in which he urges the chapter to press Gre- 
gory IX to canonise Osmund, is the latest 
document in which Poore is described as 
bishop of Sarum (WANDA, p. 88). 

Poore also commenced the episcopal palace, 
and built the original ' aula * and * camera ' 
(1221-2) with the undercroft, The greater 
part of his work, recently identified, still re- 
mains as the nucleus of the present building 
(Bishop [Wordsworth] of Salisbury's ' Lec- 
ture/ in Wilts Arch. Mag. vol. xxv.) He 
carefully organised the cathedral system by 
important statutes passed by the chapter 
under his influence (Reg. S. Osmund, ii. 18, 37, 
42). His Salisbury constitutions (dated by 
Spelman c. 1217, and by Wilkins c. 1223) 
bear a strong resemblance to those supposed' 
by Wilkins to have been promulgated by 
Richard Be Marisco Tq. v.l at Durham about 
1220 (cf. Wilkins's 'Concilia,' i. 599, Labbe's 
* Concilia,' xi. 243-70, and * Sarum Charters/ 
pp. 128-63). Bishop Wordsworth is of 
opinion that the Durham, constitutions are 
of later date, and are simply Poore's own 
revision for use at Durham of his Sarum 
constitutions. Poore is now considered 
to be responsible for the final form of 
'the use of Sarum' ^cf. F&EKE, Use of 

For the city of New Sarum Poore pro- 
cured a charter from Henry III about 1220, 
besides those which he gave himself, and 
the systematic arrangement of the town 
in rectangular l places ' or * tenements,' stiil 
known as squares or chequers, is attributed 
to him. Tradition connects his name with 
the foundation of the still existing Hospital 
of St. Nicholas by Harnham Bridge. It is 
clear that he assisted it, and procured the 
donations of Ela of Salisbury (c. 1227) ; but 
the ' ordinatio ' of 1245, providing lor the 
master, eight poor men, and four poor women, 
, assigns the honours of founder to Bis'hop 




Bingham (II ATCIIHU and BHNHON, pp, ttB -40, 
docuiueutH 73'2~b, and in tiarmn Charters, 

pp. 295-300 ; TANNBR, Not Man. ; 
Won. vi. 778). 

in 1228 Poore was translated to the 
of Durham by a bull dated 14 May (7/wtf. 
Ihmelm. Script, app. Hi, 5 cf. GUKHNWKU,, 
JFeodariwn, Prioratwt 7)ttw/w*vwM, pp. -2lii- 
217). On 22 July he received tho tompo- 
ralities, though the hinft took the unpre- 
cedented step of retaining tho cafttlen of 
Durham andNorhiim (IT UT(.'iUNHOW,J>rArti, 
i, 200). Poors wrote a hsttor of farewell to 
Sarum on 24 July, and \VUH enthroned at 
Durham on 4 Sopt, ^GRAVHTANKH in Mutt. 
Dim, &,r. p, #7, whero 122(J is an obvious 
slip). At Durham he maintained good rela- 
tions with the convent;, and discharged a 
* debit urn inrostimabilo ' of more than forty 
thousand marks loft on the Bee, The Kurly- 
JEnftlish eastern transept of the 'Nino A 1 tarn,* 
commonly assigned to him, tuny have been 
projected, but was not commenced till 1242 

BRmxwRU<,2)urJMni Cetth<!dr<il,y, '$?). In 


the pope ordered him to inquire into 
the outrages against I toman clerics in the 
northern province (MATT. PARIS, iii. 218), 
His latest appearances in public affairs is as 
one of the witnesses to Henry Ill's confirma- 
tion of Magna Oharta in 1M80 (Ann. Mon. 
1 103), 

About. 1230 he had refoumlod at Tarrant 
Kainston (which ha bmm claimed IIH his 
"birthplace) a small house for throe Cistercian 
nuns and their servants, the sito of which is 
now included in ProBton or Crawford Tarrant 
(HuTcmNS, Dorset, iii* 118-19). lie made 
the control of it over to Henry Ill's sistor 
Johanna, queen of Scotland, who was bum*! 
there in 1338 (MATT, PAIIIR, Ckron. Maj. 
iii. 479) ; it was consequently called ' Locus 
Benedietus Iteginao super Tarent/ 

Foore died on 15 April 137 at Tarrant 
(MATT. PAKIB, Chron, Myj. iii. 35)2, tlut Mqj< 
ii, 896). A blundorinp inscription, now lost, 
copied by Leland (Zft, iii. 02), in the lady* 
chapel at Salisbury, Btnt&s that his body was 
buried there and liis heart at Tarrant, Ac- 
cording- to Tanner (quoting wrongly WHAW- 
TOK, AnyL &a?r t ), he was interred in Dur- 
ham chapterhouse But Graystanes states 
explicitly (l,c,) that he died and was buried 
at Tarrant, * stcut vivena priecepemt, 1 A coffin 
slab,, found about 1850 under the ruins of 
the abbey chapel at Tarrant, and now in the 
church of Tarrant Crawford, is not impro- 
bably that which covered the bishop's body 
(cf. Key, E. HIGHTOK, Last Jfa*tingyto<\e of 
a Scottish Qmenand a Great English Bittknp) 
p. 8), An effigy in Purbeck marble in Salis- 
bury Cathedral oa tho north side of the high 

altar, formerly wild to bo Pool's, is now 
believed to represent his ouoousMor, Diwhop 

Tho ' Ancron Uiwlo/ a tnMitiso in Middle 
English on tho duties of moiuwtic, litWalso 
found in a Latin version as * Uo#ulo Inolu- 
aurum' in Haiti in an early wanuweript to 
1m vo bctMi uddreHHe<l by Situon of ({hunt, 
bishop of Salisbury (1207 <i:$lf>), to IUH own 
rtistorH, \vho w(ni nnchonw!8 at Tarraut. 
Jtut it is attributed by I<H editor, tho Uv. J. 
Morton (( "iimdon Hoc, 1 HrJJ), to liinhoi) Poore, 
oti tho ground that, in languago it b(loug,s to 
the earlier part of the thirteenth century, 
and IH likely to have been written by the 
founder of the religious IIOUNO at Tarrawt* 
The author (|uot, freely from the Latin 
fathwrs, Uomard, AtiMolm, uad even Ovid and 
J lorace (MoHTON, In trod, pp, xv, xvi)* !It ia 
considered i one of tho most perfect models 
of simplo natural eloquent proso in our Ian-* 
guage, , . , AH a picture of contemporary 
life, manners, and ieeling it cannot bo over- 
estimated' (SwBMT, Fir*t< Middtt* JKnylittk 
Printer, pp, vi, vii). 

Various letters of Pooro are printed by (/a- 
ntm I{ichJoue,s (/iV//, <S f , OwnitntJ)&\ 
(JfatrfarHi s<e altto II ATOM MU and 
WirKtNH, andlitmuuNHON)* Ilin 
H(al is in IHodsworth (pi, #), nnd in Bishop 
Wor<lHWort.h*H ( Seals of Bishops of Salisbury^ 
(reprintiul from * Arelwologwul Journal/ vol. 
xlv,), p, l^. The Durham seal in Hwtees 
(i, pi, i. 8) i <Umrly lus. The counter-seal, 
representing tho Virgin and Child between 
two \veJl-tnodellod ('.Uurcslum with spires, may 
indicate uu intention of completing hot h hin 
cathedrals by central spires, such as "was 
actually erected at Salisbury, 

Thomshop was ideutilletf llrst bv Panci- 
roli, and latt^ly by Sir Tmvrs Twlss (Lnw 
Mttt/tzfoit <m,d Itfvfawt No, coxcii* Mny 1B9I) 

t No, coxcii. Mny 18UJ-), 
with 1UCA1U>UH ANdUOirn, tho 'pioneer of 
H<!i*?nti(l judicial procedure m the twelfth 
ctmtnry*' !*unttiroti (<L JftiU)) wtatea that 

Augli<uiM wiw tirnamd 
and that h wag m poor that he and two 
cluimber-fellowM at Bologna poHfwn<jd 
twcuw thorn only one aatdemic hood 
tium)t which they woro in turnw to 
thwn to uttend tho public lctu. This 
story i a common fame ; and it i impoHiblo 
to determine whtlmr Paueiroii (whose wor*t 
was publifthftd in KJft7) had any evidence 
for atiHigning Hictardus th namtn Pauper or 
Poor. Sarti and Fat torini (IJ (Hans A rM~ 
fjt/mMfwfi Ifamnfriwi* J*rqfoMorMwi 9 od* 0. 
Albicini, I* ii, 88tt) and Bavigny xproR8 
an untkvournble view of tho accuracy of 
Panel ml i , and But hma- II oil wag pronounces 
the whulo Btateitumt * durchaua fabulhaft* 1 




Bishop Poore is called * magister* in ' Flores 
Historiarum ' (ii. 156), and ' summe literatus' 
by Wanda ; but there is no allusion to his 
eminence as a jurist or canonist ; nor is there 
any trace of special knowledge in his con* 
stitutions or in the ' Ancren Kiwle. 1 More- 
over, Ricardus Anglicus of Bologna may 
probably be identified with the 'Kicardus 
Anglicus, doctor Parisians is/ of a bull of 
Honor-ins III, dated 1218 (see IUSHDAIL, 
Medieeval Universities, ii. 750). Such an. 
identification would positively differentiate 
him from Richard Poore, who had been a 
bishop since 1215, and would certainly be 
described by the name of his see. 

The Bolognese Richard was an Englishman, 
who, according to his imitator Tancred, after- 
wards archdeacon of Bologna and rector of 
the law school there in 1226, held the position 
of * magister decretorum ' at Bologna, and 
was the first to improve on the methods of 
Johannes Bassianus by treating of judicial 
procedure in a more scientific spirit, namely, 

* in the manner of a compilation, in which 
passages from the laws and canons are cited 
in illustration of each paragraph.' This 
statement is repeated by Johannes Andreae 
of Bologna (d. 134-8), who, however, was 
not personally acquainted with Richard's 
treatise ; nor is there any authority for the 
statement of Dr. Arthur Duck (De Usu 
Juris Chilis jRom<m0nm,p. 142), that Richard 
taught law at Oxford. II is treatise entitled 

* Ordo Judiciarius ' was discovered by Pro- 
fessor A. Wunderlich of Gbttingen in 1851 
in the public library of Douay. It was 
formerly in the monastery of Anchin, and 
was published at Halle in 1853 by Professor 
Charles Witte. It is unfortunately mis- 
dated 1120 by a blunder in the legal docu- 
ment which is, as usual, inserted to fix the 
date. However, a second manuscript was 
discovered in 1885 by Sir T. Twiss in the 
Royal Library at Brussels ; the manuscript 
(No, 131-4), which bears the stamp of the 
famous Burgundian Library, contains also 
the ' Brocarda ; of Otto of Pavia, and a por- 
tion of the * Summa ' of Bassianus. This 
text has been transcribed and autotyped ; it 
is considered more free from clerical errors 
than the Douay manuscript, and the inserted 
document is clearly dated 1196, which shows 
that Richard anticipated the method of treat- 
ment of his elder contemporary Pillius (cf. 
Sir T. Twiss's article; Professor M. von 
BBTHM^sr-HoLi-WBa of Bonn, Civil-Prozess 
des yemeinen Rechts, Bonn, 1874, voL vi. 
pt. i. 105-9 ; Professor J. F. VON SCHULTE, 
(fwckickte der QueZlen des canonischen Rechts, 
Stuttgart, 1875). Von Schulte assigns to 
the * Ordo Judiciarius ' a later date, on the 

ground that it contains quotations from de- 
cretals recorded in compilations which were 
not in existence before 1201. Sir T. Twiss 
disputes this view. Ricardus Anglicus also 
composed glosses on the papal decretals, 
which were used by Bernard of Parma, and 
' Distinctiones ' on Gratian's 'Decretum/ 
which are supposed by Professor von Schulte 
to be extant in a manuscript at Douay-. Both 
he and Poore must be distinguished from a 
contemporary physician also called Ricardus 
Anglicanus [see RICHARD OF WENDOVER], 

[Documents and Works cited above, esp. the 
Sarum Charters, d, Jones and Macray, and 
William de Wanda's narrative in the Register of 
St. Osmund, which, as well as Wendover, Paris, 
and the Monastic Annalists, are quoted from 
the Rolls Series. The statements of Godwin, 
Dugcbile, Tanner, and Willis, and even the no- 
tices in Dodsvrorth's Salisbury, Cassan's Bishops 
of Salisbury, and Hatcher and Benson's Salis- 
bury are inaccurate, and superseded by the 
(practically identical) memoirs by Canon W. ]J. 
Rich Jones in the Wilts Arch, Mag. 1879, xviii. 
223-4, Fasti Sarisb. 1882, i. 45-50, and Introd. 
to Re?, of S. Osmund, vol. ii. pp. xcviii-cxxxi. 
Leiand's inscription is clearly not contemporary. 
Suggestions have been furnished by Dr. John 
Wordsworth, bishop of Salisbury.] H. E. D. B. 

. 1139), chancellor. [See under ROGER 
SALISBURY, d. 1139.] 

POPE, ALEXANDER (1688-1744), 

E>et, sou of Alexander Pope, by his wife 
dith, daughter of William Turner of York, 
was bora in Lombard Street, London, on 
21 May 1688. Pope's paternal grandfather is 
supposed to have been Alexander Pope, rector 
of Thruxton, Hampshire (instituted 1 May 
1630-1; information from the Winchester 
bishop's register, communicated by Mr. J. C. 
Smith, of Somerset House), who died in 
1645. The poet's father, according to his 
epitaph, was seventy-five at his death, 
23 Oct. 1717, and therefore born in 1641 or 
1642 (see also P. T.'s Better to Curll in 
POPE'S Works, by Elwin and Courthope, 
vi. -423, where he is said to have been a 
posthumous son). According to Warton, he 
was a merchant at Lisbon, where he was 
converted to Catholicism. He was after- 
wards a linendraper in Broad Street, Lon- 
don. A first wife, Magdalen, was buried 
12 Aug. 1679 (register of St. Benet Fink); 
he had by her a daughter Magdalen, after- 
wards Mrs. Rackett ; and in the Pangbourne 
register, Ambrose Staveley, the rector, re- 
cords the burial of * Alexander Pope, son of 
my brother-in-law, Alexander Pope, mer- 
chant of London/ on 1 Sept, 1682 (informa- 




tiou from Mr, J. 0. Smith). Popti's state,- 
miMit in a note in the Epwtle to ArbiM- 
uot, that, his father belonged to tin* family 
of the earls of Downo, appear* to have beem 
a fiction (WMiTONT, J[#wrcy, ii. 255). The 
poet's maternal grandfather d<w<mdo<l from 
a family of small landowners in Yorkshire. 
lie had seventeen children, one of whom, 
Edith, thfl poet's mother, was baptised on 
18 June 1642, though, according to hr pi- 
tuph, slw waw ninet.y-threii at luff dwith on 
7 June I7tt8. Christiana, another daughter, 
married the port rail -painto, Samuel Cooper 
(IttQO -167:0) [q. v.], and at her donth in 
1093, loft fiotne china, pictures, and medals 
to her nwhew. Three of her sons, 

to PopoV statement (Kpirtle to ArbuMnut), 
were in the service of Churl w L Alexander 
Pope, the lineindropor, after his soocmd mar- 
riage, moved his business to Lombard Stroet. 
Ho made some money by his trade, and in 
or before 1700 moved to Kinftold in Windsor 
Forest. It appears from his will (OAK- 
niTTHBKfl, Ityw, 1887, p. 41$) that ho hud 
some landed property, and he also invested 
money in French rentes ( HVAw, vi. ISO, 
201). The story, first told by UutHiead, that 
he put all his money in a strong-box and 
lived upon the principal, is therofons erro- 
neous. As a catholic, he waft exposed to 
various disqualifications ; but he appears to 
have lived comfortably among the country 
gentry. He had many friends among the 
Roman catholics, several of whom lived near 
the forest, He was fond of gardening, and 
had twenty acres of land round hit* house at 
Bmffold, One room of the house is said to 
remain, and a row of Scottish to near it wan 
apparently there in Pope's time. 

Pope was precocious, and in Ins infancy 
healthy, He was called the ' little nightin- 
gale' from the beauty of his voice, a name 
still applied to him in later yara by the 
dramatist Southern (RwHEAi), p, 470$ 
OKBBKY, Swft^ 207). A portrait, painted 
when he was ten years old, showed him 
< plump and pretty, and of a fresh com- 
plexion,* This is said to have been like him 
at the time; but a severe illness two 
years later, brought on by ( perpetual appli- 
cation, 7 ruined his health and distorted his 
figure (SPBNCD, Anecdot^ 1820, i). 26). 
Spence f s statements, chiefly dorivea from 
Pope himself and his sister, Mrs, Itaclcett, 
give all that ia known of his childhood. He 
waa once nearly killed by a cow f He 
learnt to read 'from an old aunt,* and 
to write by imitating printed letters. H 
acquired a clear and good hand, "When, eight 
years old he bepan Latin and Greek under 
a, priest named Banister (or Tuverner)* 

Noxt ywr ho wa.s wmt 1o a Roman witholio 
Hi'.hool at. Twylonl, war Winehwtur, and 
a('t<u*\var<ls to awthool kept by Thomas 
fq. v,*], first at, Maryh'bono, and thwi at 
llyde Park 0-ornur. I In was romovcd from 
Twyiord hncausn ho had boon wliippod lor 
satirising tho muster ; and at tlw two wohoola 
ho nnlnarnt what ho had luurnt from Banis- 
tnr. ilo was tluni brought, bade to his 
fathrtrV* bou f and placed tor a finv montlm 
nndor a fourth priost. Al'tor t.h'm ho was 
lffc to his own dtwicos, and ]ltui^d into 
miscellaneous reading, Htutlymfjf, ho Bays, 
French, Italian, Latin, and (3 reck, as well 
tin English pools, * like a hoy athorin (lowers ' 
(i/>,p. ISKI), II mscholurship naturally wasvory 
imperfect : Imtherund pontry voraiuotmly. Ifo 
did nothing <^Lse hut. writo andrnad t ways Mr. 
lUckot t, (M, p. !iJ(S7 ). He ho|fun vry early to 
imitatehisfavourtte.uuUmm, UornudO^ilby^ 
translation of Homer when ho was nhnut 
twolvo, an<l fnrmod frotn it a M(ind of play,' 
which wan art id by his whoolMlows, At; 

ho smut* iitfe he saw Dryden ( who died 1 IVlny 
1700), and 'observed fmn very particularly*' 
(ib, ]). Wte), Between the n^os of thirteen 
ami fifteen he wrote an epic poem called 
'Alexander' (//>, p. ii7U) t which ho burnt 
about 1717, with the approval, perhaps at 
tho surest .ton, of Atterbury ( HVAvt, is. 
B). Ho made a translation from Statins 
about 170:3 or 170JJ, according to his own 
account, though it was not published till 1 7 1 15, 
and then no doubt with many corrections. 
Other translations from the classics a mi n<Up* 
tatious of Ohaucer show his curly practice 
in versification, 1I went to London in 1m 
fifteenth year to learn French and Italian 
(SiM-JNOH, p* sJfi)iintl his etiergiM ic studies ]>ro- 
ducod another illness, He thought himwilf 
dyin^, and sent lure wells to his IViends, Owi 
ot tlwm, tho AbhC Southeote, hereupon 
applied to Uadttlirto for advice, Haddiilb 
sensibly prescrilx^d less study and daily rides 
in the forest Pope rujaptumid health, and 
twenty yearn later showed his gratitude by 
obtaining for Houthcote, through Hir Hobertj 
Walpole, an appointment to a IVtmch abbey 
near Avignon (ih, pp. 7, H), Pope's uro* 
cocious ambition Iml him to court the a 
quaintance of all the wits whom he could 
meet, and the homage of BO promising a lud 
was returned by warm encouragement. One 
of his earliest friendtt was Sir William Trum- 
bull, who had been secretary of state, and 
was living in retirement at Eaathampfiteud 
Park. Pops rode out with him three or four 
daye a week, and was encouraged by him in 
the composition of hia * Pastorals/ The H rot 
is addressed to Trumbull, and Pope, whose 
statements on auch points are always doubfc- 



ful, says that they were composed when he 
was sixteen, A letter from George Gran- 
ville (afterwards Lord Lansdowue) shows 
that they were in any case written before he 
wtis eighteen (LANSDOWNE, Works, ii. 113). 
The same letter mentions Walsh and Wy- 
cherley as patrons of the rising prodigy. 
"William Walsh, then a critic and man of 
fashion, appears to have made his acquain- 
tance in 1705, and gave Pope the well-known 
advice to aim at 'correctness* a quality 
hitherto attained by none of our great poets. 
Tonson, who had seen a ' pastoral poem ' in 
the hands of Walsh and Congreve, wrote to 
Pope, proposing to publish it, in a letter 
dated 20 April 1706. The manuscript, still 
preserved, was shown about to other eminent 
men, including Garth, Somers, and Halifax ; 
and was published in Tonson's* Miscellanies' 
in 1709. Pope had meanwhile become inti- 
mate with Wycherley, who first introduced 
him to town life. Pope, as he told Spence, ! 
followed Wycherley about * like a dog,' and j 
kept up a correspondence with him. Wycher- | 
ley was the senior by forty-eight years. He 
had long ceased to write plays, and had 
probably been introduced to some of Pope's j 
circle by his conversion to Catholicism. He : 
was one of Dry den's successors at Will's 
coffee-house. He treated Pope with con- 
descension, and wrote in the elaborate style 
of an elderly wit; but some quarrel arose 
about 1710 which caused a breach of the j 
friendship. Pope afterwards manipulated 
the letters so as to give the impression that 
Wycherley, after inviting criticism, took 
offence at the frankness of his young friend ; 
but the genuine documents (first published 
from manuscripts at Longleat in the El win 
and Courthope edition of Pope's * Works ') 
show this to be an inversion of the truth. 
Another friend of Pope at this time was 
Henry Cromwell, a man about town, about 
thirty-six years Pope's senior. Their corre- 
spondence Iaste4 from July 1707 to Decem- 
ber 1711. Pope affects the tone popular at 
Will's coffee-house, then frequented by his 
correspondent, and does his best to show that 
he has the taste and morals of a wit. He 
afterwards became rather ashamed of the 
terms of equality upon which Le corre- 
sponded with a man above whose head he 
had risen. 

The publication of the ' Pastorals y first 
made Pope generally known; they were 
received with applause, although they were 
examples of a form of composition already 
effete, and can now be regarded only as ex- 
periments in versification. They show that 
Pope had already a remarkable command of 
fluent and melodious language, He had 

not only practised industriously, but, as his 
early letters show, had reflected carefully 
upon the principles of his art. The result 
appeared in the ' Essay on Criticism,' pub- 
lished anonymously on 15 May 1711, The 
poem is an interesting exposition of the 
canons of taste accepted by Pope and by the 
leading writers of the time, and contains 
many of those polished epigrams which, if 
not very profound, have at least become pro- 
verbial. Incidents connected with this pub- 
lication opened the long literary warfare in 
which much of his later career was passed. 
A contemptuous allusion to the sour critic 
John Dennis [tj. v.] produced an angry pam- 
phlet, ' Reflections . . . on a late Rhapsody/ 
from his victim. Pope had the sense to cor- 
rect some of the passages attacked, and, for 
the moment, did not retort. Addison soon 
afterwards praised the ' Essay ' very warmly 
in the 'Spectator' (20 Dec. 1711), while 
regretting * some strokes * of personality. Pope 
wrote a letter to Steele (first printed in Miss 
Aildn's 'Addison,' where it is erroneously ad- 
dressed to Addison) acknowledging the praise, 
and proposing to suppress the objectionable 
' strokes.' Steele, who was already known to 
him, and had suggested to him the * Ode to St. 
Cecilia/ promised, in return, an introduc- 
tion to Addison. Pope thus became known 
to the Addison circle. His ' Messiah/ a fine 
piece of declamation, appeared in the * Spec- 
tator' of 14 May 1712. He afterwards con- 
tributed some papers to its successor, the 
1 Guardian.' The f Rape of the Lock ' appeared 
in its first form in the ' Miscellanies 'published 
by Lintot in 1712, which included others of 
Pope's minor poems. Lord Petre, a youth of 
twenty, had cut off a lock of hair of Miss 
Arabella Fermor, a beauty of the day, who 
was offended by this practical joke [see under 
They were both members of the catholic 
society known to Pope, and the poem was 
written at the suggestion of a common friend, 
Gary 11, in order to appease the quarrel by a 
little pleasantry. The poem was warmly ad- 
mired by Addison, who called it merum sal, 
and advised Pope not to risk spoiling it "by 
introducing the new * machinery' of the 
sylphs (WABBiniTOBr, Pope, iv. 26). This, 
according to Warburton's story, opened 
Pope's eyes to the jealousy which he sup- 
posed to have dictated a very natural piece 
of advice. Pope altered and greatly enlarged 
his poem, which appeared separately in 
1714. It shows extraordinary skill in the 
lighter kind of verse, and reflects with singu- 
lar felicity, in some respects a little too faith- 
fully, the tone of the best society of the day. 
It took at once the place which it has evex 




since occupied as a masterpiece. The cluot 
precedent was Boileau'H ' Uitrin' (first pub- 
lished in 1 674, and completed in KxS:V). Ihe 
baron in the poem uts Lord Petre; 
< Sir Plume ' is Sir George Brown, and Thalo.H- 
tris his sister. Sir Georpp Urown, as Pop* 
save, ' blustered,' and Miss Jtormor was 
oifeuded ( Works, vi.ltt'2). Sir Plume is clearly 
not a nattering portrait. Tho poom, how- 
ever, went far to establish Pope's reputation 
as one of the first writers of the day. 

Pope's ' Windsor Forest 'appeared in March 
1712-13, The first part, modelled upon IVn- 
Imm's * Cooper's Hill,' had been written in 
lus earlier period. The conclusion, with its 
prophecy of free trade, refers to the peace of 
Utrecht, which, though not iinally ratified till 
28 April, had been for some time a certainty. 
Papers poem was thus on tho side of tho 
tones, and brought him the friendship of 
Swift, who speaks of it as a Mine poem ' in 
the < Journal to Stella' on 9 March 1712- 

Pope still preserved friendly relations with 

Addison, whose 'Oato' was nhown to him 
in manuscript. He praisew it enthiwiaati- 
callv in a letter to Gary 11 (February 171 2- 
1713), though he afterwards told Spunco 
that he had recommended Addiwm not to 
produce it on the stajje. Ho wrote tho 
prologue, which was nmh applauded, an<l 
the play, produced on 13 April 1713, had an 
immense success, clue partly to tho political 
interpretation fixed upon it by both parties. 
Pope's friendship with Addison's 'lit tie 
senate' was now to be broken up. Accord- 
ing to Dennis (JRmarfa on flu Dww'atfy 
whose story is accepted by Pope's bost bio- 
grapher, Mr. Courchope, Pope devised a 
singular stratagem. He got Lintot, to pw- 
suade Dennis to print some shrewd though 
rather brutal remarks upon 'Oato.* Pope 
then took revenge for Dennis's previous pam- 
phlet upon the * Essay on Criticism* by pub- 
lishing a savage onslaught on, the later 
pamphlet, called a < Narrative ... of the 
strange and deplorable Frenzy of Mr, J[olm] 
Dfennis].* Had the humour beon more suc- 
cessful, the personality * .mid still have been 
discreditable, Dennis was abused nominally 
on behalf of Addison, but his criticisms were 
not answered. Addison -was bound as a 
gentleman, though he has been strangely 
blamed for his conduct, to disavow a vulgar 
retort, which would bo naturally imputed to 
himself. At his desire, Steele let Dennis 
know, through Lintot, that lie disapproved of 
such modes of warfare, and had declined to 
se* the papers. Pope, if he heard of this at 
the time, would of course be wounded. He 
had meanwhile another ground of quarrel. 

His prologue to 'Oa1o T had appeared in tho 
1 (juiirdian' of 18 April 17 Itf. Some previous 
papers upon pastoral poetry had appeared 
shortly before, in which high was given 
to Ambrose Philips, ono of tho whig clique 
whoso * Pastorals 1 worn in the same 'Mis- 
cellany' with Pope's (1709). Pope now pub- 
lished a paper (27 April 17 Hi) ostensibly in 
praise of Puilipn an contrasted with himself.' 
Stoelo in said to have been deceived by this 
very t ransparent irony; but the paper, when 
published, provoked IMulips'H wrath, fie is 
said to have hung up a rod at Mutton's, vow- 
ing that he would apply it to Popo's shoulders 
(see "Broome to Ken ton [1 72ft], Work*, viiu 
1 -1-7, The storyis also t< >Ul by Ayr and O'thbor). 
Pope appearw to deny some such story in a 
letter to Oaryll of H* June 1714 ( W r r/\* T vi. 
iiOS). 1 le say'w that, PIiili|>H had never * oflorod 
him any indecorum,' and that Addison had 
expressed a doniro to remain upon friendly 


Pope, in any ease, was naturally thrown 
more upon the opposi t e part y. Swift became 
a warm friend, and iutroduced him to Ar- 
buthnot and other distiniruislunl num. The 
*Scnblerus (Jltih/ iu which Pope, (lay t and 
Parnell joined Swift, Arbuthnot, (^ 

a kind of informal assoiMation which pro- 
jected a jomt-Htoek Hiil-iro upon j>eda,utry, It 
\va possibly an odshoot from tfie 'Brothers' 
Club 1 formed in 17U, of which Swift wa 
also a member, and whie.h wn now declining. 
Pope at the ewl of 17 1^ wan Inking lessons 
in painting from Charles Jervas [<j vV], but 
lie was BOOH to bo absorbed in the most 
laborious task of hin Hie, Among IUH parly 
translations WH a fragment from the 'Iliad/ 
and his friend Tnimbull upon reading it had 
suggested (9 April 1 708) that he should con- 
tinue tlie work, Idolatry of classical models 
was an essential part of 'the religion of mmi 
of laer of tho day. Many of thtmi, how- 
over, could not rtuuUhv<<k,and the old trans- 
lations of Chapman, Ogilby,awl llobbonwore 
old-fashioned or feeble in Htyle, M any trans- 
lations from tho clasH f u i H hud been executed 
by Drydwi and his sehool JDryclon had him- 
self tratwlalwl ' Virgil* and tho ilrst book of 
the ' Iliad.' lint a J lamer in modern English 
waft fltill wanting Pupts'H rising fame and 
hi familiarity with the literary and sotiial 
leaders made him the man for the oppor- 
tunity. Addwon'ft udvifti^ according to rope 
(Premce to the I/w^), ilrst dotermimul him 
to the undertaking, although a letter, in which 
Addiaon says 1 1 know of none of this ajyo 
that is equal to the task except yourself 
( Work*, vl 401 ), is of doubtful authenticity, 
Pope also thanks Swift-, Congwve f Garth, 



Howe, and Parnell for encouragement. He 
issued proposals for the translation of the 
'Iliad' in October 1713, Lord Oxford and 
other friends regretted that he should devote 
his powers to anything but original 'work ; 
but the plan was accepted with general 
enthusiasm. Swift was energetically tout- 
ing for him in November 1713. Supported 
by both the whig and the tory leaders of 
literature, and by all their political and noble 
friends, the subscription soon reached unpre- 
cedented proportions. Dry den had made 
about l,200f. by his 'Virgil 1 (1697), when 
the plan of publishing by subscription was 
still a novelty. Lintot agreed to pay Pope 
200. a volume, and supply him gratuitously 
with.all the copies for subscribers and presents. 
The book was published in six volumes, and 
subscribers paid a guinea apiece. There 
were 575 subscribers for 650 copies (list in 
first edition), and the names include 150 
persons of title and all the great men on 
both sides. The total, after deducting some 
payment for literary help, was over 5,000/., 
anil Lintot is said to have sold 7,500 copies 
of a cheaper edition. Pope, who had scarcely 
made 150J by his earlier poems (see list of 
Lintot's payments in DlsRAJiLi's Quarrels 
of Authors, reprinted in COTOTHOPE'S Life, 
p. 1*31), thus made himself independent for 
life. The translation must be considered not 
as a publisher's speculation, but as a kind of 
national commission given by the elegant 
society of the time to their representative 

The first volume, including the first four 
books of the * Iliad,' was issued in June 1715. 
Almost at the same time appeared a trans- 
lation of the first book by Thomas Tickell, 
one of Addison's clients. 'Although Tickell, 
in his preface, expressly disavowed rivalry, 
and said that he was only * bespeaking public 
favour for a projected translation of the 
" Odyssey,'" Pope's jealousy was aroused. 
His previous quarrels with the Addison circle 
predisposed him to suspicion, and he per- 
suaded himself that Addison. was the real 
author of the translation published under 
Tickell's name. In a later quarrel after Addi- 
son's death in 1719, Steele called Tickell * the 
reputed translator 'of the ' Iliad' (dedication 
of "the ' Drummer' in ADDISON'S Works, 1811, 
vi. 319), a phrase which implies the currency 
of Rome rumours of this kind, Pope also 
asserted (SPENCE, p. 149) that Addison had 
paid Qildoii ten guineas for a pamphlet about 
Wycherley, in which Pope and his relatives 
were abused. No such pamphlet is known, 
and the whole imputation upon Addison is 
completely disproved [see under ADDISON, 
JOSEPH]. The so-called ' quarrel,' which gave 


rise to much discussion superseded by recent 
revelations, was only a quarrel on Pope's 
side. The famous lines upon Addison, which 
were its main fruit, first appeared in print 
in a collection called * Cytherei'a,' published 
by Curll in 1723 (in NICHOLS'S Anecdotes, 
iv. 273, it is asserted that some verses by 
Jeremiah Markland, appended to Pope's lines 
given at p. 314, were in print as early as 
1717. No authority is given for the state- 
ment, which must be erroneous). They are 
mentioned in a letter fromAtterbury of 26 Feb. 
1721 -2, and apparently as a new composition 
much * sought after.' Pope was accused of 
writing them after Addison's death, 1719. 
Both Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Lord 
Oxford say that they had been previously 
written, though neither testimony is unequi- 
vocal (Courthope in Works, iii. 233) ; and a 
letter from Pope to Craggs, dated 15 July 
1715, uses some of the phrases of the satire. 
The letter, however, is probably spurious, and 
it forms part of the correspondence concocted 
by Pope in order tp give his own account of 
his relations to Addison. He told Spence 
(p. 149) that he had sent a i first sketch' of 
his satire to Addison himself, who had after- 
wards t used him very civilly/ The same 
story is told by Warburton. It is, however, 
quite incredible in itself, and is part of a 
whole system of 'mystification,' if such a 
word be not too gentle. It is possible, and 
perhaps probable, that Pope wrote the lines 
in his first anger at Tickell's publication, and 
afterwards kept them secret until the period 
fixed by Atterbury's letter. 

The last volume of the ' Iliad/ delayed by 
ill-health, family troubles, and the prepara- 
tion of various indexes, appeared in May 
1720. A dedication was appended to Oon- 
greve, who was doubtless selected for the 
honour, as Macaulay observes, as a man of 
letters respected by both parties. Pope had 
not only made a competence, but had be- 
come the acknowledged head of English, 
men of letters. The ' Homer' was long re- 
garded as a masterpiece, and for a century 
was the source from which clever schoolboys 
like Byron learnt that Homer was not a 
mere instrument of torture invented by their 
masters. No translation of profane literature 
has ever occupied such a position, and the 
rise of new poetical ideals was marked by 
Cowper's attempt to supersede it by a version 
of his own. Oowper and the men of genius 
who marked the new era have made the 
obvious criticisms familiar. Pope was no 
scholar; lie had to get help from Broome 
and Jortin to translate the notes of Eusta- 
thius, and obtained an introductory essay 
from Parnell. Many errors in translation 





ilnl, ii''\hirlrd |lrn..ii' ti ho rHirout \\i\\\ fhi< fpturn of Holinghroko, to Whom 

n "v:Hrd tit tin ..hun* m thr \v..rU, n- ihr ttipi'lwd hnon slightly kiulwu in tho 'S/rilh 
uhhr \v.mtd hr ttftmot.-.l In thMt' UMiof in h-nn Huh,' IlnlwK'hroltn now ronowod tho 
"po*M fmfW>)ti|). UniMW*', h'lunvrr, \\-n- I nr pi-iiiitiuuMMintl in J7U'>MiUl<Ml at Duwlev 
w ami tiUKsiMt*-, inn! vj*nu vuiuur \uthttt mwv drivo of Twii'kmiluun 1 >,',, 

1 * "*J *, UH 

-, inn! vj*nu vuiuur \uthttt 

i 1 * t ' V . * I t 

itr*Ht<imm m* n .wM.m, rpun tho pub 


inMi"tt of tho tir*t thr't VM!UMI'', in April 
i V '?' t*int*t ffnvrtiriK'ti l**po\Mihrt hnv. tut, 

t hi" Mm* I |tj*r, ill 

\ff!H'K'> U 

j*urn f y \vi*rU 


at Dawley, 

t drivo of Twii'konham. Pop* 
*;n n iro|uiMt visitor, and inSoptomW I7i(j 

w,i' ojn.-f iu ro',nintf a Htroam 




h'ntdfr hnfh 


i*nir."itt IM f hrt t irf nit! 

tVM-ltfrti I'npc'j S 

r tit't***!iiMtt 


u dr 

turn in IliihnphmUo'rt conch. Mm li 

ho nowrly ION! tho two of thorn. Pope 
at intorvnN wrroNpondod with S 
r SwitVr4 rotironumt to Iroland in 1 
unl hi nmv jninod Uolin^hrolto in writing to 
lh''ir I'ltinmon fnond, In I7i}o Popw wrotrt 
t Swift, montionintr n *utiro which hn had 

"bmrht'nhr, Arhuihnnt, Lord Oxford, uud 
Mpr uitithi \voloiuno him. Swift, visit odlQng^ 
in t hi' 'wnunor of 17i*ti, hrin^in^ ' (^ul- 
> IViuoj ./ for tho nnht'umiion of which 

,' futhti'.hofi m ; l.i.wt'4, MUSMM^M',, Tho fittlo oirolo also 
'ho r'tnv-p'Oi- s*j[H'i'*I i.i ptihlt>h it nitHontluny. Hwift con* 
in IVftt'i w h'it ; tnhutiMi viM'io'i, \vhioh ho Minl to Popo witli 
I 1 -* full pnttoi"! t* u-ttMiMho |ilonMod, Twovolunnfl 
^ f wi'fo puhli thi'tt in .luno 17*7, Swift hud 
i in jitMtiiifiif^n. ; H^niit \ioiipil Kn^huidi in April 17^7, and 
n nttl* MtHi'iMtiiitt ! *iii%nl fur oino tiiut* with Popo; hut; hia 
, ho routu'i n IrifiitHv **' luhnnitio'i nnd nn \ioty uhoitt Stolla mado 
*, and Pupn ii'if4 t* nutKo HUIIIO hun unfit for onnipany, and ho loft Poprt 
, HoiliuwvMWoil rr*i|ii'ihiiiiy f*r ' fmu tiuto Nfiro hi 1 * rot urn to Iroland in 
/ ultoroti (i niu|t|ot MI tho ' MiiH 1 J SoptotuhM% *i'b 4 IhtnoimP wan hy thirt 
in nn aip*b\ l + *h tiii** |ioiu timo tinrhodt and Swift, who had at. firt 



lor n 

******** ........ t . , -I,,. 

olniiiiod oiih t \vi"U 4 < hnM^ tif fho M M\ ni \ , ud^t^od ropo not !n uiuho tho had 

Tho *<Myov * iwtntihl u MiM** <f tr-' MittttMiial, \vn* im\ioitH for HN uppoa 
ItHiOtthou^h noi mm*htrfiufit 4 . lfh'*tatro t*j" hud tirotmhly withhold it- with a viww 
duood lum t tho irtt'ittMtuittf JMHMII}! Spour^ , tu >no tit hw HtaiiirnvrcH, Tho third volume 

* 4 I t t 4 d kt*J \ d 4k &t il k t It'll* I\lf t 

ltiv ;wh*H>tihfiHiirti !MhHtrinitniiM\o * r^^iiv id tho * Mwoil union, pniuiHluui in Aiarcu 
ujjtnt'ii in I7#ls *tMftii |rirt Ii lt .f7. P*po h4 JV:"V ^,oont<unol tho 1 Hat hon/ a vory lively 
tho jfittut HOUHO n J |iii'n'4 wiib tho rri*i- iMir*s of wbirh Pop**, though ho aftorwarda 
t'tHtn and mitlto fritrndn with Hio nothof, I ilimutuod it, nuyn thut ho hud 'ontiroly 
Poptt'Hfioujo^tijM'irrlohmhnouHU'hilo/onM i ui'thutit'iM tul in ft munnor writton it all 
thmuuh vnritniM rlmit^oK, Hi* uiMthor'* lih j \ if 'MCA*,* it, I MM, It ^' IVI * HamitiodHori]>- 

vnritniM rlmit^oK, Hi<* uiuihoA lito \\ if WA^ \it, I MM. It K rtVl * 
van in grout dun^-r HI tho ond of i7j*; | IHIH t*F ihtforout dun^os of had authorH, 
h'm Hurms Mary Hwh, *fio*i on i** Xm, in -. Mttlu'tfttttv intltnitod hy initialri* If hia 

- - . t It I |i|...Jl.._>_J-I..,t*-..lii.-k*^al4W*Lil4'-/t *F XV 

thoMumo viMtr/nud ii* on$moim*mtoii In n ! purpo^ WH*, UH Mr, ('otirthopo HUgg"Ht.ft, to 
epitaph in Twirlcimlmm itlttimh, i*up**'wiH 1 irtiinfi* hi-* viotimi into rotortn, m orcior to 

mwflnod liv IH at tontiim'o upuvt hh j jci*i un *^IMIMI* for tho 
rnoth**r t hiH allot'i'mn for whom m hi II*WH mnti-tl, 'IV 


on 28 Ma 

ncft upon IUH trial, awl wiw ttorvntih mitt | tinH t** uvmi fho ilnn^rof proHwition tor 
Wundwinj(. 11< wnn nlunod f it M^WH, l*y . iih^, Tho pootn nptM^w'd nitonymouBiy ; a 
tlio prnj[H!st of huin^ rrtMMi<*umini*(l n* I'M nutioo IVum tho jwblNhiir unpltod that it; 

court a to tin; prnpnr nn*wor ( HVA, ^, I to tht aHm*K **r tho *limi two montliH 1 (i,e 

^ W * w W 4%* i 4 flii I * "'.T * * lf^" HT* *F IT ^* T* '^ ****? '^K*'*** PTT* -J**Vr*' 'I ^ 9 < ^ 1 

plaints mntlo ft^uuwt him for oditii^* tho XMII* HttjtoKod woro nprosontod by mitialH; 
uukeof XiarkiA^knm'K wurkn t J7&H wliiob (tint tlto wbU* profoHwnl to ho a ropnnt m a 

<ig^i Tlwa ^jjtilti of Attorhury fmimfUtni nu nilurg4 outturn, in Murcb 17ii^ with 




names in full and a letter to the publisher 
in defence, written by himself, but signed by 
his friend William Cleland (1674-1741) 
[q. v.] He assigned the property to Lord 
Bathurst, Lord Oxford, and Lord Burlington, 
from whom alone copies could be procured. 
"When the risk of publication appeared to be 
over, they assigned a new edition to Pope's 
publisher, Gilliver (November 1729). Va- 
rious indexes, 'testimonies of authors,' and 
so forth, were added. The poem was not ac- 
knowledged till it appeared in Pope's * Works * 
in 1735. A t Collection of Pieces ' relating 
to the poem was published in 1732, with 
a preface in the name of Savage describing 
the first appearance. 

The l Dunciad,' though written with Pope's 
full power, suiters from the meanness of the 
warfare in which it served. It is rather a 
long lampoon than a satire ; for a satire is 
supposed to strip successful vice or imposture 
of its mask, not merely to vituperate men 
already despised and defenceless. Pope's 
literary force was thrown away in insults 
to the^ whole series of enemies who had in 
various ways come into collision with him. 
He was stung by their retorts, however 
coarse, and started the ' Grub Street Journal * 
to carry on the war. The avowed authors 
were John Martyn [q. v.] and Dr. Richard 
liusselL Pope contributed and inspired 
many articles. It lasted from January 1730 
till the end of 1737, and two volumes of 
articles, called * Memoirs of the , Society of 
Grub Street,' were republished (see CAR- 
HUT HERS, pp. 270-82, for a good account of 

Theobald was made the hero of the ' Dun- 
ciad/ to punish him for exposing the defects 
of Pope's l Shakespeare. 5 Pope attacked Lin- 
tot, with whom he had quarrelled about the 
* Odyssey,' and Jonathan Smedley [q. v.], dean 
of Clogher, who had written against the * Mis- 
cellanies.' He attacked Aaron Hill, who forced 
him to equivocate and apologise [see under 
HILL, AAEON]. One of his strongest grudges 
was against James Moore Smy the [q. v.], who 
had obtained leave to use some verses by 
Pope in a comedy of his own, and probably 
did not acknowledge them. Pope attacked 
him again in the t Grub Street Journal ' with 
singular bitterness. A squib called ' A Pop 
upon Pope/ telling a story of a supposed 
whipping by two of the * Dunciad * victims, 
was attributed by Pope .to Lady M. W. Mon- 
tague. Young, of the ' !Night Thoughts,' de- 
fended Pope in 'Two Epistles,' to which 
"Welsted and J. Moore Smythe replied in 
'One Epistle.' Pope seems to have felt 
this keenly, and replied vehemently in the 
'Journal.' We can hardly regret that in 

this miserable warfare against unfortunate 
hacks Pope should have had his turn of 
suffering. Happily, Bolingbroke's influence 
directed his genius into more appropriate 
channels. Bolingbroke had amused himself 
in his exile by some study of philosophy, of 
which, however, his writings prove that he 
had not acquired more than a superficial 
knowledge. Pope was at the still lower 
level from which Bolingbroke appeared to 
be a great authority. Bolingbroke s singular 
brilliancy in talking and writing and his 
really fine literary taste were sufficient to 
account for his influence over his friend. 
Pope expressed his feeling to Spence (p. 316) 
by saying that when a comet appeared He 
fancied that it might be a coach to take 
Bolingbroke home. One result of their con- 
versation is said to have been a plan for 
writing a series of poems which would 
amount to a systematic survey of human 
nature (see SPENCE, pp. 16, 48, 137, 315). 
They were to include a book upon the nature 
of man; one upon 'knowledge and its 
limits ; ' a third upon government, ecclesias- 
tical and civil ; and a fourth, upon morality. 
The second included remarks upon ' educa- 
tion,' part of which was afterwards em- 
bodied in the fourth book of the * Dunciad ; ' 
and the third was to have been wrought into 
an epic poem called ' Brutus,' of which an. 
elaborate plan is given in Rufi'head (pp. 
410-22). It was begun in blank verse, but 
happily dropped. To the first and the fourth 
part correspond the * Essay on Man ' and the 
four * Moral Essays.' The plan thus ex- 
pounded was probably not Pope's original 
scheme so much as an afterthought, sug- 
gested in later years by Warburton (see Mr. 
Oourthope in Works, iii. 45-51). ' Moral 
Essays' was the name suggested by War- 
burton for what Pope had called ' Ethic 
Epistles.' The first of these, written under 
Bolingbroke's eye, was the * Essay on Taste/ 
addressed to Lord Burlington, published 
in 1731. It includes the description of 
Timon's villa, in which many touches were 
taken from. Canons, the house of James 
Brydges, duke of Chandos [q_. v.] Pope 
was accused of having accepted 500Z. from 
the duke, which was no doubt false ; but 
chose also to deny what was clearly true, 
that Canons had been in his mind. Pope 
was much vexed by the attacks thus pro- 
voked, and, besides writing to the duke, got 
' his man,' Cleland, to write an exculpatory- 
letter, published in. the papers. He also de- 
layed the publication or his next ' Moral Es- 
say ' ' On Riches ' for a year (Le. till Janu- 
ary 1733), from fear of the abuse. This, 
however, which dealt with fraudulent speou- 



lators, mot tho public taste. That, upon tho 
' (Jliaractors of Men ' appeared on B ,Fek 
17,'W, whon the last, upon t ho * Characters of 
Women,' was already written (Works, vii. 
i!08), though it waw not published till 17W>. 
The < Essay on Man/ tho first book of which 
appeared in Fobrnury 173JJ tli remainder 
followinginth(HiOLirH<M)fayoar- seoniBalsoto 
luvvo excited tho author's apprehensions. It 
was anonymous, and ho wrote to bin friends 
about it without avowing him-solf. Tim main 
cause waft no doubt his fear of charge 
ncrainst his orthodoxy. In faet, 1ho powu 
ifeTsimply n, brilliant \Wmiiention of tho doc- 
trine whii'.h, when openly expmsHod, was 
called deism, and, whon moro or less dis- 
guised, was taught ns orthodox by the latitn- 
dinarian divines of t ho day. Pope was pro- 
bably intending only to represent the most 
cultivated thoupht of tho time, mul accepted 
Boling'broho as its represent^ ive, Bathurst, 
indeed, said (\l(mvtoiij; t ,Jtibn*vn 9 ed. Hill, iii. 
'lO^-tt) that Pope did no moro than put 
Bolingbroke's prose into verso. Johnson's 
criticism upon this, namely, t hat ^Popo may 
have had tho 'philosophic stamina of tho 
essay from Bolingbroko' but added tho 
poetical imagery, probably bits the mark, 
Comparison between Bolingbroko's fragment 
and Pope's essays shows coincidences so 
close aa to leave no doubt of tho relation- 
ship, Bolingbrolce probably did not reveal 
lus sceptical conclusions to Pope; and Popo 
was too littlo familiar with the subject jto 
perceive tho real tendency of tho theories 
which ho was adopting, Jt would bo idle to 
apply any logical test to a series of superfi- 
cial and* generally commonplace remarks* 
Tho skill with wluon Popo gives point and 
colouring to his utiwatisfaetory framework of 
argument is tho more remarkable, Tho many 
translations indicate that it was tho best- 
known of Pope's writings upon tho conti- 
nent. Voltaire and Wiwland imitated it; 
Leasing ridiculod its philosophy in ' Popo 
ein MetnphyBiker 7 (1755, LMHWINO, Wcrtce, 
18S4, vol. v.) ; but it was greatly admirwi 
"by Dugald Stewart (Ifw/M, vii, 13<T), and 
was long a stock source for ornaments to 
philosophical lectures. Though its rathor 
tiresome didacticism hue made it less popular 
than Popo'fl satires, many isolated passages 
aro still familiar from tno vivacity of tho 
style. The * Universal Prayer ' was first 
added in 1738, ^ 

Bolingbrolco, happening one day to visit 
Pope, took up a Horace, and suggested to his 
.friend the suitability to bis case of tho first 
satire of the second book. Popo thereupon 
translated it * in a morning- or two/ and sent 
it to the press (SPJ3NCE,J>, &)7), It appeared 

in Vobruarv 17M, and was tho first of a 
series of his most felieilous writings, A 
cotiplot containing a tfmss insult to Lady 
M, W. Montn^u, and unot.hnr alluding to 
Lord Jlorv*y, led to a bitter warfare. Thoy 
rotort(cl in * Versos acldrdssed to tho Imitator 
of Horace' (ascribed to Lady Mary, Lord 
Horvoy, and Mr, Wimlham, tutor to the 
Jhiko of Cambridtfo) and in 'A Letter 
from a Nobleman at Hampton Court to a 
Doctor of Divinity* (by Lord Horvoy), 
Popo replied by some squibs in tho * Grub 
Street Journal 1 ' mid by * A Letter to a Noble 
Lord,' datiMl :) Nov. 17:J. _ The latter, 
though printe<l, atid, according to War- 
burton, Nubmittod to tho queen, was sup- 
pressed during .Pope's life. Johnson says 
that it exhibits ' nothing but ttuboua nia 
li^uity,' and it IH certainly laborious and 
Imitftfiy. A far more rutuarkablo result of 
this ^oUwicm, however, was tho * Kpistlo to 
Ariwthnot, 1 published in January 1784-5. 
It is written for the most part in answer to 
llomiy and Lady Mary, though various 
fragments, Much as the hues tinon Addison, 
are worked in* This pomn is Pope's mas ter- 
pioco, and shows his command of lun#uafra 
atidmetre in their hifchost d<n'elopmont. It 
is also of tho iirnt tmporlwico as anjiuto- 
bio^rnphteal dtxnunent, and shows ctiriously 
what WUH PopttV vitnv of his own character 

and carom*. 

Pope's autobiography wa continued, by 
tbo publication of IUH c(*rrospt)ndonco soon 
aftorwardrt an tho riwult of a fit^ri(s of ola- 
borate inawuvnw Houwoly to bo paralleled 
in literary history, A full account of them, 

... . J* ** * 4 . 4 t. 

hopo in tho^Lifo ' ( MVA*,v.SMMUX>). The 
main lactH aro as follows; In 172($ Ourll 
publish(d Popo's corrtiwiwutlomHi with Orom- 
wtsll, having obtainod tboin from Oromwell'a 

istnwfl. Tho corr(Hpond<nco oxcitod some 
intorost, and I*op soon afterwards bogan to 
to bin friundB to roturn hi 

Oaryll, one of bin mrort! regular correpon- 
dentfl, rotnrnod the lot.torH in 1739, but had 
them previously copied without. Popo's know- 
lodge. Tn tlm Hitmo year l\yw obtained 
Lord Oxford's leave to deposit, tho ordinals 
of his correspondence in Oxford's library, 
on tho ground that tho publication by 
Thuobnld in 17S>8 of tbo jjosthumous works 
of Wyehorley might bo injurious both to 
WydiWleyVrepuUt'wn anu his own. His 
intention otmH to havo boon to indiww Ox- 
ford to become responsible ibr tlio pul)lia- 
tiou'Csuo Klwiu in H'wAv, voli.p. xxvu), 




He then published some of "Wycherley's 
remains, including their correspondence, as a 
supplement to Theobald's volume. The book, 
however, failed. No copy is known to exist, 
and the sheets were used by Pope in his next 
performance. The Hervey and Lady Mary- 
quarrel apparently stimulated his desire to 
set forth his own virtues, and it now occurred 
to him to make a tool of his old enemy 
Curll. He had in 1716 administered an 
emetic to Curll on behalf of Lady Mary [see 
CURLL, EDMUND], and, besides publishing 
the Cromwell letters, Curll had advertised a 
life of Pope. Pope's object was to secure 
the publication ot his letters and, at the 
same time, to make it appear that they were 
published in spite of his opposition. In order 
to accomplish this, he employed an agent, 
supposed (see WAETON'S J&ssay, ii. 339, and 
JOHNSON) to have been a painter and low 
actor, named James Worsdale. "Worsdale, 
calling himself R. Smythe, told Curll that a 
certain P. T., a secret enemy of Pope, had a 
quantity of Pope's correspondence, and was 
willing to dispose of the printed sheets to 
Curll. Curll, after some negotiations, agreed 
to publish them. Pope arranged that the 
book, as soon as published, should be seized 
by a warrant from the House of Lords, on 
the ground that it was described in an ad- 
vertisement (dictated by Worsdale) as con- 
taining letters from peers. Pope had, however, 
contrived that no such letters should be in 
the sheets delivered to Curll. The books 
were therefore restored to Curll, and Pope 
had the appearance of objecting to the pub- 
lication while, at the same time, he had 
secretly provided for the failure of his ob- 
jection. Curll became unmanageable, told 
his story plainly, and advertised the publica- 
tion of the * initial correspondence' i.e. the 
correspondence with ' B. Smythe' and * P.T./ 
which accordingly came out in July. Pope, 
however, anticipated this by publishing in 
June, through a bookseller named Cooper, a 
' Narrative of the Method by which Mr. 
Pope's Private Letters were procured "by 
Edjnund Curll.' This did not correspond to 
its title. No light was thrown upon the 
really critical question how Curll could have 
obtained letters which could only be in Lord 
Oxford's library or in the possession of Pope 
himself. The publication, nowever, seems to 
have thrown the public off the scent ; and, 
though Curll's pamphlet gave sufficient indi- 
cations of the truth and suspicions of Pope's 
complicity were- current, his manoeuvres were 
not generally penetrated, and their nature 
not established till long afterwards. 

Curll, however, issued a new edition of 
the * P. T.' letters, and advertised a second 

volume. This appeared in July 173o, but 
contained only three letters from Atterbury 
to Pope, two of which had been already 
printed. Pope took advantage of this to 
advertise that he was under a necessity of 
printing a genuine edition. He proposed in 
1736 to publish this by subscription, at a 
guinea for the volume. The scheme would 
have fallen through but for Ralph Allen 

El. v.], who was so much impressed by the 
enevolence exhibited in the published let- 
ters that he offered to bear the expense of 
printing. The book finally appeared 18 May 
1737, and the copyright was bought by 
Dodsley . Pope's preface pointed out how he 
had unconsciously drawn his own portrait 
in letters written ( without the least thought 
that ever the world should be a witness to 
them.' Pope had, in fact, not only carefully 
revised them, but materially altered them. 
His friend Caryll died 6 April 1736, and 
Pope treated the letters really addressed to 
him as raw materials for an imaginary cor- 
respondence with Addison, Steele, and Con- 
greve, which, for a long period, perverted 
the whole history of their relations. The 
discovery by Charles Wentworth Dilke [q. v.] 
of Carylrs letter-book, in the middle of this 
century, led to the final unravelling of these 
tortuous manoeuvres. 

Pope afterwards carried on a similar in- 
trigue of still more discreditable character. 
He seems to have considered Curll as out- 
side of all morality. But he next made 
a victim of his old friend Swift. He had 
obtained his own letters from Swift in 1737, 
who sent them through Orrery, after long 
resisting the proposal. Pope had the letters 
printed and sent the volume to Swift, with an 
anonymous letter, suggesting their publica- 
tion, and saying that if they fell into the 
hands of Pope or Bolingbroke they would be 
suppressed. Swift, whose mind was failing, 
gave the volume to his bookseller, Faulkner. 
Pope ventured to protest, and Faulkner there- 
upon offered to suppress the letters. Orrery, 
to whom Pope applied, also provokingly re- 
commended their suppression as ' unworthy 
to be published/ Pope now had to affect 
to be certain that the letters would come 
out in any case, and they .finally appeared in 
London in 1741, with a statement that' they 
were a reprint from a Dublin edition. The 
great difficulty was to explain how the letters 
from Swift to Pope, which had never been 
out of Pope's hands, could be obtained. 
Pope endeavoured to pervert ambiguous 
statements due to Swift's failing powers into 
an admission that the letters on both sides 
were in Swift's hands. He tried to throw 
the blame upon Swift's kind friend, Mrs. 

Pope iao Pope 

\Vbitoway, nnd in billot tow moral iwd ovor li'dtor l)o<lloy, who WIIH proHont, by 
tho moluni'hnly int't thnt SwilV* vanity hud oompliiuontH which ho paid to hw'now 
Hurvivod his iutollort, Tho full proof* of *|ntntunc!o, Wurburt (n Muwiodod to Holmir- 
thiM tmuMiirtioti woro only tfivnuiu tho Inwt , brotn* N untbority, Popo ronlidod to him las 
oditiou of Pop*** < \VrW ryon Mr, Cur- litornry jhjootM* Tlioy viMtod Oxford toce- 

i 1 . .... _.ii!tt ...^j^Ma.h.t*h)L.&4 ^t I W u k i, \ ilttit l^^^kijk ' fMiiH lt I <, It tkit^J ^ tt it Iv j . -^ ^ . ^-.j. ,, 1 ^ j*. 

ruthoi'M Mtitl HI tpp !} (in IKV/) Unit Popo j thor in 1711 ^ und tho honorary do^rou of 
\VUH i'oalty puinod by SwitVn troru'hory, nnd | 1MM*. \VH oilWod by tho viro*Imnollor to 
not, ktiowiutf thiil ho hudnmtm-odtlwwlwlo ! Popo. An nil or of a 1 U >, clo^ roowaa imulo 
uttair himHolf, Tho only ujioli^y tor a din- 1 ut. t h** ( sami titno tt> Wnrhurton ; biit.,118 tins 
tfUMtin^ tmnwirtiun in 'thnt INnw* did nnl. j wrtMtl'tmvnnlHopjnHodhy wonl'Umclrffy 
know nt starting ljw many mid \vhnt diM- PO|M r'furoil l,o IM* durtorod* without his 
ho would hnv/to Joll. tVionil l*o|t unt!**rtuoU at WaHmrton'H in 

nturnli-t und pool WM ritip.uHou, to oomplotr tho Dunciud' by a 
monnwhito ^nnvin^. Ho had hwi MoiniMjf iourlh hook, It WIIM jwhliMhod iu March 
luHbost. tViondji, Unydiod i IM, 17!^; hiw 1MU, A ndr^M in it to Uollny (Jibbor 
niothoron 7 .July Will ; nud Arbnthnot on i produood r<poV4 luj,t. litorary mwrroX 

Fob. 17;U o. Boliituht'oho rdirod to nnrl Arhuthnot wtn t*upjosod to huv had 
Kruwo itt tho follow iiiju[ \vintor. AsulViond a Hhr* i Uio iurco oulhnl *Thro Houra 
of Bolwtfbroho, l'op* bud tiatnmlly horn : uflrr Murringo/ of \vhi<-h <iy wan tho dii^i; 
drawn into iutimwy with th< oiipo4tiou nntb*tr. It \VUH dummnl tin it's npijoarauce m 
wliirb WIIH now iruthrvhur ^uinM. \Vntpolo. t7J7und ( 'ihhor mum uftorwawLs inlroductjd 
llo rocoivofl u \iNit tVoiu i'Vi'tioriok, prinnMif ; u ulhriion to it in tho * Hohoai^aL' J p () 
\VtdVs t in <>Hulwr 17%tt*otffr to Hnthtirnt^ j nuitt* hohind tho MMMIOH unfl ahusod Clibbtjr 
8 Oft, 17V); NVyttdhnwt Mnrohtuont, and; for h*' import iniMM ( i\ to svbioh t-ibbwr ropliud 
londiTH ntot' itnd tnllu'd KilittrM ut hiri | that ho should r'jHMtt fho worVU urt ionjy tut 

to twinn ! tbo lu \VUH uotmU Poi* had nuulo Ho.voral 

grotto; nnd Popo WHM on intimato twinn tbo pluy \VUH uotmU Pop 

with Lyttolton mid othor of th y<tun^ ' nmtotnptHojm rolWowoM tt bim; and upon 

wtrtotH\vhow horotnpliiniMtt^ in bis po**mH. <ho uppfarnnooiif tho now 1 hunoind' Oibbor 

llis Hottthu(Mt,s npjMMir in tlio *Htif!jlo to took lu?^ rowit^o in * A Lotior iVom <, 1 ibbnr 

Au^mtuH/iho wnst bt'illiunt of IUM tinihi* ; tit Popo/ i'ihborwaH a vory lively writor, 

tioiwf I ionww I iirM, opMt li >f Mor<md booh ) t and trontod Poj to mmto hotno trutiiH with- 

whidi was ptthltMhod in Mar(^ht7'l7, Othrr ottt !OMW^ ttm tmupoi 1 , Ho tultlod an im* 

of tho Morion whidi upj*arot! in tho wunt* Hiuwtrv antn'doto about a y<nithful Mcraju* 

your aro of nmro ^*n*vul applirnti<n, Tho into wliirli l*opo hud ftilbn, 'Thono, thingn/ 

two diah^uo^ oidltni* 17'is/and nftorward^ mu\ Pnpo ofouo of t-ihlior'n pniMphlotM, *aro 

linuwn IN * Hpilo^nit to tbo SutinvV worr* iuy divorMiim ; ' and tho yonngor lUchardriou. 

mainly promutod by tho nttuok upon tho WHM honnl him ami t<dd Johnson, ujmorvtid 

ovonimoni HH tho hourro of fornttiotutMid that bin fnfim<r* \\oro *wnthiiif( with an- 

in- ttiiih.* i* in bin imtation rtwil 

u^ain Khnw t'opo at II'IM hoxt, Thoy nro in- fttiiih.* i*p in bin imtation rtwilyml to 
i*owjmrubly tVlioitouK, und intd^ivo and di* , niuki* C'iiibor tho horo of tho 'Uuntnad'm 
trwnm iu tlwir Hmiwn**im*m of hmtfiwp, j jltf* of i riiMbuiil. \VnrbnrUm, who had 
Popo, idwnvH timlor tho iuilui'two t>i noutt* now uiutot<tkon to tmnotnto Popo'n wliolo 
fnowl of Ht-mngor iiim^ than bin own, WH works, wa to bo roMpouHiblo for tho note* 
now to ho oomjuorod by WUliam Warlmr- wr|M**ittiy l*o{*oontho * Hwioiad, 1 and ftjldcd 


tim, Wnrbnrtoiu turhulriit nnd itmbtlitiuH, Itinmhw Aritnri'htH on tho llora ui' th 

Imd forced himnolf iutrt notioo by wnriu^n !N't. f Tim ftnti'lU book ooutnwH Homtj of 

nhowing wido muimtf und a Miti^uluv tnm Popo 1 ** iin'Ht vor^oM, Tbo book in tho final 

fur jmmdoxoH, Ilo had ndionlod PUJJO in form nppiwod ttHVtobor 174^, ( Tho mtii 

, bnt ho now undortook tt> do* tdiyMtfnt |wrtH wn imilmbly inspired by 

fund tho 4 Kw*ay on Man * ngniimt Uut tn'iti- Witrburhttu Tim ak ^ipon Ilontloy 
dmuH of Jonu l*Urn* itu (Vounax who bml jnMiul probably nut tputbioM of both t IMS an- 

Inn Mfcnsiwn do TK^tty tlo M, huilnntM. Honttoy wnn ninkin^ at tho titno 
ur Thommo* in 17Ji7 Wnrburtnu'n <tf tho lirnt jitiblirnlion, and iliotlon 14 July 
, which apjwuwU HM it norioH of lotti*rn 17-W. AH tbo old opponent t>f Attorbur^ 
in u poriodicnl (Mvllml 'Tho Workn of tho und nil Popo'* fmwd* HM woli nn for his 
Lettrnd,*excitdPop<^iittffi'rKnititwl. Ho ^rilu'wn of Mitnm und bin rotnarlw upon 
wruto to WArburtun in tho wurmt'Ht irnw, l*iij*V * ilMtmT,' bo wiw naturally w^pdwd 
* You,' he said, * inulirHtind ty wurk bottor by Popo n* tho idoui podnnt, Ho hnd Hpokou 
than I do tnywlf.' Ho nwt bin t*ommontuttr oi Wurburton HH a tnitn of iwwHlrww , upp>- 
in th gardou of Lord Hndnor nt Twtokon* tho und Uitt lif*Hii*m; nnd woithtn'of thorn 
liam iu Apnl 17>10 Jlu iutuuibhttd bit) pu!^ : could up|u'triutt' hi* ncliuliu-Mhifrt hough War- 




burton seems to have fully repented (see 
MONK, Life of Bentley, ii. 375, 378,404-11). 

Pope was staying with Allen at Prior 
Park in November 1741, and invited War- 
burton to join him there. Warburton ac- 
cepted, and to his marriage to Allen's niece 
in 1745 owed much of his fortune. Pope's 
health was declining, although he was still 
able to travel to his friends' country houses. 
Martha Blount was still intimate with him j 
she seems to have spent some time with him 
daily, although living with her mother and 
sister, whom he had endeavoured to persuade 
her to leave. She frequently accompanied 
him to the houses of his friends, and is men- 
tioned in his letters as almost an inmate of 
his household. In the following summer 
Pope visited Bath, and afterwards went to 
Prior Park, where Miss Blount met him. 
For some unexplained reason a quarrel took 
place with the Aliens. Miss Blount (as 
appears from her correspondence with Pope) 
resented some behaviour of the Aliens to 
Pope, and begged him to leave the house. 
She was compelled to stay behind, and, as 
she says, was treated with great incivility 
both by the Aliens and Warburton. Pope 
expresses great indignation at the time. He 
must, however, as his letters imply, have 
been soon reconciled to Warburton, Allen 
called upon him for the last time in March 
1744', when Pope still showed some coldness. 
By this time Pope was sinking. He still 
occupied himself with a final revision of his 
works, and saw his friends. He was visited 
by Boiingbroke, who had returned to Eng- 
land in October 1743, and by Marchmont, 
and attended by Spence, who has recorded 
some of the last incidents. Pope's behaviour 
was affecting and simple. Warburton, a 
hostile witness, accuses Miss Blount of neg- 
lecting Pope in his last illness ; and John- 
son gives (without stating his authority) a 
confirmatory story. Spence, however, re- 
marked that whenever she entered, his spirits 
rose. At the suggestion of Hooke he sent 
for a priest on the day before his death, and 
received absolution. He died quietly on 
30 May 1744. He was buried on 5 June in 
Twickenham Church, by the side of his 
parents, and directed that the words * et sibi ' 
should be added to the inscription which he 
placed upon their monument on tlie east wall. 
In 1701 Warburton erected a monument to 
Pope upon the north wall, with an inscrip- 
tion 'to one who would not be buried -in. 
Westminster Abbey/ and a petulant verse. 

By his will (dated 12 Dec. 1743) Pope left 
to Martha Blount 1,OOOZ., with his house- 
hold effects. She was also to have the in- 
come arising from his property for life, after 

wjiich it was to go to the Racketts. He left 
to Allen, in repayment of sums ad- 

vanced 'partly for my own and partly for 
charitable uses.' Books and other memorials 
were left to Boiingbroke, Marchmont, Jk- 
thurst, Lyttelton, and other friends. An 
absolute power over his unpublished manu- 
scripts was left to Boiingbroke, and the copy- 
right of his published books to Warburton. 
Pope had contemplated two odes, upon the 
'Mischiefs of Arbitrary Power' and the 
'Folly of Ambition/ which were never exe- 
cuted, and had made a plan for a history of 
English poetry, afterwards contemplated by 
Gray (EUFFHEAD, pp. 423-oj. 

Mrs. llackett threatened to attack the 
will, but withdrew her opposition. Allen 
gave his legacy to the Bath Hospital, and 
observed that Pope was always a bad ac- 
countant, and had probably forgotten to add 
a cipher. He took Pope's old servant, John 
Searle, into his service. Disputes soon arose, 
which led to one of the worst imputations 
upon Pope's character. In 1732-3 Pope ap- 
pears to have written the lines upon the 
l)uchess of Marlborough which, with later 
modifications, became the character of Atossa 
in the second * Moral Essay.' The duchess 
was then specially detested by the opposition 
generally ; but Pope's prudence induced him 
temporarily to suppress this and some other 
lines. In later years, however, the duchess 
became vehemently opposed to Walpole. She 
was very anxious to obtain favourable ac- 
counts of her own and her husband's career. 
She gave Hooke o,000/. to compile the pam- 
phlet upon her ' Conduct.' Pope took some 
part in -negotiating with Hooke, and the 
duchess, he says in his last letter to Swift 
(28 April 1739), was ' making great court to 
nim/ A very polite correspondence took 
place (published in Pope's * Works/ v. 406- 
422, from ' Historical Manuscripts Commis- 
sion/ 8th, Rep.) From this it appears that 
after some protests he accepted a favour from 
her, and from later evidence this was in all 
probability a sum of 1,0001. Pope appears 
( Works, iii. 87) to have suppressed some 
lines which he had intended to add to a cha- 
racter of the Duke of Marlborough. Sup- 
pression, however, of polished verses was yore 
pain to him, and he resolved to lose the 
* Atossa * lines in a different way. He intro- 
duced changes which made them applicable 
to the Duchess of Buckinghamshire (daugh- 
ter of James II, and widow of John Shef- 
field, first duke). She had edited her lius- 
band's works, and bought an annuity from 
the guardians of the young duke. The 
duchess showed him a character of herself, 
and, upon his finding some faults in it, picked 




a quarrel with him for five or six years before 
Lor (loath ( Works, x. 217). Aeeording to 
several independent reports, varying in de- 
tails (collected in Wr/, iii. 77, <&c.), Pope 
read the Atossa to the Due, horn* of Marl- 
borough, Baying 1 that it was meant for the 
Duchess of Buckinghamshire, and she is Raid 
to have seen through tho proUmeo. Moan- 
while the character wan inserted by Pope in 
the edition of tho ' Moral Kssnys * which was 
just printing oil' at the time of his death, and 
"which he must therefore have expected to bo 
seen by the .Duchess of Maiiborough. Upon 
liis death she inquired of Bol'mgbroko 
whether Pope's manuscripts contained any- 
thing' affecting her or hor husband. He 
found the 'Atossa' linen in tho ' Moral 
Essays/ and communicated with March- 
mont, observing that there wan * no excuse 
for them after the favour you and t know.' 
A note in the L Marclummt Papons ' (ii. &U) 
"by Marchmont's executor states this to have 
"been the 1 ,()()()/. Tho whole edition was 
suppressed, and WarburUm, aa proprietor of 
the published works, must have consented. 
The only copy preserved in now in the British 
Museum. Bolingbroko soon after wards found 
that fifteen hundred copies of some of his own 
essays had been secretly printed by Pope. 
Though Pope's motive was no doubt adini- 
lation of his friend's work, Bolingbroko, who 
had been greatly affected at Pope's death, 
was furious either at the want of confidence 
or some alterations which had been made* 
lie burnt the edition, but retained a copy, 
and had another edition published by Mallet, 
with a preface complaining of tho conduct 
of * the man ' who had been guilty of tho 
* breach of trust/ He also printed a sheet 
in 1740 containing the c Atossa' lines, with a 
note stating that the duchess had paid 1 ,000/, 
for their suppression, Warburton, having 
consented to the suppression of the edition, 
was disqualified for directly denying the ap- 
plicatiun of the lines, although ho tried else- 
where to insinuate that they wero meant for 

andv. 846-51 is exhaustive). The supposed 
bargain is disproved. What remains is a 
characteristic example of Pope's equivoca- 
tions. Had the epistles appeared in his life, 
he would no doubt have declared that they 
applied to the Duchess of Buckinghamshire. 
Pope, as described by Reynolds, who once 
saw him (PnxpB, Malone> p, 429), was four 
feet six inches in height, and much deformed, 
He had a very fine eyo and a well-formed 
nose. His face was drawn, and the muscles 
strongly marked ; it showed traces of the 

headaches from which ho constantly suffered. 
Johnson reports some details given by a ser- 
vant of Lord Oxford. Ho \va,s HO weak in 
middle lifo that ho hud to wear ' a bodice of 
Hliff canvas;' ho could not dross without 
help, and IMS worn three pairs of stockings to 
cover his thin legs. Ho was a IroubloHwno 
inmate, often wanting coiloo in tlie night, 
but liberal to tho Horvantn whoso nwt ho dis* 
turb(Mi. JohtiHim m.Mitionn that Top^ called 
tho servant up lour IIUIOM in <m< night in 
M.h^ dreadful winter of 17-10' that ho might 
write clown thoughts which had struck him. 
Hin old worvant , John Sonrle, lived with him 
many years, and received a legacy of 100^. 
under his will, lie wan abstemious in drink, 
and would sot a .single pint before two guoflts, 
and, having taken two small glasses, would 
retire, nay ing, ' Gentlemen, 1 leave you to 
your wine.' He is said to have injured him- 
self by a love of* highly seasoned dmhoa ' and 
1 potted lampreys ; ' but., in spite of a fragile 
constitution, be lived to the ago of llfty-six. 
Pope's character is too marked in its 
main features to bo misunderstood, though 
angry controversies have arisen upon tho 
subject. Literary admirers have resolved 
to tint! in him amoral patt ern, while dissen- 
tients have had no dillieaiHy in discovering 
topics of reproach. Then/ is, in fact, no 
more dillicult suhjiwt. ibr biography, especi- 
ally in a eomnresned form. Ins better quali- 
ties, as displayed in t he domestic circle, give 
no materials 'for narrative, while it is neces- 
sary to give the details of the wretched series 
of complex quarrels, manurnvres, and falni- 
lications in which ho was plunged from his 
youth. Pope's physical inJh'mitios, his in- 
tense setiHibility, and the circumstances of 
his life, produced a tnorbid development of 
all tho weaknesses characteristic of the lite- 
rary temperament. Excluded by his creed 
from ail public careers, educated among a 
class which was forced to meet persecution 
by intrigue, feeling the slightest touch like 
tho stroke of a bludgoon, forced into an 
arena of personality where rough practical 
joking and coarse abuae wr recognised 
modes of warfare, he had recourse to weapons 
of attack and dcftsnets which wore altogether 
inexcusable, The truest statement seems 
to be tluit ho was at bottom, a h rpresent'j8 
himself in the epistle to Arbuthnot, a man 
of really line nature, aiVectiouato, generous, 
and independent ; unfortunately, the butter 
nature waa pwvrttted by the morbid vanity 
and excessive irritability which Iwd him into 
hitt multitudinowa subterfuges. His passion 
for literary fame, and tho Icoonneflfl of his 
suflering unde.r attacks, led to all his quarrels. 
Tho prucoding aurrativo has BUOWE 




ciently how he thus was led into his -worst of- 
fences. Beginning with a simple desire to give 
literary polish to his essays, he was gradually 
led to calumniate Addiaon. He thought 
himself justified in making use of the common 
enemy, Curll, to obtain the publication of 
his letters, and was gradually led on to the 
gross treachery to Swift. When accused of 
unfair satire, he was afraid to defend him- 
self by the plain truth, and fell into unmanly 
equivocations. He was a politician, as John- 
son reports Lady Bolingbroke to have said, 
'about cabbages and turnips/ and could 
* hardly drink tea without a stratagem.' But 
even his malignity to Lady Mary and Lord 
Hervey probably appeared to him as a case 
of the ' strong antipathy of good to bad.' 

His really fine qualities, however, re- 
mained, and animated his best poetry. All 
judicious critics have noticed the singular 
beauty of his personal compliments. They 
were the natural expression of ' really affec- 
tionate nature.' His tenderness to his parents, 
his real affection for such friends as Arbuth- 
not, Gay, and Swift, his almost extravagant 
admiration of Bolingbroke and Warburton, 
are characteristic. He always leaned upon 
some stronger nature, and craved for sym- 
pathy. His success gave him ahigh social posi- 
tion, and he appears to have maintained his 
independence in his intercourse with great 
men. He declined a pension of 300. out of 
the secret-service money offered by his friend 
Craggs (SPENCE, pp. 307-8), and lived upon 
the proceeds of ' Homer/ He seems to have 
Ibsen careful in money matters, but was 
liberal in disposing of his income. He could 
be actively benevolent when hethoughtthat 
an injustice was being done. He subscribed 
generously to the support of a Mrs. Cope 
who had been deserted by her husband, and 
several other instances are given to the same 
effect. He helped to start Dodsley as a pub- 
lisher, and contributed 2QI. a year to Savage, 
until Savage's conduct made help impossible. 
It must be admitted, however, that Ravage's 
services to Pope in the war with the dunces 
were discreditable to both. This substratum of 
real kindness, and even acertaiu magnanimity, 
requires to be distinctly recognised, as show- 
ing that Pope's weaknesses imply, not ma- 
lignity, but the action of unfortunate con- 
ditions upon a sensitive nature. Probably 
the nearest parallel to the combination is to 
be found in his contemporary, Voltaire. His 
abnormal sensibility fitted Pope to give the 
most perfect expression of the spirit of his 
age, His anxiety to be on the side of en- 
lightenment is shown by his religious and 
intellectual position. Though brought up in 
a strictly Boinan catholic circle, he adopted 

without hesitation the rationalism of Boling- 
broke, and supposed himself to be a disciple 
of Locke. Atterbury and Dr. Clarke, fellow 
of All Souls' (not Samuel Clarke, as has been 
erroneously said), tried to convert him. His 
letter to Atterbury ( Works, ix. 10-12) gives 
most clearly the opinions which he always 
expressed. A change of religion might be 
profitable, as it would qualify him for pen- 
sions ; but it would vex his mother, and do 
no good to anybody else. Meanwhile, he held 
that men of all sects might be saved (see also 
letter to Swift, 28 Nov. 1729, Works, vii. 
175). The * Universal Prayer' shows the 
same sentiment. Pope, taking the advice 
attributed to Addison, professed to stand 
aside from political narty. His connections 
naturally inclined him to the tory side, but 
he was not a Jacobite, and his sympathies 
were with the opposition to Walpole. He 
took for granted the sincerity of their zeal 
in denouncing the corruption of the period, 
and gave the keenest utterance to their 
commonplaces. His devotion to literature 
was unremitting, and his fortunate attain- 
ment of a competence enabled him to asso- 
ciate independently with the social leaders. 
If, as Johnson says, he boasts a little too 
much of their familiarity, and, as Johnson 
also remarked with more feeling, regarded 
poverty as a crime, he cannot be fairly ac- 
cused of servility. He held his own with 
great men, though he shared their prejudices. 
The wits and nobles who formed a little 
circle and caressed each other were, in their 
way, genuine believers in enlightenment. 
They had finally escaped from the prison of 
scholasticism ; they preferred wit and com- 
mon sense to the t pedantry of courts and 
schools ; ' they suspected sentimentalism when 
not strictly within the conventional bounds; 
they looked down with aristocratic contempt 
upon the Grub Street authors, for whom 
they had as little sympathy as cockfighters 
for their victims ; and took the tone towards 
women natural in clubs of bachelors. Satire 
and didactic poetry corresponded to the 
taste of such an epoch. Pope's writings accu- 
rately reflect these tendencies ; and his scho- 
larly sense of niceties of language led him 
to polish all his work with unwearied care. 
Almost every fragment of Lis verse has gone 
through a series of elaborate and generally 
successful remodellings. Whether Pope i& 
to be called a poet a problem raised in fol- 
lowing generations is partly a question of 
words ; but no one can doubt that he had 
qualities which would have enabled him to 
give an adequate embodiment in verse of the 
spirit of any generation into which he had 
been bora. He might have rivalled Chaucer 




in mw mitnry, and Wordsworth in another, 
AH it was, \m pootry in the OMHOIHIO of tho 
first half of the; itfW<Mith cuntury. Tho 
later history of Popo's famo in tho history of 
tho proeoss by which t-lio canons of tasto 
ceased to correspond to tho strong-oat intel- 
lectual and social impulses of a new poriod. 
What was spontaneous in him became con- 
ventional and artificial in his Hiumssors. 
"Warton first proponed to place Pope in tins 
second, instead of the iirst, class of pools, 
Oowpor's 'Homer 1 wa another indication 
of the cluing; and, in the next century, tho 
disc-UHsionM in which Bowles, Uoseoe, Oamp- 
bell, and Byron took part, and tho declara- 
tions of poetic iailh by Words worth and Oolo- 
ridtfrt, corresponded to a revolution of taste, 
and showed, at any rate, how completely 
Tope's poetry represented the typical charac- 
teristics of the earlier school. 
t Pope t nlarp;ed his villa, and ho spent, much 
timo and money on improving his garden, 
with the hejp not only of tho professional 
gardeners, Kent and Bridgenmn, but of his 
friends, Lords Peterborough and Bathurst, A 
plan, with a short, description, published by 
Iris gardener, Rearle, in 1 7-15, is reproduced 
in Cttrruthor' ' Life ' ( pp. 445 -5)), The best 
description is in WalpoVs ' Letters ' (to Sir 
Horace Mann, 20 Juno 1700), I lia grotto \va 
a tunnel, which still ronwins, under tho Ted* 
dington road, He describes it, in a letter to 
Edward Blount (2 June 1725). Ho orna- 
mented it by sparfi and marbles, many of them 
sent by William Borlaso fq. v.] from Corn- 
wall. Tho gnrden included an obelisk to 
hia mother, and the second weeping willow 
planted in England, The willow died in 
1801, and was made into relies. After his 
death the house was sold toSirWilliam Stan- 
hope, Lord GlwatorfloIdVi brother, In 1807 
it came into the possession of the Baroness 
Howe, daughter of the admiral She do- 
st royed tho house and stubbed up the trees. 
Thomas Young, a later proprietor, built a now 
house, with a * Chinoso-Gothio tower/ which 
still stands near the flito of tho old villa 
(TKORKB, JEmwon* of fandrm, pp. (m-7; 
COIMHBTT, Mmttrfabtf Twickenham (1873), 
pp, 368-$)!), In 18H8 tho bicentunary of 
Pope's birth was celebratod by an exhibition 
at Twickenaam of many interesting portraits 
and relics. 

Pope was painted by Kneller in 1 71 2, 1716, 
and 1731 ; by Jervas (an engraving- from a 
portrait at Caen Wood, prefixed to vol. vi, 
of < "Works/ and a portrait exhibited by Mr. 
A, Morrison at Twickonham) ; by W.iloare 
(exhibited by Messrs, Cohwffhi at Twicken- 
liam) ; by Jonathan Bichardaon (ongraving 1 
from portrait at Hagley, prefixed to vol. i. of 

1 Works *), who also inado various drawinirs 
(thrco nmdn for Horace NVahwlo w^rt exhi- 
bit wl by tluMiuiMMiutTwiokniiluutt^ind lil'toen 
drawing of lop \yoiv indudiul in a volume 

; by Van Loo in 17.k>; and by Arthur 
1 ond, Most oi these have been engraved. 
The National Portrait, (kllory bus a por- 
trait by Jm-vas wilh a lady (perhaps Martha 
J Mount), one by W. Unarm crayons) of 1 7:14 
and one by Riehardson, 17;*8." Mrs, Darell 
Blount also exhibited at, Twickenham a por- 
trait, by an unknown painty and port.uits 
of Pope and Teresa and Martha Blount by 
Jervafl. < A ' Sketch from Lite/ by G, Vertue, 
was exhibited at Twickenham by Sir Oharlen 
Dilko. A html by Kouhiliao, M;ho original 
clay converted into terra-cotta/ was exhi- 
bited at Twickenham by John Murray ( 1808- 
Mte) |q, v,J tho publisher, and an engraving 
IH prefixed to vol. v. of tho Works/ A 
marble bust by Uysbweh wan presented to 
the Athcnwum (Jlub in IH(H by Edward 
Lowth Batleley |"n, v, | An ontfrav'ing from a 
drawing of Poj)e\s inot-her by Itichardsoti is 
pre(ix<d to vol. viii* of the * Works.' 

Pope's w<irks are : L * January and May/ 
the * Kpisode of KarpwUm ' froiu the ' Iliad/ 
and the * Pawtorals * in Tonson's ' Poetical 
iliscellanies/ pt. vi. T 170H, ^. 'KsHay on 
>itic'.iam/ 1711 fnnon.1 ; l>nd edit, * by Mr. 
opt/ t 1 7 1 . :j. < The First, Book of Stiitiiw'fl 
Phwbaift/ * Vertuinnuw and Pomona from the 
Fourth Bonk of Ovid'n "Metamorphoses,"' 
<To a Younj< f.ady with tho Works of Voi- 
turw/ 'To tlm Author of a Poem entitled 
" Hue(ies.sio/ M and the 4 Uano of the .Lock' 
(iirst draft, without author V name), In Lin- 
tot's ^Misoelkny/ 171^ . SStippho to 
IMiaon ' and * Kable of DryopoMn ToiiHon's 
'Ovid/ \7\ 4. 'The M'essiah ' in Spec- 
tator/ 80 Nov. 17I5J, fi, * WiwlMor Forest/ 
1 7 1 ii ($, 4 Prolo^tm to (3ato/ with play, and 
in 'Guardian,* No, .'J3, New. 4, 11, 40, 1, 

8, 01, Jte, 1 7{^ of th ' (iunrdian ' am also by 

Norri c 

7, Narrative of Dr. llobort 

th doiiloraldo fronzv of 
J[ohn] l)cmn . . ./ 17 1 & H, * Hnpo of "tho 
Lock/ with additions, $ March 1714, Tha 
ilrfitcompldo edition, 0, < Wiio of J^ath/ 
from Ohacr, the * Arrival of Ulysstjs at 
Ithaca,] and tlm * Gnrdonw of Aicinous/ from 
the thirteenth n<l s<v(mth books of tho 
'OdyflHoy/ in S(*ol' * PotUical MiHfIlanit3/ 
1714. la The Tmj>l of Famo f (imitated 
from Chancwr), 1715, IL *A Ivoy to the 
Lock; or a TreatiKo proving beyond all Con- 
tradiction tlm Dangwons TmulWcy of a lata 
Poem inthukd tho " Jtapt* of tho* Look," to 
Government lloli^lon. J^v Ksdras I^itnu- 
vdt, Apotlu/ 1715, i& 'Iliad of llomor; 



translated by Mr. Pope,' first four books, 

1715. The next three volumes appeared in 

1716, 1717, and 1718, and the last two to- 
gether in 1720, each containing- four books. 

13. * A full and true Account of a horrid 
and barbarous Revenge by Poison on tlie j 
Body of Mr. Edmund Curll, Bookseller, with 
a faithful copy of his last Will and Testa- 
ment. Publish'd by an eye-witness,' 1716. 

14. 'The Worms: a Satyr by Mr. Pope/ 
1716, 15. 'A Roman Catholic Version of 
the First Psalm, for the use of a young Lady. 
By Mr, Pope,' 1716. (This and the preced- 
ing, attributed to Pope by Ourll and others, 
were not acknowledged nor disavowed by 
him ; see CARittTTKERS,pp. 153-4, and Works, 
vi. 438). 16. 'Epistle to Jervas,' prefixed 
to an edition of Fresnoy's ' Art of Painting, 7 
1716. 17. Pope's works in 1717 included 
for the first time the ' Elegy to the Memory 
of an Unfortunate Lady/ and the * Eloisa to 
Abelard/ which were published separately 
in 1720, with poems by other authors, as 
' Eloisa to Abelard, second edition/ The 
works also included the 'Ode on St. Cecilia's 
Day/ republished, with changes, as ' Ode for 
the Public Commencement at Cambridge on 
July 6, 1730/ with music by Maurice Green, 
1730. 18. * To Mr. Addison : occasioned by 
his Dialogues on Medals/ in Tickell's edition 
of ' Addison'a Works/ 1721. 19. 'Poems 
on Several Occasions ... by Dr. Thomas 
Parnell . . . published by Mr. Pope/ with 
'Epistle to the Earl of Oxford/ 1722. 20. 'The 
Dramatic Works of Shakspear . . . collated 
and corrected bv the former editions/ 6 vols. 
4to, ed. Pope, 1725. 21. ' The Odyssey of 
Homer/ vols. i., ii., and iii. 1725, iv. and v. 
1726. 22. ' Miscellanea/ including * Fami- 
liar Letters written to Henry Cromwell, Esq[i, 
by Mr. Pape/ was published by Curll in 
172G, dated 1 727. 23. ' Miscellanies/ with 
preface signed by Swift and Pope; vols. i. 
and ii. in 1727; vol. iii., called 'the last 
volume/ in March 1727-8 ; a fourth volume 
was added in 1732. 24. ' The Dunciad : an 
heroic poem, in three books, Dublin printed ; 
London reprinted for A. Dodd/ 1728, 12mo, 
Three more editions, with an owl on the 
frontispiece, were printed in London in 1728, 
and one with no frontispiece and with Pope's 
name at Dublin. 'The Dunciad Variorum, 
with the prolegomena of Scriblerus, London, 
printed for A. Dod, 1729/ 4to, was the first 
complete edition. It has a vignette of an 
ass and an owl. Four other octavo editions 
are dated London, 1729, with varying fron- 
tispieces of the owl and the ass. There is 
another edition without date (which cannot 
have appeared till 1733), and another dated 
173C, with the ass frontispiece. In 1736 

appeared also a different edition as vol. iv. 
of Pope's ' Works.' The ass and owl have 
now disappeared. The New Dunciad: as 
it was found in the vear MDCXLI. with the 

tj j 

Illustrations of Scriblerus and Notes Vari- 
orum,' 4to (i.e. the fourth book of ' The Dun- 
ciad'), appeared in 1742; another edition, 
with the same title, in the same year. ' The 
Works of Alexander Pope/ vol. iii. pt. i., 
contains the first three books, and vol. iii. 
pt. ii. the fourth book. The 'Dunciad in 
Four Books, printed according to the com- 
plete copy found in the year 1742 ... to 
which are added several Notes now first 
published, the Hypercritics of Aristarchus, 
and his Dissertation on the Hero of the 
Poem/ 1743, is the poem in its final form 
with an ' advertisement ' signed W. \V[ar- 
burton]. An edition, ' with several additions 
now first printed/ appeared in 1749. A full 
account of these editions was given by Mr. 
Thorns in ' Notes and Queries/ 1st ser. vol. x., 
and is reprinted by Mr. Courthope in 
' Works/ iv. 299-309. Mr. Courthope adds 
an account of four other editions printed at 
Dublin (1728, two in 1729, and one without 
a date). 25. Wycherley's ' Works/ vol. ii., 
with Pope's ' Letters/ 1 729, has disappeared 
(see above). 27. ' Of Taste: an Epistle to 
the Rt. Honble. Richard, Earl of Burlington, 
occasioned by his publishing " Palladio's 
Designs," etc./ 1731 ; afterwards called 'Of 
False Taste/ and finally 'Of the Use of 
Riches ' (fourth moral essay). 27. ' Of the 
Use of Riches : an Epistle to the Rt. Honble. 
Allen, Lord Bathurst/ 1732 (third moral 
essay). 28. ' An Essay on Man addressed 
to a Friend/ 1733, fol., no date. Quarto and 
octavo editions were also printed. The second 
and third epistles appeared in 1733, and the 
fourth in January 1734, in the same forms. 
They were all anonymous. The ' Universal 
Prayer ? was added, and also published sepa- 
rately, in 1738. An edition, with an excel- 
lent 'commentary by Mark Pattispn, was 
published at the Clarendon Press in 186(5. 
The ' Satires and Epistles ' were edited by 
Pattison in the same year. 29. 'Of the 
Knowledge and Characters of Men: an 
Epistle addressed to the Rt. Honble. Lord 
Viscount Cobham/ 1733 (first moral essay). 
30. 'The First Satire of the Second Book' of 
Horace, imitated in a Dialogue between 
Alexander Pope . . . and his learned coun- 
sel/ 1733. 31. 'The Second Satire of the 
Second Book of Horace/ 1734. 32. ' Epistle 
from Mr. Pope to Dr. Arbuthnot/ 1735. 
33. ' Sober Advice from Horace to the 
Young Gentlemen about Town : as delivered 
in his second sermon ; imitated in the man- 
ner of A, Pope ' (n.d.), 1734 ; (included also 




in 1788 edition of ' Works,' but aftorwards 

withdrawn). !H. M)u tho Oharaotrr.s of 

"Women : an Kpistlo to a Ludy,' 17lU> (socond 

moral essay), 8ft, Second volumoof Popo/s 

< Works/ adding those published sineo 1717, 

and including ibr the first time tho, ' Sni.inw 

of Dr. Donne vorsifiod by tho saiuo hand/ 

1735. 86. ' LetUTB of Mr. Popo and sovoral 

Eminent 'Persons,' "2 vote. 8vo (always put 

up togothtir). This is tho original ' P. T.' 

edition (sees above), and occurs in several 

forms, duo to Popo's manipulations of the 

printing, and his uao of the, Wyc.herley 

volume (soo No. 25). It was niso printed in 

12mo, with tlio* Narrative of the Method by 

which Mr. Pope's letters worn procured,' 

Ourll reprinted this as < Mr. Popo's Literary 

Correspondence for Thirty Year*,' 1785 ; thero 

arc two octavo editions and a 12mo edition. 

portunitioa for annoying him. Hoo ' Works/ 
vol. vi. pp. xlix-lviii for a full account. ^ Two 
other editions are mentioned by Pope in his 
' Catalogue of Surreptitious Kdit'ioiiH* in 1 787. 
Cooper published another in Juno 1785, with 
Pope's connivance, which is not mentioned in 
the * Catalogue,' Tho first avowed edit ion ap- 
peared on IB May 1737 in folio and quarto, 
and afterwards octavo; and tho iiftli and 
sixth volumes of the octavo edition of Popu's 
'Works/ containing the * Correspondence/ 
was printed at tho samft time. 87, ' The 
First Epistle of tho IHrat Book of Horace, 
imitated by Mr. Pope/ the sixth epistle of 
the first book, tlw first epistle of the second 
book, the second epistle of the wecotul book, 
and tlie odo to Venus, appeared separately 
in 1737. 38. 'Tho Sixth Sat ire of the Second 
Book of Horace, tho first part ... by I)r. 
Swift. The latter part . . , now added [by 
Pope]/ 1738, fol. 39. < Ono Thousand Seven 
Hundrod and Thirty-Eight ; a dialogue Konw- 
thing like Horace/ and * One Thousand 
Seven Hundred and Thirty-Eight, Dialogue 
II,' 1738 ; afterwards cal'led ' Epilogue to 
the Satires/ 40, ' Selecta Poemata Italorum 
q^ui Latino scripserunt, cura eajusdam ano- 
nynu anno 1684 congesta, iterum in lucem 
data, una cum aliorum Italorum oporibufl, 
accurante A, Pope/2 VO!R. 1740. 41. 'Works 
in Prose/ vol. ii, 7 containing tho Swift cor- 
respondence (with the 'Memoirs o Seri- 

blerus'), 1741. 

A * Supplement ' to Pope's ' "Works ' was 
published in 1757, and < Additions' iu 1776, 
These include the * Three Hours after Mar- 
riage/ attributed to Pope, Gay, and Arbuth* 
not, and the poems suppressed on account of 
iudecency A t Supplemental Volume/ pub- 

lishnd in 18115, 18 chiefly composed of trillin^ 
letters from tho Homer MSS. in the British 
Museum, Tlio iirst collective edition of 
Popo's' Works,' * with his last comuitionn, 
additions, and improvements, as they wore 
delivered to tho editor a little, before his 
death ; to^tU.luM 1 with l\u\ comtnontariuH and 
not<H of Mr. Warbnrton/ appeared in nine 
vols, Hvo, in 1751. It. wan several times re- 
printed, and in 1700 published in fivo vols. 
4to, with a IHo by Owen UtilVhead In 1794 
appeared tho iirst volume (all published) of 
an edition by Uilbert WaUofimd. The edi- 
tion (9 vols.Svo) by Joseph W a rton appeared 
in 1707 (republwhed in IH^ii); that by 
William IJslo Bowhw (10 vols. Hvo) iu 
ISOtJ ; that by William Uoseoo, said to bo 
'the worst' by (Voheraud Mr. Khvinf J(W, 
x. xxiv) (10 vols. HvoVm 18^-1. The stand- 
ard edition is the edition, in 10 vols. Hvo, 
published by Mr. Murray (1871-81)); the 
first four volumes contain tho poetry, except 
tho translation of tho * Iliad ' and ' ( Myssey/ 
tho fifth tho life, and tho last live th'o cor- 
respondence and prosn works. The first t,wo 
volumes of poetry and tho first three of 

i ** 

(!orresj)oiulenc(j wcro edihw! by tho Hov. 
"Whitwoll Klwin t tli re.inaiiHleri>y Mr.W. J. 
Oourthopo, who also wrote tho lite. 

A '(Jonc.ordanco'to tho works of Popoby 
Kdwin Abbott | <jv, ), with an introduction by 
tho 1 lev. K A . A bbott, 1 >, 1 )., appeared in 1 875. 

[Homo catchpenny anonytnouH liven of Pope 
fippttarod directly uptni IUH doath. That by 
William AyrotSi vols, Hvo, I7*lfi) IB also worth- 
l(^ t Tho'lifo hy Owmi HutVlumd, puhliHhod in 
1700, with hulp from Wttrburton, in of vorylittlo 
vahiH, excpt aw itMorponttiu^ a tow Mi-rapH of 
Warhurrou'H informatmn. Johnson's latn(l 7H1) 
is adtniruhUn but rotjuir^H to b nxKliiled by tho 
Jut or invostitfatioiis. Johnson RUW Hponcu's 
An(udotH in tnuiuiHi'iMpU The AnwslohiM, first 
jvuhlisluid by Sinjjtm* in IfttiO, jufivo Popo'B own 
account of various tranHiictionH, and aw of groat 
importunes. Josoph Warton'n I 1 snay <m Pops ot 
which tho first voUmw wan puhliNhod in 175(J, 
and tlu Hoi'outl in 17fi2,p;ivoH various nnoedouM*, 
aim) eoutainwl in thw uotiw to his otlition of tho 
Workn, 8om points WIMH^ diMWSHil in th con- 
trovtu'Hy rained f>y HOW!H'H Li to pivflKod to Ins 
ftdition. An attack by Campbell in his iSpoci- 
monsof Britiwh PoctH (t81i))lwd to a coutro- 
vry in which Ilu/,litt, Itywtn, ami Howies him- 
Hcif took part. A vory good lifo is that by 
Ilobort OarruihwB fq. v,J, prefixed to an edition 
of tboWorlcB in 18/1,1 (Hgaiu in JH")8),und jmb- 
litthocl sc-purntoly in 1807- It containfl au iuto- 
rastinpj account of tho Ma]ldmlMn MHS. and 
afitatflinnfc of th mrlioi* rtwultw of l)ilk'fl in- 
quiriefl. Pope'n ltf, hmvwor, IUIH ht^cn in Ufremt 
part rfloonstructed by more ro^ftnt^roHoarcheM. 
Mr. Crokor hd nule Iari5 collections, which 
wei'o ujftctt? hi douth placed iu the hand of Mr* 




El win. The researches of Mr. Charles Wentwi rth 
Dilke [q. v.] were first started by the discovery of j 
the Cnryll Papers in 1853. These papers hare 
since been presenter! to the British Museum by the j 
present 8ir Charles W. Dilke, Mr Dilke's grand- j 
son. Mr. Dilke published his results in the Athe- 
naeum and Notes and Queries ; and they are re- 
printed in the first volume of Ins Papers of a Critic 
(1875). Mr Dilke also gave great help to Mr. 
Elwin (see* Works,' vol. i. p cxlvi) in collecting 
letters and explaining difficulties. The results of 
the labours of Croker, Dilke, JVlr. Elwin, and Mr. 
Conrthope are given in the notes, introductions, 
and essays in the edition above notieed. The 
papers formerly in Lord Oxford's library are 
n w at Lnnorleat. and were plneed at Mr. El win's 
disposal by the Marquis of B;ith. The corre- 
spondence of Lord Orrery "with Pope, communi- 
cated to Mr. Elwin by the Earl of Cork, and 
first published in the eighth volume of the 
Works, also throws much light upon Pope's trans- 
actions. The British Museum has a collection of 
the original manuscripts of Pope's translations of 
Homer, presented by Dzivid Mallet [q. v,] Much 
of it is written upon the backs of letters, most 
of which have been printed in the ' Supplemental 
Volume ' of 1726, and in later editions of the cor 
respondence.] L. S. 


1782), minister of the church of Scotland, 
was the son of Hector Paip of Loth, Suther- 
landshire. He was educated at the univer- 
sity and King's College, Aberdeen, where he 
graduated M.A. 15 April 1725. A contribu- 
tion was recommended to be made for him by 
the synod in 1720, to enable him to prosecute 
his studies with the purpose of entering the 
ministry of the national church. On 28 July 
1730 he was elected session clerk and precen- 
tor of Dornoch, where probably he was also a 
schoolmaster. He is said to have in the sum- 
mer of 1732 ridden on his pony from Caithness 
to Twickenham to visit his namesake the 
poet Pope, who presented him with a copy 
of the subscribers' edition of his ' Odyssey/ 
in five volumes, and a handsome snuff-box. 
If the date of a letter of the poet's to him, 
28 April 1728 (PopE, Works, ed. Elwin and 
Courthope), be correct, the visit took place 
some time before 1728, but not improbably 
the date should be 1738. In it the poet refers 
to the ' accidental advantage which you say 
my name has brought you/ which would seem 
to indicate that there was no blood relation- 
ship between them. 

Pope was licensed as a preacher of the kirk 
of Scotland by the presbytery of Dornoch, 
19 Feb. 1734, and having been unanimously 
called to the church of Reay, Caithness-shire, 
was ordained there on 5 Sept. He was re- 
markably successful in reforming the habits 
ol 1 the semi-barbarous population of the parish, 

his great bodily strength being an impor- 
tant factor in enabling him to win their re- 
spect and deference. He is said to have 
enlisted some of the worst characters as 
elders, in order that they might be the better 
induced to curb their vicious tendencies; 
and he was accustomed to drive to church 
with a stick those of his parishioners whom 
he found playing at games on Sundays. 
He died on 2 March 1782. By his first wife, 
Mary Sutherland, he had three sons; and 
by his second wife he had also three sons, the 
youngest of whom, James, became his as- 
sistant. He translated a large part of the 
1 Orcades ' of Torfseus, extracts from winch 
are published in Cordiner's * Antiquities/ 
He also wrote the account of Strathnaver 
and Sutherland in Pennant's ' Tour,' and a 
description of the Dune of Donadilla in 
vol. v. of 'Archseologia.' 

[New Statistical Account of Scotland ; Hew 
Scott's FastiEccles. Scot. iii. 367 ; Pope's Works.] 

T. F. H. 

POPE, ALEXANDER (1763-1835), 
actor and painter, was born in Cork in 1763 
His father and his elder brother, Somerville 
Stevens Pope, were miniature-painters, and 
Alexander was trained as an artist under 
Francis Robert West in the Dublin Art 
Schools. He practised for a time at Cork, 
taking portraits in crayons at a guinea apiece ; 
but, after appearing at a fancy ball in the 
character of Norval, and subsequently taking 
part with much applause at private thea- 
tricals, he adopted the stage as a profession. 
He appeared at Cork as Oroonoko with a 
success which led to his engagement at 
Covent Garden, where he appeared in the 
same character on 8 Jan. 1785. On the 
19th he played Jaffier in ' Venice Preserved/ 
on 4 Feb. Castalio in the e Orphan,' on the 
28th Phocyas in the ' Siege of Damascus,' 
on 7 March Edwin in ' Matilda,' on 12 April 
Horatio in the ' Fair Penitent,* and on the 
23rd Othello for his benefit. He made an 
eminently favourable impression, and for 
many years played the principal tragic 
parts at the same house. From 1801 to 
1803, in which year he returned to Covent 
Garden, he was at Drury Lane, where he 
reappeared in 181 2, remaining there until his 
retirement from the stage. He was in 1824 
at the Haymarket, and made occasional ap- 
pearances in the country, especially in Edin- 
burgh, where he was a favourite. During 
these years he was seen at one or other 
house in an entire round of parts, chiefly 
tragic. In Shakespeare alone he played An- 
tonio, Banquo, King Henry in ' Richard the 
Third,' Bassanio, lachimo, Leontes, Romeo, 





otspur, Wolsoy, Richmond, MacduiF, Loar, 
..mulct, Ford, PostlmnuiH, Tullus Autidius, 
GhoHt iii'Jlamh< Himry VlIF, Polixonos, 
MaohotU, Proteus, Antipholus of Hyrauiw, 
Antonio, Intfo, John of Gaunt, King 
Horny VI, ITutyrt, Friar Lawroucn, Ivont, 
Nanis'hrd Duke in * As you liko it; and 
King of Fnuuw in 'Kinff John.' A list of 
all tho p'uuwa in which ho was soon would 
be a simple nomt>nc.luture, of tho plays thou 
in fashion. Tho principal autorn of tho (jar- 
rick period had with ono or two oxr.eptioiiH 
disappeared, and, except for tho KombloK, 
PopH had at tho outsut littlo formidable 
rivalry to o.neountor. Ho marritH.1 in Dublin, 
in Au'gufit . 17H5, ttlizabelh Youngo, [HOC Poi% 
EMXA imru], a ludymiuih his senior, 

Tho first original character uumpuul Popo 
at Co vent (lardon HO.OHIH to havo boou St. 
Preu.x in Uoynolds'H unpriutod tra#ody of 
Kloiaa,' 28 Doc. 178(1 ; tho sucond was Has- 
wiill in Mrs, rnchbald's 'Such Tiling ares' 
10 Fob. 1787. At this period Popo was 
assigned a wider rango oi parts than wan 
aftorwarda allotted him, and nlayc.d Bo- 
vorloy in tho Mlamo-Ktor, 1 Lord Morolovo 
in tho ' Careless Husband/ Lord Hardy in 
the ' FunoraV 1-ord Townly in i\w * Pro- 
vokod llurtband/ Younff Bulmout in \,\M\ 
( Foundling,' Young Bnvil in the UJoiiHcious 
Lovers/ and Young Mirabol in tho * Incon- 
stant.' On the first production at Oovont 
Garden of 'A King and no Kiw. f i 

Lamotto in BoadonVi i Fontainvillo Forest.' 
on io iMuroli I7i)t, and Sr. Pol in Pyo's 
of Mouux* on li) May. In \le 
of tho (^istlo' of Milos Petor 
JU Jaiu 17D5, ho was Carlos; 
in (loor^o \\ r atson 1 H 'Midland Prosorvod,' 
"Jl Fih,, thtn Karl of Pomh:'oko; in Poarcc's 
'Windsor (^iMlh/ (\ April, tho Princo of 
Walos; and in HolorofVn ' I)owrfc( l d Datigh- 
tor,' * .May, Mordant, In tho laHt-muned 
'UMM^ Popo incurred sotnn obhxpiy for break- 
\# through tradition, and playing a )>art 
with four dayw* Ht\idy iimtoa<l of tho four; 
wocks thon (Mist-oniary at tho houso. In Lnnt 
1 <>!), withJohn Kawootl ( 17H-17) [q.v.J 
(Hhurlos lnolo<lon [<(, v. |, and Joseph H<v)rjyo 
llolman \([. v. |, (.yiivo roudinjjf, iwsoorapauiod 
with inuHio, at tho KrooinuRons' Hall. Tn 
Cumberland 1 * * Dayn of Yoro/ l:i Jan. 170U, 
ho oroat-od t.ho part, of Voltimrtr, and ton 
days lator tfnvo that of Captain Kaulknor in 
Morton^ ' Way to ^i^l 1 . Married.' For his 

Fashion/ by Lady Wallace, and on 8 May 
1780 Fi'odorie Wayward in Oumlmrlands 
' School lor Widows/ Pope's salary at tho 
outs&t had risen from 8/. to 10, a wot^lc, his 
wifo's beinft twenty. At tho end of 17HS), 
oti a question of terms, ho left Ooveut Oar* 
den, to which ho roturnwl aftor an abstmco 
of three years. Ho played for tho first timt 4 
in Edinburgh on Ifi Juno 17ft, as Othello 
to tho Dosdemona of his wifti. During 
Pope's absence Mrs* Popo remained at Oovwut 
Garden* Pope reappeared as Lord Townly 
on 21 Sept, 174$ ; on 1 Dec. he was tho first 
Columbus in Morton's < Columbus, or a 
World Discovered;' on 29 Jan, 1703 tho 

buuolit, ho playod Sir (Hit's Ovwwaoh, On 
30 Jan. 171)7*110 was tho lirst OharloH in 
Morton's '(^un* for tho Iloart Aoho,' and 
4 March Sir Uuor^* Kvoiyu in Mrs. Inch- 
bahl's ( Wivos as tlu^y wotMi and Maida as 
thov ur<^' 

In MiiK'.h 1 71)7 diod Popo's first wifis FSlissjv- 
hoth,atid on iil .Ian, 17S)S ho married his 
Hoootul wil, Maria A mi tj. v, , at St. ( iooi pt*H, 
11anov<*r Squaro, In 1 \w mount into, oont inti- 
in^at (Jovont( Jardoti,hi was, on 1 1 Jan. 1708, 
thn (irst(ir<willo in Morton's 'SoorotH worth 
Knowinpfj 1 in* Ho'a mur.h to blanus 1 variously 
asHignod to Fouwick and Uolcroft, ho was, 
13 Fob., IMitvul. llo acttwl Joseph Surface, 
and on JK) May 17i)H was cant for Ilorton'u> 
in* D'mintpr^HUul Lov<s' altorod by Hull from 
Igor's* Bashful Lovor.' Owingto Pop^s 
. his part, wan rwid by llnnry Krsldue 

f W 1 i \ If / '\ i 1 ^**^\L) li^ bk.^v *#*kn 

benefit, on 2 May, he nmdo the singular selec- 
tion of Falkland in t lie ' Rivals. 1 In 17H8 -4 

Johnston [q. v/| On 1 1 <')t, 1798 Popo was 
tho lirst Fwlonek in * LovtuV Vows,' adapted 
by Mrs.Indibjihl ; on lii Jim, 1709 Ltuinard in 
liolman*H * Votary of \\Valth,' on l March 
FrwltritiU in T. Uihdin's * Kivo TluniHiind a 
Ymir/niul, \3 April, ior bin Ixmollt, Honry 
in this * Count of Hurg'undy/ trauHlatod from 
" by Mis* l*lumptn, and adnptml tbf 
ish'statfo by Popo himsulf, In Ouiu* 
^. ...... .< adaptation from Kotaubiw, 1 A Ho- 

wance of th P<mrt*wn<h Omt.ury,' 10 Jan. 
1800, Pope was Albert, and in Mortons 
t BptMid th( Plough/ 8 Fib., Sir Philip Inland* 
ford, During; this swisrw l*op was on of 
tho oipht actors who puhl'whod tho statomont 
of their GUM ngainnt tho mana^omont [HBO 
HOT*MAK, JoflKVH Owottfnol. Pnptt continued 


\tiMt | VA rft.*\-f\W+ 1 *^JH^ f jl l5 -T- - -^ - ^^.rTT r_^^ 

Alexander Seaton in Jevnin^hatn's dull tra- 
gedy, the 'Siege of Berwick/ 13 No\% 1793; 

in which lie playod for th first tim 
tings in, ' Jaue Shore/ and uo or two othwr 




parts, but was little seen ; and the following 
season transferred Ms services to Drury 
Lane, appearing on 25 Jan. 1802 as Othello, 
lie was, 2 March, the first Major Man- 
ford in Cumberland's ' Lovers' Resolutions.' 
In Dimond's ' Hero of the North,' 19 Feb. 
1803, he was the original Gustavus Vasa, 
and in Allingham's ' Marriage Promise' 
George Howard. He also played the Stran- 
ger for the first time. In Allinglmm's 
'"Hearts of Oak,' 19 Nov. 1803, he was the first 
Dorland ; in Cherry's ' Soldier's Daughter/ 
7 Feb. 1804, Malfort, jun. ; in Cumberland's 
* Sailor's Daughter/ 7 April, Captain Senta- 
mour. On 18 June 1803 the second Mrs. Pope 
had died'; in 1804 his son, a midshipman, also 
died. At the close of the season Pope was 
dismissed by the Drury Lane management, 
which had secured Master Betty [see BETTY, 
WILLIAM HENRY WEST], He had played 
very little of late, and expressed his inten- 
tion of retiring and devoting himself to 
painting. On 3 Feb. 1806, however, he re- 
appeared at Covent Garden as Othello ; in 
Cumberland's l Hint to Husbands,' 8 March 
1806, he was the original Heartright ; and 
in Manners's ' Edgar, or Caledonian Feuds/ 
9 May, the Barno of Glendore. In Cherry's 
< Peter the Great/ 8 May 1807, he was Count 

Pope married, on 25 June 1807, his third 
wife, the widow of Francis Wheatley, R.A. 
[q. v.] [see POPE, CLARA MARIA.]. After 
visiting Ireland, being robbed in Cork, and 
narrowly escaping shipwreck, he was, at 
Covent Garden, the original Count Valde- 
stein in C. Kemble's ' Wandprer/ 12 Jan. 
1808. After the burning of Covent Garden 
he played, at the Haymarket Opera House, 
the original Count " Ulric in Reynolds's 
1 Exile/JO Nov. 1808. At the smaller house 
in the Haymarket, to which the company 
migrated, he played Pierre in ' Venice Pre- 
served.' Dismissed from Covent Garden, he 
was for three years unheard of in London, 
but played at times in Edinburgh. He re- 
turned to the new house at Drury Lane, 
28 Nov. 1812, as Lord Townly; and was, 
23 Jan. 1813, the original Marquis Valclez 
in Coleridge's * Remorse.' On 11 April 1811 
he had had, at the Opera House, a benefit, 
which produced him over 700/., Mrs. Siddons 
playing for the first time Margaret of Anjou 
in the ' Earl of Warwick.' ^ On 6 Jan. 1814 
he was Colonel Samoyloii in Brown's * Na- 
rensky.' In Henry Siddons's ' Policy ' he was, 
15 Oct., Sir Harry Dorville; in Mrs. Wil- 
mot's * Ina/ 22 April 1815, he was Cenulph, 
Kean being Egbert ; and in T. Dibdin's 
'Charles the Bold/ 15 June, he was the 
Governor of Nantz; on 12 Sept. He was 


Evrard (an old man) in T. Dibdin's * Mag* 
pie/ and on 9 May 1816 St. Aldo brand in 
Maturin's 'Bertram.' In 'Richard, Duke 
of York/ compiled from the three parts of 
'King Henry VI/ he was, 22 Dec. 1817, 
Cardinal Beaufort. In the ' Bride of Aby- 
dos/ taken by Dimond from Byron, he 
played, 5 Feb. 1818, Mirza ; and in an altera- 
tion of Marlowe's ' Jew of Malta/ 24 April, 
was Farneze. The following season his 
name does not appear. On 11 Oct. 1819, 
as Strictland in the { Suspicious Husband/ 
he made what was called his c first appear- 
ance for two years.' He was Prior Aymer, 
2 March 1820, in Soanes's ' Hebrew/ a ver- 
sion of * Ivanhoe.' During the season he 
played Minutius to Kean's Virginius in an 
imprinted drama entitled * Virginius.' His 
popularity and his powers had diminished ; 
and he was now assigned subordinate parts, 
such as Zapazaw, an Indian, in * Pocahontas/ 
15 Dec. 1820. On 18 Nov. 1823hewasDrusus 
to Macready's Gains Gracchus in Sheridan 
Xnovvles's ' Cains Gracchus/ and on 5 Jan. 
1824 Lord Burleigh in * Kenil worth.' At the 
Haymarket, 16 July, he was the first Bicker- 
ton in Poole's adaptation,' Married or Single/ 
on 24 Aug. 1825 Ralph Appleton in Lunn's 
* Roses and Thorns/ and 13 Sept. Witherton 
in ' Paul Pry.' At Drury Lane, 28 Jan. 
1826, he was the first Toscar in Macfarren's 
'Malvina.' On 21 May 1827 he was the 
original Clotaire in Grattan's 'Ben Nazir 
the Saracen.' This is the last time his name 
is traced. He was not engaged after the 
season. In 1828 he applied for a pension 
from the Covent Garden Fund, to which he 
had contributed forry-four years. He ob- 
tained a grant of SQL a year, afterwards 
raised to 1007. On Thursday, 22 March 1835, 
he died at his house in Store Street, Bed- 
ford Square. He was during very many 
years a mainstay of one or other of the 
patent theatres, and was in his best days 
credited with more pathos than any Eng- 
lish actor of his time. His Othello and 
Henry VIII were held in his day unrivalled. 
Plis person was strong and well formed, and 
he had much harmony of feature, but was, 
in spite of his pathos, deficient in expres- 
sion. Leigh Hunt says that he had not one 
requisite of an actor except a good voice. 
He possessed a mellow voice and a grace- 
ful and easy deportment. Towards the close 
of his career he had sensibly declined in 

Throughout his life Pope practised minia- 
ture painting, and between 1787 and 182L 
he exhibited at the Royal Academy fifty-nine 
miniatures. A portrait by him of Michael 
Bryan [q. v.], the author of the ' Dictionary 



of Painters ami Kngravorn/ wns engraved as 
A frontispiece to the original quarto edition 
of that work, tint! nuniy other portraits by 
liim havu been engraved, including those of 
"Henry Urattan, John Boydcll, Henry Tres- 
ham/Lewis the ac.tor, ami Mrs. Orwieh. 1 le 
engraved a nw/zolint plate from a picture by 
himself, entitled ' Loolc before you leap,' 

Pojte was a confirmed gourmand, find Hpimt 
in good living 1 ) and, it is said, in bribing his 
criticH, the handsome properly he obtained 
with his WIVOH. So iwrly an LHll ho had 
fallen into Btraits, from which, in spite of 
tin* assistnnee of his brother actors notably 
Kdmund Koan- -he never recovered. Keari, 
asking 1 Pone to join him in Dublin, and 
promising nim a great benefit, received tho 
answer, ' I tnUHt bo at Plymouth at the tune; 
it is exactly the Kason for mull^t*Ml(tftiMidtMl 
peoploof difltinction and influence by bin pm- 
ensions,refufling to nit with Oat alatii because 
tihacxit a fricandeau with alwifo ; and order- 
ing 1 expfcnwive luxuries, for which he did not 
Efty, to be Btmfc in to IKMHOH to which hn waft 
i(\don. Many of tho8n Htorios ar<j probably 
coloured, if not apocryphal ; but thorn i*H 
abundant proof of Inn ^ propt^iHitioH. 

Portrait H of Popt* by SharpiMiH llotiry VIM, 
by Dupont iw Hamlnt, anu by Stnwart, ar 
in the Mat hows collection of pictures in tho 
Garritsk Club* Another, (pfravd by (lamp, 
after Richardson, in givu in Ilurding'H 
' Shakptar, f 1793. 

[Maiinjyer* Notebook; Gonwt' Account of 
the Knfflwh iStapfo; IHotyraphia Dramutieaj 
Oillihind'M Dramatic Mirror; Obirk KUHS<U' 
Roproswitatm* Acrorn; Dramatic KHHa> by 
Loij^h Hunt, od. Arohor and Lowo; liod^ravu'H 
Diet, of Artist; PaHqnm'ti Arti^tH of Jrolaud. 
p. 80; G-ont, HMD;, 185, i. 000; R^istc-rH of 
MiirrtHp^H, St, (Joot-jufp's, Hanovor Sqnaro, ii t 
176, M(); and intoiwution kindly supplied by 
K M, O'Donoghuo, OH<I,] J. K. 

POPE, CFAllA MARIA (rf. 1888), 
painter, and third wife of the actor, Alexan- 
der Popo [q. v], wna a daug-liti^r of Jurod 
Leigh [q. v'.J, an amutour artit, and nwrriod 
at an early ago Francis Whoatley [q. v.], the 
painter, whom she fiorvod a xnoatd for all 
his prettiest fancy fipuroa. In 1801 Hhe was 
left a widow with a iatnily of daughters ; and 
on 25 June 1 807 married, aa hit* third wife, 
Alexander Pope fq. v,], tho actor and artist, 
In 1796, while Mr." "Whoatloy, she com- 
menced exhibiting at the Royal Academy, 
her first contributions being miniatures; 
later she sent rustic subjects with figures of 
children, such as * Little Rod Kidmg-hood/ 
* Goody Two-shoes,' and ' Children going to 
Market,' In 1812 Mrs. Pope exhibited a 
whole-length drawing of Mauamo Catulaai, 

of which who published an oxcellout en- 
Krnvintf by^A, (tanlon. During tho kttor 
part of hir lifo wlin enjoyed a groat reputation 
tor her gr<uij)H of HO\V<TH, of which nho was 
an annual exhibitor from 1810 until her 
death. She died at her residence, siO Store 
StriMjt., London, on a4 Dec. 1KJ8. Two por- 
traits of Mrs. l*o]s paint ml by her first 
httshand, wore engraved by Htanier and 

[H<Mltrruvo*H Diet of Artista; OravoM'ft Diet. 
of Artist H, 1700 -1880; l>nutio Mas, January 
18JU); Iloyal Anuiei CataloguoH ; Gout. Ma*. 


18110, pt, i. p, 217,] 

KM. O'D. 

actrress, and first wife of Alexander Popo 
|n. v.] the actor, was born about 1744 near 
Old H ravel Lane, South wark. 1 lor parents 
are said to have been named Youuge, In 
girlhood nhe \VUN apprenticed to a milliner. 
Furnished wilh a letter of introduction, 
li<> went, to (), who, plensed with her 
abilities, put. her forward. As 4 Mm Younge* 
she made accordingly, at Drury Lane on 
ii^ Oc.t. 17(H, her first a|>p(Mii*anco ttpon any 
Hta^t% in the part of liuo^^n. 8he won im- 
ine<ltato recognition, and, tho death of Mrs, 
Hannah Pritehard |q, v,] furnishing an open-* 
ing for her was assigned many leading cha- 
racters. In her first, season slie played Jane 
Shore and Perdita, and WUH, on 17 Doc., the 
original Ovisa, the hroine of Dow's tragedy 
of */an^is.' The following nensou (hirrick 
koi>t her closely occupied, exhibiting her aa 
Juliet, Mniyaret (presumably) in *A, New- 
Way to Pay Old Debts/ X,hnena in the 
4 Mourning Bride/ Selima in 'Tamerlane/ 
Maria in the * London Merchant/ Lady 
Anno in * Richard ni/Alomena in 'Am- 

in the * Tender Husband/ Leonora in the 

'Doublo Falstshood/ Lady Chariot in the 
' Funeral/ Calinta in the * Fair Penitent/ 
Miranda hi the * Tempest/ Mrs, Kiteley in 
* Every Man in his Humour/ and Lady 
Fandtul in tlw * Provoked Wife/ Sho wan 
also, on t$ March 1770, tho original Miss 
Dormer in Kelly's * Word to the Wine,' 
Not a fmv of these parts were in high comedy. 
She also recited * Buckft, liavo at you all/ 
altered for hur by the author. In the sum- 
mer of 1700 ahu played under Lovo at Rich- 
mond. On a question of torms, Garrick 
parted with Uor. Engaged by Dawsonfor 
tho Crow Street Theatre, then rochristened 
the Capel Htvet Theatre, ho wont to Dublin, 
whww silo mad her appearance aa Jane 
Shore early in 177JU She played with con- 




sptcuous success many characters in tragedy 
and comedy, added to her repertory Char- 
lotte Rusport in the * West Indian ' and 
Fatima in 'Cymon/ and was the original 
Lady Rodolpha in Mackliri's ' True-born 
Scotchman/ subsequently converted into the 

* Man of the World.' Returning to Garrick, 
one of whose chief supports and torments 
she was destined to "become, she reappeared 
at Drury Lane as Imogen on 26 Sept. 1771. 
Here, with occasional trips to the country, 
she remained eight years, playing an almost 
exhaustive round of parts. She did not leave 
Drury Lane until after Garrick's retirement, 
In a list of her characters appear Monimia in 
the l Orphan,' Zara in the * Mourning Bride/ 
Aspasia, Rosalind, Desdemona, Cleopatra in 

* All for Love,' Merope, Lady Macbeth, Cor- 
delia, Portia, Fidelia in the * Plain Dealer/ 
Roxana, Lady Brute, Lady Plyant, Mrs. Sul- 
len, Bellario in ' Philaster/ Hermione in the 

* Distressed Mother/ Mrs. Oakley, Lydia Lan- 
guish, and innumerable others. Her original 
characters during this period include Lady 
Margaret Sinclair in O'Brien's comedy * The 
Duel/ 8 Dec. 1772; Emily (the Maid of Kent) 
in Waldron's < Maid of Kent/ 17 May 1773 ; 
Mrs. Belville in Kelly's ' School for Wives/ 
11 Dec. 1773; Matilda in Dr. Franklin's 
'.Matilda/ 21 Jan. 1775 ; Bella in Mrs. Cow- 
ley's * Runaway/ 15 Feb. J 776 ; Margaret in 
Jerningham's ' Margaret of Anjou/ 11 March 
1777 ; Matilda in Cumberland's * Battle of 
Hastings/ 24 Jan. 1778; Miss Boncour in 
Fielding's 'Fathers, or the Good-natured 
Man/ 30 Nov. 1778 ; the Princess in Jeph- 
son's 'Law of Lombardy/ 8 Feb. 1779. 
On 16 Oct. 1778 she played at Covent Gar- 
den, as Miss Younge from Drury Lane, 
Queen Katharine in ' King Henry VIII,* 
and on 6 May 1779, at the same house, was 
the original Emmelina in Hannah More's 
f Fatal Falsehood.' At Covent Garden she 
remained during the rest of her stage career. 

The entire range of tragedy and comedy 
remained open to her, and very numerous 
were the leading parts she sustained. In 
an alteration of Massinger's ' Duke of Milan/ 
attributed to Cumberland, she was, on 10 Nov. 
1779, the first Marcelia, and on 22 Feb. 1780 
the original Lsetitia Hardy in Mrs. Cowley's 
1 Belle's Stratagem/ to the conspicuous suc- 
cess of which she largely contributed. When 
the censor at last permitted the representation 
of Macklin's ' Man of the World/ she was, on 
J4 April 1781, Lady Rudolpha Lumbercourt. 
Clara in Holcroft's * Duplicity/ the Countess 
in Jephson's * Countess of Narbonne/ Ladj 
Bell Bloomer in Mrs. Cowley's ' Which is 
the Man? ' were the original parts of 1781-2 ; 
Euphemia (presumably) in Bentley's ' Pliilo- 

damus' and Lady Davenant in Cumberland's 

* Mysterious Husband/ those of the follow- 
ing season; and Sophia in the 'Magic Pic- 
ture/altered from Massinger by the Rev. H. 
Bates, and Miss Archer in Mrs. Cowley's 
< More Ways than One/ those of 1783-4. 
On 14 Dec. 1784 she was the first Susan in 

* Follies of a Day/ Holcroft's translation of 
' Le Mariage de Figaxo ' of Beaumarchais. A 
long succession of original characters of little 
interest folio ws. On 5 May 1786, as Mrs. Pope, 
late Miss Younge, she played for her hus- 
band's benefit Zenobia. Her marriage with a 
man so much her junior as Alexander Pope 
[q.v.] caused much comment, and did not 
contribute to her happiness (cf. Theatrical 
Manager's Notebook). Zenobia was a solitary 
appearance during the season in which, pre- 
sumably on account of her marriage, she 
was not engaged. On 25 Sept. 1786 she re- 
appeared as Mrs. Beverley in the ' Gamester/ 
and on 25 Oct. played for the first time Lady- 
Fanciful in the 'Provoked Wife/ and on. 
15 Nov. Angelica (with a song) in ' Love 
for Love.' She was, on 18 Nov., the original 
Charlotte in Pilon's 'He would be a Sol- 
dier. 1 On 10 Feb. 1787 she was the first 
Female Prisoner in Mrs. Inehbald's l Such. 
Things are.' On 21 May she played Her- 
mione to her husband's Leontes. The fol- 
lowing season she was principally seen in 
tragedv, adding to her repertory Lady Ran- 
dolph in ' Douglas ' and the Lady in * Co- 
mus.' On 3 Dec. 1791 she was the original 
Alexina in Mrs. Cowley's * A Day in Turkey.* 
In the season she played for the first time 
Medea. In the following season she was the 
original Cora in Morton's * Columbus/ Lady 
Eleanor Irwin in Mrs. Inehbald's 'Everyone 
has his Fault/ and Lady Henrietta in Rey- 
nolds's ' How to grow Rich/ and on 13 Nov. 
1793 was the first Ethelberta in Jerningham's 
tragedy, * The Siege of Berwick.' It had long 
been the custom to assign her the parts of 
ladies of title or fashion. She was accordingly 
assigned Lady Fancourt in Holcroft's 'Love's 
Frailties/ Lady Horatia Horton (a sculptor) 
in Mrs. Cowley's ' Town before You/ Lady 
Torrendel in O'Keeffe's * Life's Vagaries/ and 
Lady Ann in Holcroft's ' Deserted Daughter/ 
She also played Adeline in Boaden's ' Fon- 
tainville Forest/ 25 March 1794 ; Matilda in 
Pye's Siege of Meaux/ 19 May 1794 ; Mrs. 
Daruley in Reynolds's ' Rage/ 23 Oct. 1794 ; 
Adela in Cumberland's 'Days of Yore/ 
18 Jan, 1796 ; and Ellen Vortex in Morton's 
'Cure for the Heartache/ 10 Jan. 1797. 
This was her last original part. Her name 
appeared to this character on 26 Jan., "being 
her last appearance in the bills. On the 31 st 
Ellen Vortex was played by Miss Mansel, 




> Pope died on 15 March following, in Half 
Moon Ntreet, Piccadilly, and WIIH buried on 
the west side of the cloisters of Westmiu- 
Htor Abbey, near Spran^er Barry [q. v.] and 
'Kitty' Olivn. Sho had twenty guineas a 
week from Oovent Harden, find left behind 
lier to her husband twenty-two yeans her 
junior over 7,000. and hor homsu in Half 
Moon Stwot. 

Mrs. Pope was not, otily one of the bril- 
liant stars in the constellation of which 
Uarriek was the centre she was one of the 
foremost of TOnjylifth actroHson. Hhe had to 
encounter the formidable competition of 
Mrs. Siddons [q.v.] in tragedy, and Miss 
Farron in comedy. Her Lady Macbeth, 
Kuphraswi, Calista, and Jane Shore were in- 
ferior to those of Mrs. 8iddon, who sur- 
passed her in power, energy, conception, 
nwjosty, and expressiveness, and in all tragic 
and most pathetic gifts ; and hor JCstifania, 
Mrs. Sullen, and Glorindu were inferior to 
those of Miss Farren. 31 or ran#t was, how- 
over, wider than that, of either, She wan 
invariably excellent in a remarkable variety 
of characters, and was held on account of 
those tilings not only the most useful but 
the principal all-round actress of her day. 
In comedy she WIIH different from, hub not 
in the main inferior to, MIHH Furren, Tu 
tragedy she was at times declamatory, though 
her delivery was always audible and gene- 
rally judicious. In addition to ease, spirit., 
mid vivacity, she displayed in comic charac- 
ters close observation of nature ; her delivery 
imparted life to indilferent dialogue, and de- 
prived the dialogue, of the Uastorution dra- 
matists of much of its obscenity, J lor Portia 
was greatly praised, and in the portrayal of 
distressed wives and mothers, tut Lady 'Anno 
Mordant, Mrs, Kiuston, Lady Eleanor Invin, 
&c,, she distant^ed all competitorfi. L?titia 
Ilardy was perhaps her moat bewitching per- 

George III is said to have detected in tbo 
actress a close resemblance to the goddess of 
his early idolatry, Lady Sarah Lennox [wee 
tinder IOTNOX, OUAKLHS, second DUKM OF 
HICHHONP], Her features were soft, her oyes 
"bine, and her complexion delicate. She waa 
commanding in stature, but pliant, Her 
Toice was powerful Sho was never accused 
of imitation, and of all Garrich's pupils in 
said to have most nearly approached her 
master, Hor private life was irreproach- 
able, and her manners pleasing. Garrick 
treated her with respect, but without much 
affection. Playing Lear to her Cordelia on 
8 June 1776, his last appearance but one on 
the stage, Garrick said with a sigh, after the 
performance, 'Ah, Bess I this is the last time 

of my being your father ; you must now look 
out for some one else to adopt you/ * Tlien 
sir/ she isaid, falling 1 on hor knees, ' #ive ma 
a father's blewwin^.' Greatly moved, Oarrick 
raised hor up and twid, ' (U>d bless you I* 

A portrait by Oupout, as Montana in 
the * Orphan,' w in the (Wrick Club. A 
print, of hor, by Robnrt Laurie, us JMiss 
Yountf|*j], was published ou 1 iM arch 1780. 
A portrait aw Viola with 1 >odd aw Wir Andrew" 
Love (Dance) us Sir Toby, and Waldron as 
Fabitui, was painted by ' Francis Wheatley, 
and mijf raved by J. U.* Smith, Others are 
mentioned by Bromley* 

f<UMu-Mt'H Account ^ of tho Kn^li8h Stago; 
Monthly Mirror, vol. iii. ; IMKwitriwU Manager's 
Notohook ; MniMiroiji and TluMit.riwil Magtusino; 
{liHilutul'H Dmmntie Mirror; Thospian Dic- 
tionary; Wheatloy mid Ounninpjham's London 
J*aNt and i^^iHcnt; iIt^SM<'M London; Knight's 
(inrrick; tho (hu-riokC'OrroMponilciuto; Oluwter's 
cr Ablmy Ut^iHtorH, p, 

'K AriualH (d. lj<>w).| J. 

POPE, MiHH,}ArsfK(17-iL>-lH18X nctreas, 
born in 17-l'J, wan tho dung'htnr of William 
Pop(,who Itopt a ImmltVNHor'H Hhopin Ijittle 
HusHoll StrtM>(, ( -ovont ( JnrdtMi, adjoining the 
lion Jnnson'H llnid, and was barker in ordi- 
nary and wifj^nmltur to tht nc.t.orn at Drury 
LMW* <lurriak on ii Dnc, 17o<$ broupfht out 
at Drury Lano hiH ono-act ntrl ahunent 
' Lilliput ,* actod, an rt^artlwl all characters 
xo|)t (Jullivor, by children. In thiw Mm 
Pojw, thn fdurtt^m t vtarH of apfe, played 
Laltum, < J ulUvnr*H houHokiup(r. Vanbrugh's 
1 (3o)if(!dt'.rao.y ' wa uct4l at the name honso 
U7 Oct. 17oi), whon aw Uorlmm Mia Pope,aa 
*a youiijy tfimtlmvoman/ made her iirnt defi- 
nite ajennince. On JJ1 Dec, nho waB the 

original Dolly Rnit> in (ilarriek'n' Harlequins 
Invanitm/ She played ndiuirably a part in 
which HhnwttH succi^nhnl sixty years lator 
by Mttdamcj ViwtriH (Mrn Lucia KUxaboth 
Mathews [q. v."]) She took during the sea 
IHH Biddy in * Muw in her Teenw,* Miss P 

iti *Love for 


Mm Notable in the 

* Lady's Lnwt Stake/ and MIKH Jenny in the 

* Provoked HuHhnnd.' Cherry in the 'Beaux' 
Stratagem' wan allotted her next fltmson, 
and he gained great npplauHO as the original 
Polly Ilonovcombe in (Jolman'a piece so 

........ * t i\ N i . . _ t . . . . ... t w/t rt r> ...... i.,^ 

in the ' Apprwwtico,' flhe ajppearedj for her 
benufit, as JJeatrice to tho Benedick of 
Garrick in ' Much Ado about Nothing/ A 
full liftt of the very numerous characters in 
which she was seen in given bv Genest, 
Those are all comic, and were an given at 




Drury Lane, to the management of which 
Louse during her long stage life she re- 
mained faithful. A selection from these 
characters will suffice. Lucetta in the ' Two 
Gentlemen of Verona/ Widow Belmour in 
the ' Way to keep him/ Elvira in the 
' Spanish Fryar/ Violante in the ' Wonder/ 
Phillis in the * Conscious Lovers/ Olivia in 
the ' Plain Dealer/ Mrs. Oakly in the ' Jealous 
Wife/ Patch in the 'Busy body /Lady Brump- 
ton in the ' Funeral/ Lucy in the * Guar- 
dian/ Margery in ' Love in a Village/ Catha- 
rine in * Catharine and Petruchio/ Lsetitia 
in the ' Old Bachelor/ Mrs. Page, Mrs. 
Frail in 'Love for Love/ Lucy Locket in 
the * Beggars 1 Opera/ and Abigail in the 
'Drummer/ are a few only of the parts 
in which, under Garrick's management or 
supervision, she kept up the traditions of 
the stage. Principal among her original 
parts were Lady Flutter in Mrs. Sheridan's 
< Discovery/ 3 Feb. 1763 ; Emily in Colman T s 
* Deuce is in Him/ 4 Nov. 1763; Miss Ster- 
ling in the ' Clandestine Marriage' of Col- 
man and Garrick/ 20 Feb. 1766; Lucy in 
the ( Country Girl/ altered by Garrick from 
the < Country Wife/ 25 Oct. 1766 ; Molly in 
dolman's < English Merchant/ 21 Feb. 1767. 
In the < Jubilee ' of Garrick, 14 Oct. 1769, 
she danced in the pageant as Beatrice (she 
was an excellent dancer) ; Patty in Wal- 
dron's 'Maid of Kent/ 17 May 1773 ; Dorcas 
Zeal, the heroine in a revived version of 
the 'Fair Quaker/ 9 Nov. 1773; Lucy in 
Cumberland's* Choleric Man/ 19 Dec. 1774 ; 
and Lady Minikin in Garrick's ' Bon Ton/ 
18 March 1775. 

In the season of 1775-6 she was, for pecu- 
niary reasons, not engaged, this being the 
only season in which, between her first regular 
engagement and her retirement, she was 
absent from the boards. She went to Ire- 
land, made persistent advances to Garrick, 
and, at the intercession of Kitty Clive, was 
reinstated. She reappeared, 3 Oct. 1776, as 
Miss Sterling in the ' Fair Penitent/ and, 
after playing Mrs. Frail in ' Love for Love * 
and Muslin in the ' Way to keep him/ was, 
8 May 1777, Mrs. Candour in the immortal 
first performance of the * School for Scandal/ 
She had by this time grown stout, and was 
accordingly the subject of some banter. Her 
success was, however, unquestioned, and for 
some years subsequently the name of Mrs. 
Candour clung to her. She lived, it may here 
be recorded, to play the part for her benefit, 
22 May 1805, when she was the only one 
of the original cast still left on the stage. 

^y ^f 

Many important parts were now assigned her: 
Ruth in the ' Committee/ Lady Fanciful .in 
the c Provoked Wife/ and Lady Lure well ia 

the * Constant Couple/ and, on 29 Oct. 1779, 
she created a second of Sheridan's popular 
characters, being the original Tilburina in the 
' Critic.' If the original parts subsequently 
assigned her were of little interest, the 
fault was not hers. The best among them, 
if there is any best in the matter, are Phillis 
in the ' Generous Impostor/ 22 Nov. 1780, 
by Thomas Lewis O'Beirne [q. v.], subse- 
quently bishop of Meath ; Lady Betty Worm- 
wood in 'Reparation/ 14 Feb. 1784; Phcebe 
Latimer in Cumberland's * Natural Son/ 
22 Dec. ; Miss Alscrip in Burgoy ne's ' Heiress/ 
14 Jan. 1786 ; Mrs. Modely in Holcroft's * Se- 
duction/ 12 March 1787 ; Diary in ' Better 
late than never/ by Reynolds and Andrews, 
17 Nov. 1790 ; while, with the Drury Lane 
company at the Haymarket, she was the origi- 
nal Mrs. Larron in Bichardson's * Fugitive/ 
20 April 1792. Returning to Drury Lane, 
she made her first reappearance in her great 
part of Audrey. She was the first Lady Plin 
limmon in Jerningham's 'Welch Heiress/ 
17 April 1795 ; Lady Taunton in Holcroit's 
' Man of Ten Thousand/ 23 Jan. 1796. Next 
season she was successful in Mrs. Malaprop, 
of which she was not the original exponent. 
In 1801-SJ she played for the nrst time the 
JDuenna, and essayed, at the command of 
George III, what was perhaps her greatest 
role, Mrs, Heidelberg in the * Clandestine 
Marriage.' The king having expressed a 
wish to see it the previous season, she had 
studied the part in the summer. A very 
great number of important characters belong 
to her entire career, the most remarkable 
performance of her closing years being Lady 
Lambert in the * Hypocrite. 1 Her last 

original part was Dowager Lady Morelove 
in Miss Lee's 'Assignation/ 28 Jan. 1807. 
Upon her retirement she chose for her benefit 
and last appearance, 26 May 1808, Deborah 
Dowlas, in the t Heir-at-Law/ a choice 
that incurred some condemnation. She spoke, 
in the character of Audrey, a farewell ad- 
dress which was not regarded as very happy. 
After her retirement she quitted the house 
in Great Queen Street where she had long 
resided, two doors from the Freemasons' 
Tavern, and went to Newman Street. She 
then removed to 25, and afterwards to 17, St. 
Michael's Place, Brompton, and died thera 
SO July 1818. 

Miss Pope's forte was in soubrettes, prin- 
cipally of the pert order, her greatest parts 
being Corinna, Dolly Scrap, Polly Honey- 
combej Olivia in the l Plain Dealer/ Phillis, 
Patchy Mrs. Doggerell, Foible, Flippanta, 
Lappet; Kitty in 'High Life below Stairs/ 
Mrs. Frail, Muslin, Mrs. Candour, Tilburina, 
Audrey, Lady Dove, and Mrs, Heidelberg, 



Many of those parts she played at sixty with 
the upright linessof sixteen. Churchill praiaed 
her warmly in tho * Konciiul :* 

With nil tho inorry vigour of flixteon, 
Among the merry t roop conspicuous scon, 
fto lively Popo advance in jig and trip* 
Coriimn, (Jhorry, llonoyeomb, and Siup. 
Not without irt, and yet to nature true., 
She churniH tho town with humour over now. 
OhorrM by ln-r pr<Hcim% wo tho IOHH deplore 
Tho tut aft i mo when Oliro Hhall bo no more, 

Charles Lamb doscribi'ft her us * a gtmtln- 
<woman ever, with (Jhurehill'H complimtnt; 
utill burmnliing upon her gny honeycomb 
lips,' and also UH * tho perfect gentlewoman 
UK dintingnished from the fino ludy of co- 
medy/ Hazlitt callw her * tho very pictnro 
x)f a dwmna, a inaidin ludy, or antiquated 
dowager,' and Leigh Hunt Mm aet resn of tho 
lughost order for dry humour/ Oul ton de- 
clared hor without a rival in dnennan, and 
the author of tho 'Green Room/ in 1790, 
deolaroH that tho nnuHtion for criticism in 
jiot whore she i tloiicumt, hut \vhero H!IO 
luost oxcols ; and whilo hesitating as to hor 
general o<iuulity with Mm, Clivo, and din* 
put ing her value in farce, tlw name writer 
attributes hor excel leneo to nutural geniiin, 
and holds her up as an examplo 'howinii* 
nitoly a comedian can ploao without tho 
least tinctures of grimaeo or bntloonory, or 
tho slightest opposition to nature.* llor fea- 
tures were naturally, ho says, neither good 
nor flexible* 

A, careful and worthy woman, Mis Pope 
Jived and died respectecl, and the stage pro- 
sent H few charactnrs HO attractive. .Besides 
keeping h(,r father, whom nho induced to 

itire from his occupation, she put by monoy 
to (mnblo hor to retire as soon as 

fthp perceived a failure of memory, She con- 
ceived a romantic attachment to Charles 
Holland (17B8 4849 ?)[<! v.'| tho comedian, 
with whom glut had amisuntluwtanding, Who 
was also cmffotfttd to John Ttjuroo (17ti7- 
17U7), a BtocU broker, but brolto oil* the u- 
gugement when Peurco made hr rutirtmnmt 
from the Htoge a condition of naarriage. 
She always tmtcrtam&d H kiudly feeling for 
Pearce, who died unmarried in 1797 (Sat 
!R. E. PBA.HOB, Family Ifawfa) pp* 22, (M). 
She made at her first appoarance, and rotaiue'd 
to the ond, tho friendship of * Kitty ' Olive, to 
whom site erected a monument in Twicktw* 
liai^ churchy ar4* With the single excep* 
,tion of * Gentleman ' Smith, rfie wa8 the last 
fiurrivor of GavricVa company. The stage 
presents few characters so attractive as this 
'estimable woman and excellent actress, 

!W picture, by Roberts, as Mrs, Ford in 
tlie 'Horry Wives of Windsor/ is iw tho 

JMnthewH collection in tho (Jarrick Club' 
wlueli inolu<les nHe<r,otid picture by the aame 
arlist,. A half-length engraving, by llobert 
Laurio |.v/],ift moutiomuliu Smith's * Oata- 
loguo,* l\Iks \\>]M xtract.tMl out of Mrs, 

Sheridan \s * Diwe.overy J a farco called ' The 
Young Couple/ in which, for her benefit, 
Him appeared on iil April ,1707, pre.Himxably 
an Lady Flutter. It wiw not printed. 

Aoccmnt of tho Ku^linh Stage; 

Dmmatica; Managw'H Notebook; 
HiHtory of tho Htogo; Oarrick Cor- 

POPE, Mm MARIA ANN(177r>~lR08), 
actreHH, and wocond wife of tho actor, Alex- 
audor Po]o ( 17<?:$ -18,%) [q.v.],bom in 1775 
in Watorford, wan the dau^ of ' a mer- 
chant' mtnxul (/aiupiou, a motnbor of an old 
Cork family. Aftnr h<n* fat.hor f n death she 
was educated by a relative, and, having a 
Htrontf diNptmitinn for thn ntagn, wan 

by Hitchcock for Daley, manager of the 
(Jrow Ht reet Thcat re, Dublin. I lere a.s Moni- 
mia iti tho * Orphan/ having only, it is aaid, 
wm two thentri<utl rnprcwentationB in her 
lilo, Hhe ittdt in l7Uii a MirHt apptjarunce 
on any rttugn,' So timid wan nho that 8he 
had to bo thniHt on t<ht^ boards, and im* 
mediately fa'mtwl Uocovoring hcrHolf, she 
played with fluwMH, and WUH rapidly pro- 
moted to bo tho heroino of tho Irinh Htage* 
Frederick Kdward Jomm [q. y,l then engaged 
her for bin private, theatre in Kmhamblo Street, 
Ju York Kite playod under tho naino of Mrs, 
Spoiwor, and sfio aftorwardH started on & 
journey for America, which who abandoned, 
roturnmg onct* more to Dublin. Hwro at the 
Theatro Hoyal ho xnt^t William Thomas 
LmvtH [o, v. |, who, pUtotuul with hor abilities, 
procurtid hor an wngagemont at Oovent (lar- 
don, whore, a Mrn Hpimnor from Dublin, she 
mndo hor llrwt appoaranoo l5H)ct, 1797, play* 
ing Moninua iu tho * ( h))han/ On Si Nov. she 
phiyodJuliot to tho Komoo of Ilonry Brnkine 
JohtiHton fqu v. j and tho Morcutio of Lewis, 
on tholHt liindiantiin tho ' Conscious Lovers/ 
on the 2()th Cordelia to tho Lear of Charles 
M urray [q, v.] On a Jan. 1798, in 'Secrets 
worth 'knowing,' nho was announced as Mrs* 
Popo, lato Mrn, Sponntir, Hor marriap to 
l*opw, to whom who brought an incomo of 200/. 
a year, took plaeo two days earlior at St. 
GoorguX Hnnovor Rquaro, On 13 Fob. sho 
wa tho original Maria in * He's much to 
blamo/ attributed to Holeroft, and alno to 
John Ftwwiok, Jane Shore, Lady Amaranth 
In Wild Oata, 1 Varico in Inkle and Yarico,' 
Lady Eioimor Irwui in * JEv<jry ouo 



Fault/ Indamora in the ' "Widow of Malabar/ 
Arabella in * Such Things are/ and Julia in 
the ' Rivals/ were played during the season, in 
which she had original parts in * Curiosity' 
by * the late king of Sweden ' (G-ustavusIII), 
and Cumberland's 'Eccentric Lover,' and 
was the first Princess of Mantua in 'Dis- 
interested Love/ taken by Hall from Mas- 
singer. On 15 Oct. 1798 she was Desdemona, 
and 12 Jan. 1799 the original Julia in Hoi- 
man's ' Votary of Wealth.' On 1C March she 
was the first Lady Julia in T. I Hbdin's * Five 
Thousand a Year/ and, 8 April, Emma in 
' Bi rthday/ by the same author. She probably 
played Elizabeth in the ' Count of Burgundy/ 
from Kotzebue, and was Mrs. Dervilla in 
' What is she ? 7 by a lady. For her benefit 
she played the Queen in * King Henry VIII.' 
Next season saw her in Cordelia, 29 Oct. 1799. 
Two days later she was Juliana in Reynolds's 
* Management.' On 16 Jan. 1800 she was 
the first Joanna of Montfaucon in * Joanna, a 
J lomance of the Fourteenth Century/ adapted 
by Cumberland from Kotzebue. One or two 
unimportant characters followed, and on 
18 May 1800 she was Imogen and Amanthis 
in the ' Child of Nature. 7 In 1801 she accom- 
panied her husband to Drury Lane, where, as 
J uliet, she made her first appearance on 1 Feb. 
On 2 March she was Lady Caroline Malcolm in 
the first production of Cumberland's * Serious 
Resolution.' She also played Mrs. Lovemore 
in the ' Way to keep him.' On 14 Oct. 1802 
she played Mrs. Beverley, on 9 Dec. Belvi- 
dera in * Venice Preserved/ on 29 Jan. 1803 
she was the first Caroline in Holcroft's ' Hear 
both Sides/ and on 4 May she was Mrs. Haller 
in the 'Stranger.' OnlOJune,playingDesde- 
mona, she was taken ill in the third act, and 
her place was taken by Mrs. Ansell, the 
Emilia. She was thought to be recovering, 
but on the 18th she had a fit of apoplexy, 
and expired in Half Moon Street, Piccadilly. 
She was buried on the 25th, in the same grave 
with her husband's first wife, Elizabeth Pope 
[q. v.], in Westminster Abbey. She was slender 
in figure and finely proportioned, had a sweet 
face and expression, a retentive memory, and 
a clear voice. She was credited in private 
with a good heart and engaging manners. 
She was an acceptable actress, but inferior 
in all respects to the first Mrs. Pope. The 
chief characteristics of her acting were ten- 
derness and pathos. A portrait by Sir 
Martin Archer Shee is in the Garrick Club. 
A three-quarter-length portrait by Shee, en- 
graved by William Ward, was dated 1 April 

[Genest's Account of the English Stage ; Man- 
ager's Notebook; Monthly Mirror, vol. xvi. ; 
(jiJilund's Dramatic Mirror; Thespian Diet,; 

Smith's Cat.; Chester's Westminster Abbey 
Eegisters, p. 469 ; Marriage Registers of St. 
George's, Hanover Square, ii. 76.] J. K. 

POPE, Sin THOMAS (1507 P-1559), 
founder of Trinity College, Oxford, was elder 
son of William Pope, a small landowner at 
Deddington, near Banbury, by his second wife, 
Margaret(d. 1557), daught er of Edmund Yate 
of Standlake. The Pope family, originally 
of Kent, had been settled in North Oxford- 
shire from about 1400 (E. MAKSHALL, North 
Oxf. Arch. Soc. 1878, pp. 14-17). Thomas 
was about sixteen at the time of his father's 
death on 16 March 1523 (see Will and 
Inquis. post mortem 15 Sept. 1523, in WAB- 
TON, App. i. and ii.*) His mother afterwards 
married John Bustard of Adderbury (d. 1534). 

Thomas was educated at Banbury school 
and at Eton College (see Statutes of Trin* 
Coll. c. vii.), was subsequently articled to Mr. 
Croke (? Richard, comptroller of the hanaper), 
and by 1532 was one of the lower officials in 
the court of chancery. He seems to have 
risen by favour of Lord-chancellor Thomas 
Audley [q. v.], in whose house he was domi- 
ciled in 1535, and is described as his 'servant* 
in a letter of 28 March 1536 (Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII, x. 223). He and Sir 
Edward North were Audley's executors and 
residuary legatees. Pope was also on terms 
of intimacy with Sir Thomas More, to whom, 
on 5 July 1535, he brought the news that he 
was to be beheaded on the following day (see 
WABTON, pp. 33-4). 

On 5 Oct. 1532 Pope received a grant of 
the office of clerk of briefs in the Star-cham- 
ber, and on 16 Oct. 1532 he was granted the 
reversion of the valuable clerkship of the 
crown in chancery {Letters and Papers of 
Henry Till, v. 642, XIH. ii. 115). He be- 
came warden of the mint, &c., in the Tower 
of London on 13 Nov. 1534, and held the 
post till 9 Nov. 1536 (ib. vii. 558, xi. 564). 
At the same time, he came to know and to 
correspond with Cromwell, who in 1536 pro- 
cured him a nomination to be burgess of 
Buckingham (id. x. 384, XIH, i. 545-6, 550, 
572, ii. 10, 38). Extensive landed property 
was reconfirmed to him by act of parliament 
on 4 Feb. 1536 (ib. x. 87). On 26 June 1535 
he obtained a grant of arms (WABTON, App. 
ii.), and he was knighted on 18 Oct. 1537. 

Meanwhile, on 24 April 1536, on the 
establishment of the court, of augmentations 
of the king's revenue to. deal with the pro- 
perty of the smaller religious houses then sup- 
pressed, Pope was created second officer and 
treasurer of the court, with a salary of 120. 
( CaL State Papers, iin, ii. 372) and large fees. 
About 1541 Pope was superseded by Sir Ed- 
ward .(afterwards Lord) North. In January 




1547, on the rcconMtitution of the court, ho 
became the fourth oilicor, and master of tho 
woods of tho court t h'm tmhr the Trout JIo 
probably returned this otlico till tho court 
wiw incorporated in tho exchequer in I55tt 
( WABTON, pp. bV 1 0). Ho had mum a privy 
councillor before 21 March 1544, uiMMvas 
frequently employed by the privy council on 
important busmtWi (Acts of A C. vii, SJHl, 
viii. &>H, ix. ill, 112). 

Pope was not a regular commissioner for 
the suppression of the monastnnert, but ho 
received tho surrender of Wt. A 1 buna from 
Kichard Blovonaehe on 5 Dee, lf>M, and had 
exceptional iacilitioK for obtaining grants of 
tho abbey hinds disposed of by bin oiHcn. Of 
the thirty manors, more or loss, which ho 
eventual fy pOHswiwd by grunt or purchase, 

almost al had been monaM.ic property, Thercn 
\voroconveyedto Pop* 1 ., on 1 1 Kcb, 1537, fora 
valuable considerat ion, the itu and demesnes 
of Wroxton Priory, tho manor or grange of 
Holcorabo (Uorcl'itwtcr Priory), and other 
nbboy landfi in Oxfordshire, Tho manors of 
Bennondsoy (4 March 1515) and Doptford 
(UO May 1554); tho house and manor of 
Tittenhanger (#$ July l")47) f formerly tho 
country sent of the abbot of JSt, Albany 
nnd a town house, formerly the nunnery of 
Olorhomvoll t ult imatt'ly fcllj" with muehother 
property, into his hau<K I le thaw b(;eamts one 
of the richest commonei'8 of tho time. 

Under Kdwuvd VI his want of wympufhy 

with the Hetonnation largely withdraw him 

from public Jifo ( but cf.W UIOTII KHI^KY, (!/ir<w, 

ii. 7,ii7), On the. aeceswiou of Mary he watt 

gworn of t}i(^ privy council on 4 Aug. Ifi&J. 

Ho wu8 ftheriil of fiJsHtiX and Hertfordshire hi 

l"V$iJ and 1557, and was associateii with 

Bonnwr, Thirl by, and North in n cotutntHmon 

lor the HU])pr*Hsion of hcrtwy ^n 8 Fob. 1557 

(HiawMT, Ktf* Ii. ii, roconlH, No. iW). Popo 

jnay perhaps at tlu beginning of tho reign 

have been attached to tho Princes Kli/.a- 

beth r hottwohold( WAUTON, p,H{)), OnH July 

1550 he WUH nclwitud to reside as guardian in 

her house (cf HUHNHT, 1. c, No. iJIJ), but that 

lie long hud charge of J^lizabutli Is improbable* 

Tie clearly pOHwws<*d the confidwnco of both 

tho aistera, and was Hont. by Mary on S(J April 

1558 to broach to Elizabeth an oiler of mar- 

riage from Kric of Bwaclen ((fotfun M"& Vi 

telliusC* xvi, f, 8U4,in BUUSTBT, l.c, No, 37; 

WA.BTOK, pp, 99-K)'J), Thocmnwcmly ac- 

cepted accounts of the festivities given in 

honour of Elizabeth, mainly * at t.h,o chardgen 

of Sir Thomas Pope/ during 1557 and 1558, 

rpat on no truat worthy evidences Wurton 

$aya that hw derived them from copiom made 

for him by FruneU Wise of Htrype's alleged 

tr^nacripts of thethcu unpublished * J 

Diary 'inthoOottonian Library* Auoxammo- 
tion of Maehyn's manuscript, after all allow- 
ance is made for the injury tt sustained in the 
lire of 17JH, proves that, theao passagoa were 
not derived Irom the source alleged, and it is 
probable that they wore fabricated by Wartou 
himself (of, WAKTON, prof. pp. x- xiii, and pp, 
8tt-M; WiHHHNJflii, tnJwn^M tflUimbvth 
<rAwft<>t<>m>, 1H7H, KngUrannl 1879, vol. ii. 
chap. xi. and xii.; an account of tho forgeries 
in Hnylwh //intoriwtlJtpiww for April 1806), 
Meanwhile, like Lord Uieh, Bir William 
Potro, A udloy, and others, Pope wan prompted 
to devote some part of Inn vuHt wealth to a 
mm-roligiou8 purpoan. On )2() Fob, 1554-5 
ho purchased from l)i\( loorgoOwon (<#.15f)8) 
[<j, v.) and William Marty n, tho grantee, tho 
fiiUi and buildings at Oxford of Durham Col* 
lego, tho Oxford hoiwn of tho abbey of 
Durham. A royal charter, < hit ed # March, 
empowered him to establish and endow a 
collogn * of tho ,1 loly and Undivided Trinity ' 
within tho university, to consist of a pre- 
sident, twelve follows, and eight scholars, 
and a Mosus seololwuse/at J!ooknorton,for 
which four additional HcliolnrnhipH woro anb- 
s<M[U<'iitlysnlw|.i luted* On SiM AlarcJi he exe- 
cuted a deed of erection, conveying the site to 
Thomas Slvthurstand eight tollowB nnd four 
scholars, who took formal possession thesamo 
day (\VAKTON, App, ix,xii.) Tho original 
momtmrH of thn toundution wcm nearly all 
irawn from uthor cttlegos,chioily Kxotor and 

^i " ~ 

During ir>55*<i}HnvaH engaged in perfect- 
injj tho details of his scheme, ropainng tho 
buildingH, nnd supplying necesMaritw for tho 
chapol, hall, iwulliliwry (M. App, xvi.-xviii.) 
Tho mojnbers won* ad'mit-ted on tho ovo of 
Trinity Himdny, May irfi(J, by liolwfft 
Morwnt(q. v.|, president of ( Corpus, Tho 
estates wiled od ior th endown^nt. wcro 
handed over m from I^idy-dny 1550, and 
comprised hindtt at Wroxton and Uolcomho, 
with about tho HIUIW amount in tithe, mostly 
in Kssox, part of which ho specially pur- 
chased from Lord Kiuh and Sir Kdward 
'Waldegnivo. Tho HtatutoH, dat(d I May 
1550, which resemble other codos of tho 
period, woro drnwujip by Popo and Sly- 
thurat with tlu assistance of Arthur Yd- 
dard, Blight altrnvirionw wort) mudo by an 
'ndditamontum*of 10 fefopt, 1557, Tho rec- 
tory of (krsington, grunted 'by tho <irown 
on $3 Jtnift 1557, was added to the en- 
dowment of tho pronidrtncy on I J>ct. 1557 
(BOO Mafttttt <*f 7Vw. 6W/. O.rf., pointed by 
tho Univcmty C^inmiwHioucrw, 1H55), Wav- 
tou* quotatio'uH IVoni a letter itihiginar into- 
rust on tho part of ICliaabeth (j> $)^) i 
are probably fi* 




If Pope, as Warton alleges (p. 132), 
founded an obit for himself at Great Walt- 
ham on 24 Dec. 1558, it is probable that he 
was about that time attacked by the epi- 
demic which proved fatal that winter to so 
many of the upper classes. He died at 
Clerkenwell on ^9 Jan. 1559; and, after 
lying in state at the parish church for a 
week, was buried on G Feb. 1559 with great 
pomp (MACHYST, p. 188), according to his 
express directions, in St. Stephen s, Wai- 
brook, where Stow (London, p. 245) saw the 
monument erected to him and his second wife. 
Their remains were re'rnoved before 1567 to 
a vault in the old chapel of Trinity College, 
over which his widow (his third wife) placed 
a handsome monument, with alabaster effigies 
of Pope and herself. It is now partly con- 
cealed by a wainscot case, put over it when 
the present chapel was built, but is clearly 
engraved by Skelton (Ptetas Oxoniensis and 
O.conia Antigua Restaurata, vol. ii. ; cf. 
WOOD'S L\fe, ed. Clark, iii. 364). 

Pope was thrice married, but left no issue. 
From his first wife, Elizabeth Gunston, he 
was divorced, on 11 July 1536, by^ Dr. 
Richard Gwent, dean of arches (MSS. F. 
Wise in Coll. Trin. Misc. vol. i.) On 17 July 
1536 he married ^Margaret (To wnsend), widow 
of Sir Ralph Dodrner, knt., mercer, and lord 
mayor of London 15:29. She died on 10 Jan. 
1538, leaving a daughter Alice (b. 1537), 
who died young. His third wife, Elizabeth, 
was daughter of Walter Blount of Osbaston, 
Leicestershire, by Mary, daughter of John 
Sutton. She married, first, Anthonj Basford 
(or Berestbrd) of Bentley, Derbyshire, who, 
dying on 1 March 1538, left her with a young 
sou, John. On 1 Jan. 1540-1 (according to 
Wise; but possibly later) she married Pope, 
with whom she is afterwards associated in 
various grants, settlements, e., as also in 
the rights and duties of foundress of Trinity 
College. She carried out the founder's injunc- 
tions to complete the house at Garsington. 
After Pope's death she married Sir Hugh 
Paulet [q.v.1 She was suspected of recusancy 
(Col. State Papers t Dom. Add. 15G6-79p.551, 
1 58 1-90 p. 287 ), and established an almshouse 
at her native town of Burton. She died at 
Tittenhanger on 27 Oct. 1593, and was buried 
at Oxford on 2 Nov., both the university and 
the college celebrating her funeral with some 
pomp (WARTON, pp. 202-4, and App. xxx.) 
A good portrait on ]>anel t which was in the 
college before 1613, is now in the hall. At 
Tittenhanger there is one of a later date, re- 
presenting her in a widow's cap. 

By his will, dated 6 Feb. 1557, with a 
long codicil of 12 Dee. 1558, Pope bequeathed 
numerous legacies to churches, charities, 

prisons, and hospitals; his wife, her brother, 
William Blount, and (Sir) Nicholas Bacon, 
to whom, as his 'most derely beloved trend/ 
he leaves his dragon whistle, were executors. 
The will was proved on 6 May 1559, By thd 
settlement ot 1 April 1555 nearly the whole 
of his Oxfordshire estates passed to the family 
of John Pope of Wroxton, and some of these 
remain with the latter's representatives, Vis- 
count Dillon and Lord North [see POPE, 
THOMAS, second EABL OF DOWSE]. The Tit- 
tenhanger, Clerkenwell, and Derbyshire pro- 
perties seem to have been settled on his 
third wife with remainder to her son, who 
died young, and were thus inherited by Sir 
T. Pope Blount (son of Pope's niece, Alice 
Love), whose representative, the Earl of 
Caledon, still owns Tittenhanger. 

Portraits of Pope, differing slightly in de- 
tails, are at Wroxton and Tittenhanger; 
both are plausibly attributed to Holbein. 
Two early copies of the latter are now in the 
president's lodgings at Trinity; they were 
acquired before 1596 and 1634 respectively. 
Later copies are in the hall, common room, 
and Bodleian Gallery. The Wroxton por- 
ti ait was engraved in line by J. Skelton in 
1821. Of the Tittenhanger portrait there 
is a small scarce mezzotint by W. Robins, 
and another, by J. Faber, from the copy at 
Oxford. Both in the portraits and on the 
tomb Pope is represented as a middle-aged 
man, with sensible and not unpleasing, but 
rather characterless, features. For his in otto 
he used the phrase 'Quod taciturn velis, 
nemini dixeris.' 

[Authorities cited above, especiHlly the Calen- 
dars of State Papers and other records from 
which it is possible to correct the minor in- 
accuracies of dates, &e., in Warron's Life of Sir 
Thomas Pope (1st edit. 1772: 2nd, 1780), winch 
is expanded from an article in the Biogr. Bnt. 
1 7 60. It is a most laborious work, and contains 
a vast amount of information on a great variety 
of cognate subjects derived from papers then 
imprinted. It i's, however, full of serious, and in 
some cases intentional, inaccuracies. The re- 
markable series of fabricated extracts from 
]Machyn is mentioned above (see Engl Hist. Rev. 
Apiil 1 896). No fact which Wart on states on his 
own authority or on that of ' MSS. F. Wise,' or 
' the late Sir Harry Pope Blount,' can be accepted 
where not verifiable. Modern memoirs (Skelton, 
Clutterbuck, Chalmers, &c.) are derived entirely 
and uncritically from Warton. Mr. E. G-. Kenyon, 
of the British Museum, has kindly examined the 
manuscripts of Machyn for the purposes of this 
article. A 11 registers and original papers in the 
college archives, where fourteen of Pope s letters 
and others of his papers are still extant, have been 
carefully examined ; H. R D, Blakiston's Trinity 
College, Oxford, cii.] H. B. B. B. 




POPE, Bin THOMAS, wwoml 
J)OWNH( !(>;& 1000) t baptiHtHU 
I)c. MteW was the 


of th 

throe hoiiH of Sir \Villinm I'ope, knt, (IfliMf* 
KJ24), by Elizabeth, nolo hmrms of Sir 
Thomas Watnon, lent, of I lain! end, Kent, 
11 is mother married, after hit) futher'n death, 
Sir Thomas I'tmeyntone of (Cornwall, Ox- 
fordtthirtt. Hit* grandfather, Sir William 
1'ope (157JMM1 j of Wroxton Abboy, near 
Banbury, was made knight of the Hath in 
]<K><% and a baronet in Jtfll; on M Oct.* 
KijJH ho wa created Baron Bolturlwt and 
Karl of Do wno in the kinyxlom of Ireland, 
And died on 2 July KI8L ThonuiH, lug grand- 
son, thereupon su'tttKwdod to IUM title*, and to 
the larg-e entail in north-west Oxfordshire 
which had been settled on the family in 1555 
by hi grout-gran dunrle, Sir Thomaa Pope 
[q, v, J, founder of Trinity ( Allege, Wroxt on, 
however, remained in tho occupation of Inn 
iather'H younger brother, 8ir ThomoH VMM 
(see bdow). The young 1 earl wan brought 
up in a good 'school of morality,* at the hmuw 
ot hia guardian, John Dutton of Sherborue 
(Itor.UY, Stm?* (JiMjfirt, 1050, ded) On 
5M Nov. 1<$8 he married his guardian'^ 
daughter Luoy, and on 21 June IMJ) mfttri- 
cnlated aH a nobhnuan at Ohrint (Church, 
Oxford; but he oifwided againnt academic 
discipline, and before 1,1 Mareh UMO-1 ho 
3eft the university (LAUD, UkMrnllonhipi 
l>p 190 flqa.) 

When ttte civil war broko out, Downu 
wijsed a troo]> of hnrw^ and was in Oxford 
with the king- in KMft, Oharlon I Hlept at 
his wife's houKQ at dubborkjy, (Uotuuwter- 
shire, on 6 Bept 104JJ and Ji2 July 1)44 
('Iter Oarolinmu/ in GUTCW, O>W. 6W. ii, 
4:$1, 43J|), In ICW (CW. SMtfapm, Com, 
Couvp. ii. JMJ4--5), hin twtato being valued at 
2,aoai per annum, he wa finod 5.00W, by 
the committee for compounding lie took 
the oath and covenant beforo 24 Oct. 104/5, 
but had great diHiculty in raining money for 
foia lino, and in HJ48 hi other dobta nmountod 
to 1 1 ,OCX)/, The fioquoHtrttfcion was finally din^ 
charged on 18 Apnl lor>l, after he had wold, 
under powers obtained by a private nut in 
1650, all his landa, except tlio manorfl of 
Oogges and Wilcote, Cubberley, which ho 
held in right of hia wife, and KiiHtono, with 
the adjacent townships (fiitMcy Pajuw). 
The earl, who was steadied by his misfortuneH, 
soon left England, and travelled in Franco 
and Italy, He died at Oxford, at the * cof foo~ 
house ' of Arthur Tilliard, a ' great royalist* 
and apothecary in St. Mary's parish, 28 Dec. 
1 660, His body was buried among MR ances- 
tors at Wroxton 11 Jan. J6W, and therein a 
floor-slab, with a long inscription to lib me- 

e clinnrel 

buried at Oubberley (K la - 
, t , >vMv f i. -K)7), JuMt before 
* death Inn only child, Klixabrth f bom 
at (Jotfg,* IT, April KMo), married Sir Francia 
Henry Lee, fourth baronet of JHtchley, Ox* 

third I'Uiii, OF LiumttW Her 8nd 

IK! wiw lloUrt. Bertie, ourl of Lmdaey 

and tlie, KlttttOill* imiMi1ttf uflll ,,,.,..:. r.r 

and the Kmttone proprty ntill remains with 
hrn^ representative, Vinoount Dillon. 

I he peerage pawned to hia undo SIR 
TIIOMAH Porn of Wroxton, third KAKL OF 
HOWNH (150S .HJH), who WUH kni^htod at 
Ww>dtottk m I^5, and Htiilered Hovoroly 
from both Nidi* in the civil war, Ilowas 
by the ktiiff at. Oxford for six 

I t Hi* t t I i I - - - ^.-n,,- *vi\A) JklA 

HMO, H*a1it, daughter of Sir Henry Poole,of 
Rupert on, (UoueenterHhir<s and died U Jan, 
HitlK HIH port mit. wan painted by W. Dob- 
MOII. Uirt only mirviving Hon t ThomaH, died 
Irt May HMJH, when the t it lenbeeame extinct, 
Jhe HiMTONrtioii to the Wroxfou leafie and 
e.stuti'H WH conti^Htot! between the throe 
dau^hter of the thin! earl and their coiwin, 
Lady KlixaMh Lee, who claimed m heir 
general tin failure of JUMM male, < furiouHly 
protetin^' that nhe would have atlwwthaft, 
A ompromiMe waH eHe<*t<d by the lawyorn, 
one of whom, KranciM North, afterwards lord 
Ouilford [q. v.L MtthMeqmnitly, in KJ71, mar- 
ried FrnweH Pope, one of the eoheinwfl, 
bought out the othm in KJHO t,aud settled 
at Wroxton, wlww IUH thwtmdantH, th Earls 
of <hlfortl and Lord* Nort h, have nince re- 
mained (Nt)HTH, tifintfthtNwth*) L Kwi- 4)* 
There in a line head of the wwsond earl at 
tho age of about twenty-one, attributed to 
iHaac Oliver, in the poHm*Hwit)n of J^ird North 
at Wroxttm, together with portraits of 1m 
father, molhor, jJfrandjftrimtB, and other iaoin- 
barn of the Pope family, Lord Dillon has 
another pwd head, attributed to Janftson, 
of a mtum later date, and a companion por- 
trait of MB wift^. A third portrait which 
baara \m namo probably rqw&BontH hi father. 

i jr T ? T vi* VTH ir vi*irv> i*^ F f * ft* ^ 

} Jortliin*!) KnNtonf) ; BoHloy'8 IJnnlmry; 
Croko'n Croko Kannly; nornonal in^p^ction of 
papAnt nnd portraits at Wroxton, J)itt*hloy, and 
Olaydcm ] H. K, I). B, 

FOFIsl, WALTEE (A 1714), astronomer, 
j wan a native of KawMltty in Northampton- 
^ shiro* JUb mother waa a daughter of the 


139 Pope-Hennessy 

puritan divine, John Dod [q. v.], and John 
Wilkius (afterwards bishop of Chester) was 
his half-brother. He entered Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1645, was appointed scholar 
of Wadham College, Oxford, by the parlia- 
mentary visitors in 1648, and graduated 
thence J3.A. on 6 July 1649, MA. on 10 July 
1651. Admitted to a fellowship on 9 July 
1651, he held various offices in his college, 
was nominated a visitor on 16 Oct. 1654, and, 
as junior proctor of the university, success- 
fully resisted, in 1658, an attempt to abolish 
the wearing of caps and hoods. Later in the 
same year he went abroad, and wrote to 
Robert Boyle from Paris on 10 Sept. 1659, 
that he spent his time reading Corneille's 
plays and romances, ' which we hire like 
horses 7 (BorLE, Works, v. 631, 1744). Pie 
succeeded Sir Christopher Wren [q-'v.] as 
professor of astronomy in, Gresham College 
in 1660, was elected dean of Wadham Col- 
lege for 1660-1, and had a degree of M.D. 
conferred upon him at Oxford on 12 Sept. 
1 ti6 1 . He o bt ained license to travel in 1664, 
and spent two years in Italy, Barrow and 
Hooke taking his lectures. Four letters 
written by him to Wilkins during this tour 
are in the archives of the Royal Society. 
Pope had a reputation for wit as well as for 
learning; he acquired French and Italian 
abroad, and taught them toWilkins, and was 
besides conversant with Spanish. An original 
member of the Royal Society, he sat on the 
council in lGb'7 and 1689. Dr. Wilkins made 
him registrar of the diocese on his elevation 
to the see of Chester in 1G68, and he held 
the post till his death. 

At Salisbury in 1686 he suffered severely 
from an inflammation of the eyes, but was 
eventually cured by Dr. Daubeiiey Turber- 
ville [q. v. J, whose epitaph he gratefully wrote. 
It was probably this infirmity which induced 
liim on 21 Sept. 1687 to resign his professor- 
ship and withdraw to Epsom. On 16 Nov. 
1693 he lost all his books through a fire in 
Lombard Street. He was also annoyed by a 
protracted lawsuit. His later years were 
passed at Bunhill Fields, London, where he 
died, at a very advanced age, on 25 June 1714 ; 
he was buried in St. Giles's, Cripplegate. 
Wood, who was very bitter against him, ac- 
cused him of having led * a heathenish and 
epicurean life ;' but Ward regarded his close 
intimacy with Dr. Seth Ward [q. v.] as alone 
sufficient to refute the charge. Pope lived 
much in Ward's house, had from him a pen- 
sion of 100J. a year, and in a ' life T of the 
bishop published by him in 1697 says that 
he ' made it his business to delight him and 
ii vert his melancholy ' (p. 95). The little book 
was criticised by Thomas Wood, ia an. ap- 

pended ' Letter to the Author/ for its ' comical 
and bantering style, full of dry scraps of 
Latin, puns, proverbs, senseless digressions.' 
Pope's other compositions were designated 
by Anthony a Wood as * frivolous things, 
rather fit to be buried in oblivion with the 
author than to be remembered.' Their titles are 
as follows : 1. ' Memoirs of M. Du Vail/ Lon- 
don, 1670 ; reprinted in ' Harleian Miscellany/ 
iii. 308, 1809, 2. < To the Memory of the moat 
Renowned Du Vail, a Pindaric" Ode/ 1671. 
The person ironically celebrated was Claude 
Duval [q. v.] 3. ' Select Novels from Cer- 
vantes and Petrarch/ 1694. 4. 'The Old 
Man's Wish/ 1697; 3rd ed. 1710; latinised 
by Vincent Bourne in 1728. This is the 
* wishing song ' sung by Benjamin Franklin 
(as he told George Whately) * a thousand 
times when I was young, and now find at 
fourscore that the three contraries have be- 
fallen me.' 5. ' Moral and Political Fables/ 
1698; dedicated to Chief-justice Holt. The 
first volume of the * Philosophical Transac- 
tions T includes (at p. 21) Pope's account of 
the mines of Mercury in Friuli, and his joint 
observations with Hooke and others (p. 295) 
of the partial solar eclipse of 22 June 16CG, 
when Boyle's sixty-foot telescope showed 
traces of the corona in the visibility of the 
part of the moon off the sun. 

[Ward's Lives of the Gresham Professors, i* 
111; Wood's Athenae Oxon. iv. 72 1, Fasti, n. 
122 (Bliss); Gardiner's Registers of Wjidhaitr 
College, p. 177; Burrowss Register of Visitors 
to the University of Oxford, p. 562; Foa-ter's 
Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; Allibone's Cr.t. Diet, 
of English Literature ; Sher burn's Sphere of 
Manilius, p. 113; Watt's BibL Brit.] 

A. M. C. 

1891), colonial governor, the son of John 
Hennessy of Bally hennessy, co. Kerry, and of 
Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Casey of Cork, 
was ^born in Cork in 1834 and educated at 
Queen's College, whence he went to the Inner 
Temple. He entered parliament in 1859, two 
years prior to his call to the bar, as member 
,for King's County. In his election address he 
expressed confidence in Mr. Disraeli's foreign 
policy, but maintained an independent atti- 
tude on Irish questions. He was the tirst 
Roman catholic conservative who sat in par- 

In parliament Pope-Hennessy proved zeal- 
ous and hard-working, and made some repu- 
tation. In regard to Ireland he obtained 
the amendment of the ^oor law (1861-2), 
urged the amendment ol the land laws and 
the reclamation of bogs as a means of staying 
the emigration of the Irish population (^1862), 
; and opposedthe government system of educa- 

Pope'-IIeimessy 4 Popc-Ilenncssy 

firm on thotf round thai it wiw * anti-national, 1 
Theneleot committee which recommended tho 
of open competition for ndmitwion to 

mf HV* ^%*fWHJi*.fVl V* ' m, * *i T i r *>^ttpJn*i.^T 1 y WF .7W^r-Y n- ' " " r f J 

mi wtt publicly thanked by the Roman ca-> 
tholicMof England; and for awendwontrt in 
tho JMimt* Regulation Acts by tho miners of 
Great Ih'itain, 

On 21 Nov. 1807 Pojw-Iloiwoway wa ap- 
pointed governor of Lnlwan. Tho post wan 
of Humlt value, and hw ad minmt ration wan 
hardly Httw*wful On $ Oct. 1871 ho re* 
turned to England From 27 Fob. 1872 to 
10 Feb. I H73 h luifod n governor of the Uold 
Const, m which aipnnty ho took over from 
tho 1 Hitch the sovereignty of Fort Hlmmu, 
receiving from the Dutch #ovornor T in tho 
pivMotuu* of t he nat i ve diiefn, tho tmcient 
and ivory baton of l>e knytor (Cvlinuat 
Lwt, 1H81 ), ! lc mndo un ttnproHHum <m 
iuitiv rnco t who Htill Wp* I > OJMS- Honm^Hy*H 
day* OUCH a year, On iit May I87i hn wan 
made govnu)r of tlw Haliamun, cumw hom^ 
on limvo on ii2 Jun 1874, and novwr rtt urnod, 

In 1875 ho ro<jiv<<l^ u>n important 
go'vermmmt of tlu^ Winthvnr<l iHlanda, tho 
seat of which at that timo wn JJarhn<loH 
In January 1876 1m laid lwfor thn lt^iHla 
ture hU firnt pmp^wulH for an atnt^nd^d ad- 
miniHtration, tending in th direction of 
'federation' of th Windward Mand Th 
BarbadiaiiH, ahvayn foarful of any tauiporin^ 
with their ancient constitution, fonnod thn 
Barbados Itafcutiu Awwwmtion, and tJu* 
plantorfl w<sre HOOII iwowodly Iiot41 to l*opo* 
ll(niny, t H wart accud of wnploymg 
fiecrot omimarioB to intlutmcH tho negro 
labourers afcainat th plmitowj riots \vrn 
common, a|jocial couHtauliw wtsm aworn in, 
and tho military wwrw called out. On 17 May 
a motion was pnsw^d to addrewH tho qtUHn 
for his recall, DtiHpito thin oppoHition, lio 
proceeded steadily witli projtwtw of reform* 
lie further axawpmtod the planters by con- 
demning 1 the tinancwl adminiHtmtion of tho 
assembly and the novero treatment of nativo 
labourers. Ilu strove to promote emigration 
of tho aegroes to other Wtmt India inlandM; 
he put an cud to flopping aa a punwhiwrnt, 
and introduced ticfcets of leave. Priaon rn- 
form was a fcvourito subject with him, but 
he dealt with it somowhtt roeldeB$ly, re- 
leasing on one oecanion as many ae thirty- 
nine prifiouors in one day. The provision of 
medical aid to the poor and ewcttmnion of edu- 
cational fecilitieu also occupied his attention* 
His popularity with the negroes was excop- 
tional ; but in November 1870 tho home go- 
vernment removed him to Hongkong* 

He visittd tho United Kingdom in 1877 
on his way to tho mat, and was preweutod 
with th<^ friMvlom of ('ork (X Mureh), Ho 
arrived at H(m:Ing on M April 1877, 
There liiNjpolu'yrHetnblod that which he had 
adopt od iu Barbados, and hi general ud- 
minit rat iori oon rniwed feeling of * the pro- 
i'.mwhwt (liMatif*fiutinn.* He (jtiamdled with 
the mmman<ler-in-c*hwf f embroiled hiutHelf 
with the^-overnor of Maoao, and wuHC(nHurod 
by tho (H)toninl ottire, while no private peraons 
of any ta**d'wjr would go to government 
hoiwrt, ()u 7 ilareh IHHsi he relinquiahed 
tho govonun^nt, 

IM|M-Hemm*H*Kh<rulayH from Hongkong 
had buon npent in Janan, and for moat of 
IHHiihe retnain<d feHting in Kntfhmd. lu 
8ept<tnber Jus a<tte<l as chairman of tho re* 
prertMion of crime at tho Social 
Suiwicti < -<Mt|(reHH at Nfittintfham, and read a 
paper <m eritue which WHH Wed on lite ex- 
tterieiUMs a a <*ulonil governnr, OuSJO Dec, 
he wan ga55ttttul to the government of tho 

Arriving in tin* MauritiuH on lJun1883, 
INkpe-lleunrHMy, with ehuraet eristic vigour, 
enpouHed t.he <mm* of the Kreneh Creoles, 
who Mwmcd to him an op])reNHtul nationality. 
Tho hit lurlt dominunt hn^liNh party bitterly 
nwoHtod hi.s ntlittitK In 1HH4 an elective 
olmnont wtv t owing 1 to IUH eHurtrt, introduced 
into the gonMtitution. Tho governor was 
hailed an a benofaetor hy tho m*oh> popula* 
lion, who ratM*d the ery of * Mauritian for tho 
MtutritiunH/ OhnrloN Dnlton OiilVord Lloyd 
.l urrivj<l hi 1'Vhruary 1HHIJ m colonial 
tiiry and lieuttiuutt^(vernor^ attd hia 
n^H towardn tho Hnilirth party ombit- 
ttrsd tho HitUiUi(m In Wuy tho Jfov(rnor 
And lieutona!it-gt>veruor wore openly ({\iarrel- 
lintf, and four unoiHmnl inimh<'M of council 
prayoti for this appointment of a royal cow- 
mjHHitm to in<|uiiv into iMije-HewieHHv'H ad- 
miniMt rut-ion ; at tho wamotime an adurHof 
fltmfuleww In the governor wannent to Down* 
ing Htrot^t by IUH friowlM, In Hepteniber J H8(J 
a royal wmnmwmm wa iHrnunl to Sir Hr 
ciileH Uohinnon, governor of (Jape polony* 
directing him to proceed to MauntiuH and 
hold an inuuiry into tho governor^ admini- 
stration, Hir UttrcniloA arrived earlv in No- 
v<nnbor IB8H, and on IU Due. HUBpn*l Pope- 
llenneswy from otlko, On 1 Jim. 1H87 tho 
mjcrotnry of Htato (Lord Knutwford) toliv 
gmplunl to tht^ luttor to como to England 
ami tixplftin law action, <)a liJ July 1887, 
affctr a long inquiry, Lord Kntitntord dooided 
that miftlttitmt eaime lind not boun Hhown lor 





ference' with the magistrates, and undue par- 
tisanship. Accordingly Pope-Heunessy re- 
turned to the colony and served out his time, 
retiring on pension on 16 Dec. 1889. 

On his ret urn home, Pope-Hennessy brought 
a successful action against the ' Times ' for 
libel in connection with his administration 
at Mauritius. During 1890 lie bought Kos- 
tellan Castle, the home of Sir Walter Raleigh, 
near Cork, and turned his attention once 
more to Irish politics. In a letter to Lord 
Beauchamp of 12 Jan. 1891, resigning the 
membership of the Carlton Club, he wrote : 
' Though a conservative in principle, I am 
still in favour of the policy of the Irish 
party.' After the split occurred between 
! Darnell and the bulk of the home rule party 
..lennessy contested North Kilkenny as an 
anti-Parnellite home ruler in December 1890, 
and, despite Paraell's personal efforts against 
him, carried the seat by a majority of 1171 
votes after a violent contest. Pope-Hen- 
nessy's health suffered greatly from his elec- 
toral exertions, and he died at Rostellan on 
7 Oct. 1891, within a few hours of Parnell 
himself. He married Catherine, daughter of 
Sir Hugh Low, resident at Perak. 

Pope-Hennessy was ' an able and typical 
Irishman, quick of wit and repartee/ of 
humane and sympathetic but impulsive tem- 
perament. His failure as a colonial governor 
was due to his want of tact and judgment, 
and his faculty of ' irritating where he might 
conciliate.' Unhappily, too, his mind worked 
tortuously, and he never acquired the habit 
of making definite and accurate statements. 
Pope-Hennessy published in 1883 ' Raleigh 
in Ireland ; ' he wrote articles at different 
times in magazines, and contributed papers 
to the ' Transactions ' of the British Associa- 
tion, of the mathematical section of which 
lie was for a time secretary. 

[Times, 8 Oct. 1891 ; Official Records ; various 
colonial newspapers ; private information.] 

C. A. E. 

POPHAM, ALEXANDER (1729-1810), 
author of the bill for the prevention of the gaol 
distemper in 1774, the son of Alexander Pop- 
ham , rector of West Monckton, Somerset, was 
born in 1729. His family was closely allied to 
the Pophams of Littlecote [see POPHAM, SIR 
JOHN, 1531 P-1607]. He matriculated at Ox- 
ford from Balliol College on 11 Nov. 1746, but 
migrated to All Souls', whence he graduated 
B.A. in 1751, and M.A. in 1755. He was 
called to the bar from the Middle Temple in 
1 755, becoming a bencher of his inn in 1785 ; 
he was a master of the court of chancery from 
1786 to 1802, and was made an auditor of the 

duchy of Lancaster in 1802. Popham was 
elected M.P. for Taunton in 1768 ; in 1774 
he was last upon the poll, but was returned 
upon a petition ; he lost his seat in 1780, but 
was returned in 1784, and held the seat 
until 179C. As chairman of quarter sessions, 
Popham acquired an insight into the state of 
the county gaols, and during his first par- 
liament an outbreak of gaol fever killed 
eight out of nineteen prisoners in Taunton 
gaol. In 1774 Popham brought forward a 
bill with a view to mitigating the evil. It was 
framed in accordance with the disclosures and 
recommendations of John Howard (1726?- 
1790) [q. v.], who, at Popham's instance, gave 
evidence before a committee of the House of 
Commons on 4 March 1774, and was after- 
wards called to the bar to receive the public 
thanks. Popham's bill was ultimately formed 
into two separate measures. The first of 
these abolished the fees demanded by gaolers 
from acquitted prisoners (14 G-eo. Ill c. 20). 
The second provided for a more efficient 
control of the prisons by the magistrates; 
proper ventilation was to be provided; rooms 
were to be allotted for the immediate treat- 
ment and separation of the sick ; arrangements 
were to be made for bathing; finally* an ex- 
perienced surgeon or apothecary/ at a stated 
salary, was to be appointed to each gaol, and 
to report to the justices at quarter sessions 
(14 Geo. Ill, c. 59). 

The provisions of this last "hill were very 
largely evaded, and little real progress was 
made until 1784, when the sale of alcoholic 
drinks in prisons by gaolers was prohibited, 
and gaolers were paid a fixed salary. 

Popham died at his house in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields on 13 Oct. 1810, and was buried in 
the Temple church. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-18S8; Gent. 
Mag. 1810, ii. 397; TcmlimVs History of Taun- 
ton, 1822, pp. 330, 340; Official Returns of 
Members of Parliament ; Journals of the House 
of Commons, xxxiv. 534 sq. ; The Gaol Distemper, 
hy A. D. Willcocks, esq. t an address to the West 
Somerset branch, of the Brit. Med. Assoc. in June 
1894.] T. S. 

POPHAM, EDWARD (1610P-1651), 
admiral and general at sea, fifth and youngest 
son of Sir Francis Popham [q. v.], was pro- 
bably born about 1 610, his brother Alexander, 
the second son, having beeen born in 1605. 
In 1627 Edward and Alexander Popham 
were outlawed for debt, their property being 
assigned to their creditors ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 23 March, 15 Aug. 1627) ; but the age 
of even the elder of the brothers suggests that 
the debtors must have been other men of the 
same name, the Edward being possibly the 
man who represented Bridgwater in parlia- 


Iron i lt:?0to UWO ( AV///r?/.v o 
of rrtriittmpHt), In Hi.'Ui Kdwurd I'ophum 
wan Nerving UN lieutenant of the Henrietta 
Maria in the fleet under tin* Karl ot* North- 
umberland (SV7f /Vf/w/w, Dom. (<harle.M I, 
<',CGxKii.?!),imd in March 1M7 WHH promoted 
to be captain of the Fifth Whelp (/'//, crr.slix, 
ttH, HJ, cerl, 40). The \VheIp,s were by tliU 
time old and barely weiiAvort hy ; most, of t hw 
had already dinuppeared, aud in a fivrth hreexe 
o IF the coast, of HollamijOH^HJumi KW7, thia 
one,, having Hprung a leak, went down in Mm 
open u, giving Poplww wit h the alup's com- 
pany barely timo to nave themHtlve,s in the 
boat, Seventeen men went <lo\vu in her, 
A ft or rowing for about fifty nuleH, they got on 
board nn Knglitdi nhip which landed them at 
^Rotterdam; theucu they found their way to 
llelvodtduyn, where mi'MnvfliHh st^uadhm of 
hip8 of wur wim lying {**/>, INipStim to Karl 
of Northumlioriiuui, t July M>,'i7, rcrhiii* 


SJ9). In lUUU l > opham cotninnndod a !!>, 
possibly t lie Uuinhow, tu the flt with Sir 
Jfohu Piwington (<j, v, | in tho Downs, and 
was one of UWMO who nigm'd th k narrative 
of occmTimurH wnt to tlm Karl of Northum* 
berlund (t/ t coccxxx, 7-1), 

In tbe civil war hu thrt^v in liU lot with 
tlwb imrliamnt. f of which bin father and 
brother Alt*xaudor wro mombom On th 
d<*atlt of hiH father IK^ HU(*cHKhd him m 
ninmbwr for Minhiwl, In I04i! IMwanl and 
hi brother Hugh worn with Alwxiuulwr, th<m 
a tkput.y-liouttjnunt of Kmrtt, ruining mn 
for the parliament.. In May UUtt (?olonl 
J'ottham ^pmmandod* a good Htrtmgtb of horsw 
ana foot 'in Dorset t and rt4ivitl Dorohwt^r^ 
thuntbrwatftnedbytYuico Maurice (iSir\Vftltr 
Krle to Lnithall, Jum% tti*t* MM*, (bmm, 
13th itop, ( W^lbock lair) f i. 7 11 ). Thin 
was probably Mdward,aB Aloxandwr appears 
to 1m vo bow* thtm itt Hnntol PitYXNK and 

prolmlilf thnt hr took part- in tlu oni 
nnimi W n of July, nnd fought at, llminstor 
Linjirpnrl., and Hn<ljf\vntor. It, in, howevw 
(MiriouMthnt IIM nrolnnpl, Horond ino.onnnand 
to Mmsiy, hm mime i not, iniMitionwl. On 
17 July 1IHH hi hml mHtrmUioiw to accom- 
pany Un lord adiniml to Him, tho l*rincc of 
Wahvs having a Nipindrdu on lh<i eoaHtfsi'o 
hriMda ( vH Intor thoy \v^ countwruianded 
atul \Vrtltor StrirUland wan wnt in hi Htoad 
On *J.t Koh, HUH . nn act of parliament ap* 
pmnti'd Topham, IUak<s and IManoeommifr. 
HKmom for tin* intmodint^ onlorin^ of the 
IWt, ami ou th iWth thir roiativo prece* 

WAX.KHK, Trial of Fimncx, App. i>. 4). In 
June J(J44 both PopJwmw wn, with Ludlow 
and 8om othtiro, dotacluwl by WalJ4%r into 
Somerftetflhire, in order to mm recruits, It 
proved a Bervice of BOHJO danger, as, with a 
body of about two hundred horw^ thy had 
to pass through a country held by the niwy 
(Lui)tow, Mmoirt, od. Firth, i. % 01-). On 
U June 164T> Edward was deirod to nspuir 
to Romaoy, take command of the troopa as- 
aaiwbling there for the relief of Taunton, and 
follow the orders of Colonel MaHey [ee 
MABRBY, Si EWAHB]; and ou 17 June 
Alexander was directed to command a party 
of :hors to Ilomftey, thwe to r<*e*uvti orders 
frrm Edward, It would Bt^m that at this 

time Bdward was ooniderud the superior 
officer (CW State JPa;wv, Dam.) It i 
qovtain that Ue wiw not at Kasoby, but 

tod tn hplmm *>n arcount, it may 
Iw pmsumod, of hm rank and <>X])nriouc(s in 
tlw navy, indcp^nth'iit of tli<* lm,t, that his 
}>rotlHr Altxuiidor WIIK a mnuilMT of the 
council of Htt<. Blako, too, had already 
orvd und<rtninf tbo l*ophin t apparently 
Kdward, an liuttiunit<'oion4 of hin r<^ 
mtnt, nnd it, would wim not ini>robabl that 
ho wa now ap}niutHl onn of tlw commm* 
Mionors for tlu l(*Mt. on Popham^ Hug^wtiou 

[l HrAKH, lltMUJItt], 

During HUH Popham c-oittmundod in tho 
l)t)wim and North Sta, whru privntwrw of 
alhiatiotm, with lottor of nuiiu< from the 
Pnnt'o of Wbrt, wir* proying on the oast- 
count ^m^rohnnt nhifm, < )n'^.'J A|?. tlw cor- 
poration of Yarumuth ordwwl thm* good 
io|> t^> brt rttnt on btarl hin nlup then in 
th rj>iidH an iLjmMi*nt from tho town in r* 
cognition of IHM #<>o<l norvi(*^ in convoying 
Yarmouth Hhipn (////, ^/*SW. f.Wi? Oth 
Hep. i, :WOA). Knrly in Mm ho WUH undwr 
ord*rn t join Hhtlti; ut Umbon with a Htrong 
nunfori*,tn<nt. An int.ri*ptid royalint iettor 
of datti t!0 I'Vb. ha * Hlalut him gono to 8a 
with fourteen will. . . , A Hond iiot^t is 
jwpurinK undr Nd Popluun. Uin brother 
Alt^xanditr undt*rtaU(trt to raiw ono rogiment 
of liorms om< of dragfjonn, and two of foot iu 
thW(Mt; but good condition^ authentically 
<>flered t inipfht. p^rnuade them both to do 
riflht<wm thinffH * (dal, Mate Ji*tt})tr* 9 j)ora.) 
With wight nbipH Pophnm put to 8a in th 
laHt. days of April, and having joined lUake, 
the two wor< tugethir on board th(^ Kt*w>lu- 
tum wlun, on ^ July, Kuport tritsd to 
tiMoapH out of tin* T iiffim, The cloo watch 
kept, by tho parliamentary dqiiadron com- 
pelled him to anchor undtr tlu* guns of the 
caHtltt, whoro, by ntaMnn of a strong easterly 
wind, thy othtara could not corno ; and two 
days later, finding tho attempt hopoless, he 
wont back oft'LiMbcm (Pophnmand Blake to 
council of fitatis 10 Aug, ; WMeek 

* MII < w ' fir ' 




In November Popham returned to Eng- 
land (Cat. State Papers, Dom. 14 Nov.), and 
shortly afterwards resumed Ins station in the 
Downs in command of the ships in the North 
Sea. He died of fever at Dover, and in actual 
command if not on board his ship, on 19 Aug: 
1051. The news reached London on the 22nd, 
and was reported to the house by Whitelocke, 
and at the same time Sir H. Vane was ordered 
*to to Mrs. Popham from the council and 
condole with her on the loss of her husband, 
and to let her know what a memory they have 
of his services, and that they will upon all 
occasions be ready to show respect to his 
relations' (ib. 22 Aug.) A year's salary was 
granted to the widow, Anne, daughter of 
William Carr, groom of the bedchamber. By 
her Popham had two children: a daughter, 
Lptitia, and a son, Alexander, whose daughter 
Anne married her second cousin Francis, a 
grandson of Popham's brother Alexander, 
from whom the present Littlecote family is 
descended. Popham was buried at the ex- 
pense of the state in Westminster Abbey in 
Henry VII's chapel, where a monument in 
black and white marble was erected to his 
memory. At the Restoration the body and 
the monument were removed, but, as Alexan- 
der Popham was still living and a member 
of parliament, the body was allowed to be 
taken away privately, and the monument to 
be placed in the chapel of St. John the 
Baptist, the inscription being, however, e* 
faced, as may still be seen. A portrait by 
Cooper, belonging to Mr. F. Leyborne-Pop- 
hara, was on loan at South Kensington in 


[Chester's Westminster Begisters; Burte's 
Landed Gentry; Liter* Cromwellii, 1676, p. 16. 
The writer has to acknowledge valuable help 
from Mr. C. H. Firth.] J. K. L. 

POPHAM, SIB FRANCIS (1573-1644), 
soldier and politician, born in 1573, only 
son of Sir John Popham (1531 P-1607) [q. v.] 
of Littlecote, matriculated at Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford, on 17 May 1588, being then fif- 
teen (FOSTER, Alumni Oxonienses), but does 
not seem to have taken a degree (CiARK, 
Oxford Registers). In 1589 he was entered 
as a student of the Middle Temple. He was 
knighted by the Earl of Essex at Cadiz in 
1">96. Between 1597 and his death in 1644 
he successively represented in parliament 
Somerset, Wiltshire, Marlborough, Great 
B^dwin in Wiltshire, Chippenham, and 
Minehead, sitting in every parliament ex- 
cept the Short parliament. He would ap- 
pear to have inherited his father's grasping 
disposition, without his legal ability or train- 
ing, and to have been constantly involved in 
lawsuits, which he was charged with con- 

ducting in a vexatious manner* Like his 
father, he took an active interest in the 
settlement of Virginia and New England, and 
was a member of council of both countries. 
He was buried at Stoke Newington on 
15 Aug. 1644, but in March 1647 was moved 
to Bristol. He married Ann (b. 1 575), daugh- 
ter of John Dudley of Stoke Newington, and 
by her had five sons and eight daughters. 

His eldest son, John, married, in 1621, 
Mary, daughter of Sir St. Sebastian Harvey, 
was a member for Bath in the parliament 
of 1627-8, and died (without issue) in or 
about January 1638 at Littlecote, where he 
was buried with much pomp (cf. Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 20 Jan. 1638). 

Popham's second son, Alexander, born in 
1605, matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford, 
on 16 July 1621, being then sixteen (FosTEE, 
Alumni Oxon.) In 1627 an Alexander Pop- 
ham was outlawed as a debtor and his pro- 
perty assigned to his creditors (CaL State 
Papers, Dom. 23 March, 15 Ausy, but the 
identification seems doubtful. From 1640 
he sat continuously in parliament as mem- 
ber for Bath. On the death of his father in 
1644 he succeeded to the estates of Little- 
cote. He took an active nart on the side of 
the parliament in the civil war; on the 
death of Charles I he was at once appointed 
a member of the council of state, and was 
one of Cromwell's lords in 1657, which did 
not interfere with his sitting in the Cavalier 
parliament of 1661, entertaining Charles II 
at Littlecote on his way to Bath in 1663, 
or, as a deputy-lieutenant of Wiltshire, tak- 
ing energetic measures ' to secure dangerous: 
persons ' (ib. 2 Sept., 14 Oct. 1663). He died 
in November 1669. Popham's youngest son, 
Edward, is separately noticed. 

[Brown's Genesis of the United States; Cal., 
State Papers, Bom. ; Burke's Landed Gentry.] 

J. K. L. 

1820), rear-admiral, born on 12 Oct. 1762 
at Tetuan, where his father, Stephen Popham, 
was consul, was the twenty-first child of his, 
mother, who died in giving him birth. He 
was educated at Westminster, and, for ayear^ 
at Cambridge. In February 1778 he entered 
the navy on board the Hyaena, with Captain 
Edward Thompson [q. v.], attached to thfr 
Channel fleet in 1779, with Rodney in the 
action off Cape St. Yincent on 16 Jan. 1780, 
and afterwards in the West Indies. In April 
1781 he was tranferred to the Sheilah-nagig- 
(Sile na guig = Irish female sprite). On 
16 June 1783 he was promoted to the rank 
of lieutenant, and was employed in the sur- 
vey of the coast of Kaffraria. la March 1787 

Popham T< 

lie obtained leave from tho admiralty, and 
went toOwti'iid, whoneo he sailed for India 
in command of a mo.roJwut nhip under tho 
imperial ihtg, At ( talent ta ho wan favour- 
ably received by Lord r<omwalliH, at whose 
request ho made a survey of Now Harbour 
in the. Hoo^hley, with a vi<>w to tho onta- 
folUhmont of a dockyard. Having returned 
to Onlond, he nwdo n second voynjre iti 171K), 
with a cargo belonging wholly or in grout 
part, to an Knpflish hoiwe at. <)Hh<nd. At 
Calcutta he under! ook to carry a cargo of 
vice to tho Malabar count fir (lit* uso of tho 
compnnyV army, but was driven to tho onst- 
\vurd by the Htrongth of tho, monsoon, and 
forced to hear up ior I'ulo lYnaug. There, 
while tlie ship wan Hitting, ho nmdo an exact 
.survey of the island, and discovered a now 
channel to the Hotithwnrd, through which, 
in the spring of IT^iJ, ho piloted tho com- 
pany's llee,t to China. For this pioo,o of work 
he was presented with n gold cut) by the 
governor-general in council f who auw wrote 
\ f ry strongly in his favour to tho court of 
directors, requesting them to represent Pop- 



thoy merit.' Ih* wan u< this time on t 
of intiinaoy with the, deputy-pve,nior and 
SHvm'ftl members of tbt coumnl ; and with 
their hnmvh'dg-e, in Dw.e.mbor 1791 tie, pur- 
ami fitted out, at a euwt of about 
., an Amwican whip, tbii President 
n, whoAo natno be HuinjjfiMl to 
In her he went to (Jhina, took on 
board a cargo to th viilun of near 50,{)(KV,, 
t.h joint property of himnolf ami two iner- 
'clmnt-8, uppawutly French, tho freight of 
which, to th amount of 40 t (XXW., \viw en- 
tirely HJH own. On arriving at. (totcmtl in 
Jnly 170^ tJw Ktruwo WUH mzwl by th 
33n((liRli fri^ato Brilliant, brought into tlw 
Thames, clainwd HB a prixo for havhtg Fnmt^i 

property on board, and condemned m a droit 
of admiralty, apparently for illegal trading 
in contravention of the charter of the Kngltrth 
East India Company. Pophum's contention 
was virtually that he had rendered important 
services txuwi company, and thathift voyage 
was sanctioned by tho govornor-goncral in 
council, The ctise was tho subject of pro* 
longed litigation. It wa not till 1805 that 
Popham received a grant of 2r>,CKX)/. m a 
compensation for the loss of about 70,000/., 
the value of his stoke in th Etriweo, not 
includingtlie heavy costs of tho lawmut (Part, 
/tyw, 1808, vol x. ; Part Hist. II Fob, 
1808; Nav. CA/mseix. 1/51,812,406! JBtttn. 
fo* May 1820, py, 482 #). 
. Meantime, and immediately on hia return 
to England in 1798, Popham, under the hn 
modiate orders of Captain Thompson, was 

HIM tinivttjil 

attnehed to the army in 
DuKo n| York, who on i>7 July 1704 ibr- 
wnrdocl t o t he admiralty n strong commendu- 
tion of tho ot)tt(luet mul M<rvims of Pojjham 
as NutM'rinioiulont of tho inland navigation. 

;enl and ai^ivntalontH have 
t . exerted in waving much 
public properly on the leaving of Tounmv 
< ihont , and Ant worj*, 1 I le therefore remieKtod 
tlmt Ptiphnut jnight * ho promoted in tho line 
oi IIIM jM'ofoNHon, nnd Mtill he continued in 
JUH pro.sont. omploymont, whew hw $orvice 

107 ) ; The rtMiotninotitliition WUH not ait ended 
to till ulYr it Hoooml letter from IUH royal 
highnoMM, when t ho<*ojnmis,sion a coimnatulor 
wijHdahMt UJ Nov. I7HJ. When tho ean> 
pnign WHS *Mulod tho dnke %vrott* again, on 
10 Mnreh \7tt*\ and thin time personally to 
tho first, lord of tho udtnimlty, iomm(m\ing 
PophamV exert innM, and eone.luding with a 
mjuo.Mt, that lu^ mijht * ho promoted to the 
ran It of post captain.* This wan accordingly 
done on -1 April 171)5, 

In tho yearn immediately following Pop- 
ham drew up a plan for the oNtuhliBlnntmb 
and organisation of I ho Hon-foncililos, and in 
17DH ho wan apjmintod to ootniuand the dis- 
trict front l)(*al t,o Henehy Head* In May 
ho htid^pomnmnd of tlio naval part, of tho 
<xpoflitiou toOntond to^ destroy the, wlnicoa 
of tho HriicM Canal [HIM* OOOTK, Hiu KYKH. 
I70*j IH^IP), rind in 17W WUH sent to Oron- 
Htndt in tho iNilo lu^'er to make arrange,- 
montM for tho omhnrkation of a hody of 
HuMsinn troopM for Hcrvie in Holland. Tho 
wnporor, with tho ompmsn and court, visited 
him on hoard tho lu^er, pn*Hentd him with 
a [fold HnuH-lwx not with diamonds, and con- 
Htttuted him a knight; of Malta, an honour 
which WUH aftorwardM wiwtioiwd by hisown 
Hov*roig f I 1 ho omproHH, too, gave, him a 
diamond ( ring, After mHpoc.ting novoral of 
th UuHMian portn and nmking tho no.coBmiry 
nrrnngi'.nicntMf Pophutti rotwnod to Knglnnd* 
Tn the following winter ho had command of 
a Hitiull Hqnadron of gunlnmtM on th Alkmaar 
Canal, antl WUH ahlo to rondor oHUmmt sup- 
port to tho nrmy in U& flrnt omwuntor with the 
mimny. Tho tx|>tlit ion, howvr } ondud in 
di8iiHtur v nnd th troojw mttrnd ingloriouly. 
Pophani'M 8(^rvi<*4m were roward^d with a pn* 
nion of 5W/, a yar. 

In 180() h<t WUM appointed to tho Romney 

of 50 gtnw, in command of a Hiwnll suuadron 

ordoml to convoy troopH from tho UHJW of 

( Good Hopo, and from India U]) tho Red Sea, 

; to co-ojmratii with tho nnny in Egypt under 

Bir Uaiph Aborc.romby, and to conclude a 

commercial treaty with tlw Ambn in the 

( nvighboarhood of Juddah, , When this had 



been done lie went to Calcutta, and, wliile 
the Romney was refitting, was up country 
in attendance on the governor-general^ the 
Marquis Wellesley. He afterwards joined 
the commander-in-chief, Vice-admiral Rai- 
nier, at Penang, was sent to Madras, and 
again into the feed Sea. At Suez he had 
charge of the embarkation of the troops for 
India ; at Jeddah he brought the negotiations 
with the Arabs to a satisfactory end; and 
sailed for England, where he arrived early in 
1803. There had been already some objec- 
tions made to the expenditure on the repairs 
of the Romney at Calcutta; and though the 
bills drawn by Popham had been paid, the 
amount was charged as an imprest against 
him. A strict investigation was now or- 
dered, and on 20 Feb. 1804 the navy board 
reported, with many details, that the ex- 
penditure had been * enormous and extraor- 
dinary.' The admiralty handed the papers 
over to the commissioners of naval inquiry, 
"saying that they had neither power nor time 
to investigate an expenditure which .' ap- 
peared to have been of the most enormous 
and profligate nature.' 

It" was not till 13 Sept. 180-4 that Pophani 
could obtain a copy of the report, and then 
without the papers on which it was based. 
In the following February they were laid on 
the table of the House of Commons. As 
early as August 1803 Popham had had 
printed, and circulated privately, * A Concise 
Statement of Facts relative to the Treat- 
ment experienced by Sir Home Popham since 
his return from the Red Sea/ This was now 
published, and appeared to show that further 
investigation was necessary. On 7 May 1 805 
the House of Commons appointed a select 
committee to examine into the business ; but 
the navy board had already been desired to 
reconsider their report, and had been obliged 
to admit that it was inaccurate. Their re- 
vised report, dat^d 1 April 1805, showed that 
evidence had been taken irregularly and im- 
properly ; the testimony or commissioned 
officers had been refused ; Popham himself 
had not been heard. Sums of money had been 
counted twice over, and the whole expen- 
diture had been exaggerated from a little 
over .7,0007. to something more .than ten 
times that amount. The commissioners of 
the navy feebly explained that they had 
placed implicit reliance on the- accuracy and 
industry of Benjamin Tucker [q. v.], and 
that their confidence had been misplaced. 
The select committee of the House of Com- 
mons reported in a sense equally conclusive ; 
and Popham's innocence of a charge which 
should never have been made was established. 
Lord St. Vincent appears to have had a strong 

prejudice against Popham, and it is not im- 
probable that Tucker believed that Popham's 
ruin would not be displeasing to his patron, 
who had no personal knowledge of the 

In the summer of 1804, while the charges 
were still pending, the lords of the admi- 
ralty had appointed Popham to the 50-gim 
ship Antelope, one of the squadron on the 
Downs station, under the command of Lord 
Keith. In December they moved him to 
the Diadem of 64 guns in the Channel, and, 
after the report of the select committee had 
been delivered, directed him to hoist a broad 
pennant as commodore and commander-in- 
cliief of an expedition against the Cape of 
Good Hope, in co-operation with a land 
force under Sir David Baird [q. v.] On 
4 Jan. 1806 the squadron, with the transports, 
anchored near Robben Island ; but the land- 
ing was not completed till the morning of 
the 7th, and after a feeble resistance Cape 
Town and the whole colony surrendered on 
the 10th. In April Popham was informed 
by the master of an American merchant- 
ship that the inhabitants of Monte Video 
and Buenos Ayres were groaning under the 
tyranny of their government, and would 
welcome a British force as liberators. In 
consultation with Baird he resolved to take 
advantage of what seemed a favourable op- 
portunity of gaining possession of these 
places, and with some twelve hundred sol- 
diers, under the command of Brigadier- 
general William Carr Beresford (afterwards 
Viscount Beresford) [q. vJ, sailed from Table 
Bay a few days afterwards. In the middle 
of June the expedition arrived in the Rio de 
la Plata ; on the 25th the troops, which, in- 
cluding a marine battalion, numbered about 
sixteen hundred men, were landed near 
Buenos Ayres. The resistance of the Spanish 
troops was merely nominal, the governor 
fled to Cordova, and on 2 July the town 
surrendered and was taken possession of by 
Beresford. A few days later, however, the 
inhabitants, who had discovered the small- 
ness of the English force, rose in their thou- 
sands and overwhelmed Beresford, who, with 
the garrison of about thirteen hundred men, 
became prisoners. Popham could do nothing 
beyond blockading the river, till the arrival 
of reinforcements in October permitted him 
to take the offensive and to occupy the har- 
bour of Maldonado. On 5 Jan. 1807 he was 
superseded by Rear-admiral Charles Stirling, 
and ordered to return to England, where, on 
his arrival in the middle of February, he 
was put under arrest preparatory to being 
tried by court-martial on a charge of having 
withdrawn the squadron from the Cape of 


H*t#i4.i .*.'. 1<^V. * **k-i* s*,i <*<** t Jli IMtoh .rtHMBT * 

tJood Hnpo without orders, thoroby t 

tho colony to groat, clangor. Ou thin <*1 _.. n 

ho wrtH triod at. Portsmouth on IMaroh ami 
foUowingdayn, Ho arguod with intudi ability 
that, tho work at. UupoTown having boon a- 


it was bin duty to WMBO any opportunity of 
dint rowing thu ottiimy. lint hit was uitahln 
to convinw tho c.onrt, and wan tur,ofdmgly 
'mwroly reprimanded,* Tho judfgfmont, wan 
fttru'Uy m accordance with oHtublinhod unatfo, 
Tin* city of London, on tho othor hand, 
fconmdor'mg Pnpham'H action an a gallant 
attorn t to om out now niarlctttH roHontNl 

attorn pt to opm out now niarlctttH, 
him with a nword of honour (AVm 


xixJfci), But ovwi in tho navy Urn ropriniund 
hud no NurinuHconeU'qiiotum In tho follow* 
ing July, notwithstanding a remount rannt 
from Sir Sauwol itood jq, v, |, Sir Richard 
Goodwin KttatH [<K v. |, and Kobort, Stopfnrd 
[q, v, | (///, pp, (58- / 1 ), ropham wart appoiutod 
ciiptoiiuof tho iltwt with Admiral .IiininHi <aw 
"bitir (afturwurdB I x)rd ( himhwr) j q. v. |, in th 
e.\']Hiiti(n AffainHt Oojnmhttg^n, ami - iu coti- 
junction with Sir Arthur "Wullt'uh'y, aftr- 
war<lw duk* tf Wollington^ and Limrhmaiit* 
w>li)nnl (tnorpfn M array wan n comuiiNHiofior 
for Hdtling tluM^rmHof th capitulation hy 
all thi Danish nhipn of war wirn mtr- 
l* In IHOD Jus <joiumundo<l tlm 
Wo of 74 ffuna in th <*xptditi<m to 
th Scheldt undur Sir Richard John St rnchan 
[<u v.] f and hy IUM lond knowledge rwuWctl 
jimoiunt Hrvi iu piltiting tlm HtMt. Still 
in th Voncrnbln in 1HI V J, lu^ had com* 
jnatul of a Hiwall wquiulron on th north count 
of Spain, o-op*ratintf wit-h th*^ gu^rilliiH, 
On 4 Juno 1H14 h wa promot<d to tlmrank 
of Timp-adniiral, and on thu mumHtitutbu 
of thti ordur of tho Bath, in JBlfy wa 
nominated a K.C.U, From 1817 to IH^O ho 
waa commandur-in-ohinf on th Jaraaum 

daujfhtw of Captain Princo of tlui E 
India ()ompany*H military 8rvict>, and by hr 
had a larga family, 

being for tho moHt part anoilltiry to military 
opftrations, they did not win for him muck 
popular recognition. H waBwwll v^rn^d in 
the mortt scientific br^ncheft of \m profflion, 
and was known aft an exowllwnt Burvovor and 
astronomical obaervar. Whan in thy Koil Bm, 
in the Bomnoy, ho determined many longi- 
tudes by chronometer (Nav. Qhwn. x. 202), 
a method at that time but rarely employed. 
II e was akothe iiwmtor, ortather the adaptor, 
of a codo of signalft which waa adoptcsa by 
the admiralty in 180$, and continued in use 

for nmny yoiirH. Ho WUH oloctod F.U.S. in 
10, but eontrihutod nothing to the ^ 
cut,y f *TriiMiwMii>iiH/ 

A n anonymou* poriait, which has been en- 
gravo<l t m in tho National Portrait Uallery. 
[Sir Homo J'uplwm: a inomoir nrivh,u, 


, 1HJO xviii, ilf> ; Minutw of thu Couri-rmir- 
tial( printod 1807, vo); JnuicHV Naval Ilmtory; 
Navy 1/tNtN; iuformutitm frntn tho family. 
Sovorul pamphlet* rt'lutinfj; to tho ropairaof tho 
KomiM\v wiro imhlimhutl in IHDf), fttimng whioh v 
in mMit'um to !*<'plmu*M own '(JonciHoStniomont 
of KwtH 1 ulwidy rofrrrod to, inuy Iw iuoutinno.l 
M>hM<ivuttonM on a l*atuphl**t which htw ben 
priviUfly nivuhitiHl, wild to ho *'A Oonciso 
HiutiMnmit of I'WfH , , " to wluih IH addod a 
(Mpy of tho Uttport mmi hy tlio Navy Biwrdto 
Mi Ailtttindry t , . .,' nimnytnouH, hut admitM 
to bs by Hoiijnmw Tuckor; 'A ftnv brief w- 
nuu'kM on a piunphh-t, puhlifthod hy HOMJO Imli- 
dividunln nitppoM*tl to b t'otintM'tml with tho 
Jt Huanl <>(' Adinimlty, nlithl '*OhHervu- 
tioiiM, *>." (HM nhnv)i i whifh tho tiilwmnuja 
of thuMw wfitorM aw oXHiuim>d tind oxpimnl/ hy 
'^W^h'uM'M,' who dUHuiitiNimy purHonibl acquaiut- 
a>' wii it !*<phain, but w ovtM'liowitt^ with vonom 
iiKuittMtTii< ( km*iuui St. Viuwit ; and 

by (>rlr f t Iw !!*mw of Ooninumn in February, 
Mnrt'h,itiid April 1H06, rHpH f tir|Hf tho rtipairnof 
th<^ Htnntu^y , , , with ilmir ttiarnrlal eonfwits 
nrul i4or f^w Cursory nnnurkH in ^lucidatiou. 1 
Th iNMnpMn vindication of Popfunn in hoM-over, 
to lut Nought, rntbor in thu I*at*linnntary l*apora 
nlrondy rofttrnwl t*| J. K. L. 

POPHAM, Mru JOHN (tl 14JJP), mili- 
tary t?omwandr and Hpoalt^r-<^bu',t of tho 
HOMO of OomtmmH, waH wm of Rir John 
l*opluuu, ft youngm 1 non of tlu uncut k nt Hatnp- 
ftuuily <jf l*opl[iun of Popham hotvuwn 
nnd \vim*ht*Htr* HiB mothor'B 
to havw lwtn Mathilda (Ammt 
r*/. /f/. JW, p. ^J2). His 
untjU^lltnry Popham, tlwhtwd of tho family, 
inlutritti<l f tlirou^h an hmmMft, tho owtats of 
th Bftint* Martlny at < JrinHfrwl in Wiltshire, 
iHsftn in HampHhiru, and Alvt>rftton in the 
IH!H of Wight ; Hiirvnl m taught of the fihire 
for Hamphirw in various parliamntfl, from 
Itm to 1401, and diml in 1418 or 1419 (& 
pp. l$)8 r ^52; r^/, /n^.iwwfwor^ww, iv, 80; 
th< family tnn* in BMituv'H Mfyrm offtantx, 
p. Ittl, camiot bo ^couciled with ttno docu- 
mentary twitl&iuw). From ttoUateral branch, 
nettled at Ihmtworth, nar IlridRwatflr, Sir 
ohn Popham [u. v.], tatt chief juHtice, was 





In 1415 Popham was constable of South- 
ampton Castle, and in that capacity had 
the custody of the Earl of Cambridge and 
the others engaged in the conspiracy dis- 
covered there just "before the king set sail 
for France ( Hot. Par I. iv. 66 ; cf. Ord. Privy 
Council, ii. 33), He took part in that expe- 
dition at the head of thirty men-at-arms and 
ninety archers. Two years later he was one 
of Henry's most prominent followers in the 
conquest of Normandy, became bailii of 
Caen, and received a grant of the seigniory 
of Thorigny sur Vire, forfeited by Iierv 
de Mauny. Henry also gave him the con- 
st ableship of the castle of Snith for life (ib. 
v. 179). Continuing in the French wars 
under the Duke of Bedford, Popham became 
chancellor of Anjou and Maine, and captain 
of St. Susanne in the latter county. He is 
sometimes described as ' chancellor of the 
regent ' (Paris pendant la Domination An- 
glaise, p. 298). After Bedford's death he was 
appointed to serve on the Duke of York's 
council in Normandy, but showed some re- 
luctance, and stipulated for the payment of 
his arrears, and for his return at the end of 
the year. In 1437 he was appointed trea- 
surer of the household, but before the year 
closed French affairs again demanded his 
presence, and he acted as ambassador in the 
peace negotiations of 1438-9. The Duke of 
York, on being reappointed lieutenant- 
governor of France in 1440, requested his 
assistance as a member of his council (STE- 
VENSON, ii. [586]). In the parliament of No- 
vember 1449, in which he sat for Hampshire, 
his native county, he was chosen speaker. 
He begged the king to excuse him, on the 
ground of the infirmities of an old soldier 
and the burden of advancing age ; his re- 
quest was acceded to, and William Tresham 
accepted in his stead (Rot. Par I. v. 171). 
The Yorkists in 1455 reduced his pension, 
and he seems to have been deprived of his 
post at court (ib. v. 312). He died, apparently, 
in 1463 or 1464 (Cal. Inq. post mortem, iv. 
320, 338, cf . p. 375). There is no satisfactory 
evidence that he married, and his lands ulti- 
mately passed to the four coheiresses of his 
cousin, Sir Stephen Popham (son of Henry 
Popham), who had died in 1445 or 1446 
(Cal. Rot. Pat.y. 322; cf. BERBY, p. 21). 
One of them married Thomas Hampden of 
Buckinghamshire. The male line of the 
Pophams thus died out in its original seat. 

[Rotnli Parliamentarian ; Rymer's Fcedera, 
original edition ; Proceedings and Ordinances of 
the Privy Council, ed. Harris Nicolas; Steven- 
son's Wars in France, Rolls Ser.; Returns of 
Names of Members of Parliament (1878); Cal. 
Inquis. post mortem and Cal. Rot. Pat, pubL by 

Record Commission; Calendar of Ancient D^eds, 
publ. by the Master of rhe Rolls; Paris ppndanfc 
la Domination Anglaise, ed. Longnon for Soc. de 
1'Histoirede Paris; Warner's Hampshire ; Berry's 
Pedigrees of Hants (1833).] J. T-T. 

POPHAM, SIE JOHN (1531 P-1607), 
chief-j usticeof the king's bench, born at Hunt- 
worth in Somerset about 1531, was the second 
son of Alexander Popham by Jane, daughter 
of Sir Edward Stradling of St. Donates Castle, 
Glamorganshire ( Visitation of Somerset, Harl. 
Soc. xi. 125 ; CIAEK, Limbus Patrum,^. 437). 
It is stated (CAMPBELL, Lines of the Chief 
Justices, i. 209) that while quite a child he 
was stolen by a band of gipsies; but the 
story is probably no more than a gloss upon 
a statement made by Aubrey (Letters by Emi- 
nent Persons, ii. 492), and repeated in more 
detail by Lloyd (State Worthies), to the 
effect * that in his youthful days he was a 
stout and skilful man at sword and buckler 
as any in that age, and wild enough in his 
recreations, consorting with profligate com- 
panions, and even at times wont to take a 
purse with them.' It is more certain that 
he was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, 
and subsequently entered the Middle Temple, 
becoming reader in the autumn of 1568, and 
treasurer twelve years later. A certain 
John Popham is mentioned (Official List of 
Members of Parliament) as representing 
Lyme Regis in Queen Mary's last parlia- 
ment, but his identity is uncertain. Pop- 
ham, however, represented Bristol, of which 
city he was recorder, in the third or fourth 
parliament of Queen Elizabeth i.e. in 1571. 
and from 1572 to 1583 (BAEEETT, History 
of Bristol, p. 156). He was created a privy 
councillor in 1571, and in the following ses- 
sion (1576) assisted in drafting bills for & 
subsidy, for abolishing promoters and for pre- 
venting idleness by setting the poor to work. 

Meanwhile he had acquired considerable 
reputation as a lawyer, and on 28 Jan. 1578-9 
he was specially called to the degree of the 
coif. In the same year he accepted the post 
of solicitor-general, considering that, though 
inferior in rank to that of a serjeant-at-law, 
it more certainly led to judicial honours 
(DoxHJALE, Orig. Jurid. p. 127; Chron. Ser. 
p. 95). The death of Sir Robert Bell [q. v.] in 
1579 having rendered the speakership vacant, 
Popham was elected to the chair on 20 Jan. 
1580. On taking his seat he desired the 
members to ' see their servants, pages, and 
lackies attending on them kept in good 
order' (D'EwES, Journal, p. 282). A few 
days later he was sharply reprimanded by the 
queen for allowing the house to infringe her 
prerogative by appointing a day of public fast- 
ing and humiliation. He confessed his fault, 





and it is snid { BACON, vi/w;>/iMw/mir) that on 
being asked by the queen shortly before tho 
prorogation of parliament what 'had panned 
in the house, ho wittily replied, * If it, pleno 
your Majesty, woven \voeW* On I Juno 
1581 1m succeeded Sir ( Hlbett ( lerard [q. v, |, 
treated muster of thn rolls, as attorney- 
general, He Imld tho post for eleven yearn, 
and took a prominent part as crown prosecu- 
tor in many state trials (!!OWHM M tiMt* 
Truth, 1 1050 UW9). Popluun endeavoured 
to discharge hisdiilhwltofllco with humanity. 
In 158(1 he was induced to oiler himself as 
an undertaker in tho plantation of Munstor 
in conjunct i<m with his sonw-in-hiw, Mdward 
Hogorfl and Roger Warre, and landK were 
accordingly assigned to him in eo, Cork; 
but after ho spent 1,2<K)/, in transporting 
labourers thitlmr, tho dilttoultioM he encoun- 
tered lod him to desist from tho enterprise 
(<ht, tittttnJtywn, Ircl, Kite, m,77,.l'M,f>08), 
lie watt, howovw, appointed to assist Chief- 
justice Anderson ana Huron Oont in examin- 
ing and compounding all claims to escheated 
lands in Munstor in 1588, Hit landed aft 
"Watoribrdon $2 A g., returning to Knghmd, 
apparently, in tho autumn of the following 
year. Ho sucetwdcd Hir Christopher Wrny 
[q v,] as lord chief justice on $ June 1JW2, 
and^at the same time wan knighted. He 
pnwided over the court of king's bench 
tor the remaining flffcown years of his life, 
On tho occasion of tho Karl of Essex's in- 

surrection, ho went, with other high 
of state, to Essex HOURO on 8 Feb. HJ01 for 
the purpose of wmomrtrnting with him, and 
was, with thorn, confined in a ' back (Chamber ' 
m tho houso for several hours, He refused an 
offer of rekaso for himself alone (DBVBUHUX, 
JWM* iff the Earl* of l$m#, ii, 1 43), At tho 
twain arising out of tho rebellion ho com- 
buwd somewhat incongruoiwly t.hftcharactws 
of witness and judges (llwuit.* State Trial*. 
x. 1429), 

Shortly after the aftceminn of Jamon I, I'(*p* 
ham ppewadat tho trial of Hir Waiter UaUsgh, 
and very fcwbljr int^oRod to itigat tho 
violence of the attorn oy-gwnoral, Sir Edward 
Coke, Hia decision that tho evidence of one 
parson, whom it was not neeeasttry to pro- 
duce h open court, was auf&oient in cases 
ot treason, was notr a is aometimtw sup- 
posedan attempt to twiat the law against 
the prisoner, but tlu) intorprotation univer- 
sally placed upon the law of treason, as it 
was supposed to have been modified by the 
statute I and 2 Philip and Mary, cap, 10 (cf, 
QAtaraHB, W*t. of &igl L liO), Though 
apparently convinced of Ralegh'a guilt, he 
H^jatliised sincwoly with him, As a mem- 
ber orn&fclmmant Popham had sat oa several 

tntttees to devise means for ofiocbually 
Nhing rogiujH and vagabonds by wttmi 
th<in to work, and as lordchiel'justico he had 
iiMNiHted in *lrafling Mm Art \\\\ Klia. cap 4 
whuroby bnnislummt 'into HUC!I parU boyond 
tho sens as Hhall \M nt any time hereafter for 
that purpose aligned/ was for tlio first time 
appointed as the punishment for vagrancy, 
'laken in connection with his oxortiotis m 
10DU in proruring ]>ateut for the London 
and Plymouth companies for tho colonisation 
of Virgin* i, it. is porhaps ml diiltoult to st^e 
what meaning is to be attached to Aubrey's 
statement that ho * first- sell tho Plan- 
tations, ^/;, Virginia, which ho stock t and 
planted out of all the gaolos of England,' 
wlmthertlio Popbani colony wawrwally corn- 
postal nHhe ottsw wrings of Kuglwhgaolaisa 
moot-point which IWN lnun discusHod at cou 
sidoraUJe length* and with no little acrimony, 
in America (WINNOK'H Hint, tf Amt>rwt t ill 
175, xH)0). !N)phatn presided nt the trial of 
( hiy Miwkw an<l t hn other oimpirator8 in tho 
'gunpowder plot Mn HKMJ. lie sat on the 
bench till Kanter term, HK)7. 

11< (U;d on 10 June 1(K)7, and was buried 
at Wellington in Momerset itt the chapol on 
Urn smith side of the parish church. His 
wiiV liiH boMidn him, and a noble monument 
was erected <vtr them, with ottigios of him 
and his wife. On tht* outskirts of tho town 
Btwwi PopluunV house, a largo and stately 
mansion, which was destroyed during tho 
civil wars. In accordance with his will, 
dated ^1 Hupt. 1004, a hospital was orocted 
at th west end of the town for tho main- 
tenance of twelve poor and aged pwoplo, 
1 * 'K were tt w men and sto 

and for two poor mtmVi (thildrt^n. During his 
Hictimo ho miquirod by purchnKo Movoral con- 
mdn*ablo ontatoH in Hoimwot, Wilthiro, and 
DovonHliirts According to an improbable 
nt ory rocordod by Aubroy, and alludtsd to by 
Hir *Wultop 8<ott in bin noU8 to ' Uolwby/ 
Litthusoto 5ri WiltHhire waB thw prico paid 
to him by Davoll, itH prvioiH owner, a diw- 
tant kiuHinnn, for corrupt ly allowing him to 
ORcapu tho l*igal conMeqtuuicoH of umot atro- 
cious murdor. Pophnm doubt to acquired 
the projwjirty by purdum Aubroy adds that 
Popham * ilrnt* brought in fu)* wivivod] brick- 
building in London (BC, aitor Lincolne*s Inn 
and 8t. JamoH*H).* 

Popham waft a wound lawyer and a severe 
judge* Shortly after bin diath Lord Klloa- 
moro allutlwl to him HH *u man of groat wis* 
dom and of Hingular learning and judgement 
in the law' (lloMU, titote Trial*, II 660), 
and Coke poko of him with lilw admiration 
(th lli*i, p. 7r>). 
J According to X^uller ( Wvrthfa) ii 284), 




he is said to have advised James to be more 
sparing of his pardons to highwaymen and 
cutpurses. His severity towards thieves was 
proverbial, and it is referred to by Dr. Donne 
in his poetical epistle to Ben Jonson (1603). 
According to Aubrey ' he was a huge, neavie, 
ugly man.' His portrait and a chair belong- 
ing to him are at Littlecote (BmTTOff, 
Beauties of Wiltshire, iii. 259). Another, 
by an unknown hand, is in the National 
Portrait Gallery, London ; and a third (also 
anonymous) belonged in 1866 to the Duke 
of Manchester. 

Popham was the author of * Reports and 
Cases adjudged in the Time of Queen Eliza- 
beth, written with his own hand in French/ 
translated and published posthumously in 
1656; but the book is not regarded as an 
authority. A number of legal opinions ex- 
pressed by him are preserved in the Lans- 
downe collection of manuscript s in the British 
Museum (1. 26-8, 39, 64, 70, Ivii. 50, 72, 
Ixi. 7S,lxviii.l8).~ His opinion on Sir Walter 
Ralegh's case touching the entail of the 
manor of Shetborne is in Additional MS. 
6177, 1 893. 

Popham married Amy, daughter and heiress 
of Robert Games of Castleton in St. Tathan's, 
Glamorganshire (or by other accounts, Ann, 
daughter and heiress of Howel ap Adam of 
Castleton). Her portrait, by an unknown 
hand, belonged in 1866 to Mr. F. L. Pop- 
ham. Sir John was succeeded by his son, 
Sir Francis Popham [q. v.] According to 
Aubrey, Popham ; left a vast estate to his son, 
Sir Francis (I thinke ten thousand pounds 

Eer annum) ; [the latter] lived like a hog, but 
is son John was a great waster, and dyed 
in his father's time.' 

[Foss's Judges, vi. 179-85 ; "Wood's Athenae 
Oxon. ed. Blits, ii. 20 ; Collinson's Hist, of Somer* 
set, ii. 483 iii.7 1; Aubrey's Lives of Eminent Men, 
ii. 492-5 ; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. viii. 218, 
8th ser. x. 110 ; Somersetshire Arcbseol. Soe. Pro- 
ceedings, xi. 40-1 ; Manning's Speakers of the 
House of Commons. A number of letters and 
documents written by or relating to Popbam 
will be found in Harl. MSS. 286, 6995-7 ; Eger- 
ton MSS. 1693 f. 122, 2618 f. 11, 2644 f. 78, 
2651 f. 1, 2714 f. 32; Addit. MSS. 5485 f. 212, 
5753 f. 250, 5756 f. 106. 6178 ff. 613, 653, 705, 
8<)3, 15561 f. 99, 19398 f. 97, 27959 f. 21, 
27961 ff. 9, 10, 28223 f. 13, 28607 f. 33, 32"92 
f. 145, 33271 f 186 ; Lansd. MSS. adv. 34. Ixi, 
53, Ixviii. 90, Ixxvii. 50.] E. D. 

POPPLE. WILLIAM (1701-1764), dra- 
matist, born in 1701, was the only son oi 
William Popple of St. Margaret's, Westmin- 
ster, who died in 1722, and was buried at 
Hampstead, by his wife Anne. 

His grandfather, also WILLIAM POPPLE (d. 

1708), was son of Edmund Popple, sheriff of 
Hull in 1638, who married Catherine, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Andrew Marvell, and sister 
of Andrew Marvell [q. v.] the poet ; he was, 
accordingly, the nephew of Marvell, under 
whose guidance he was educated, and with 
whom he corresponded. He became a Lon- 
don merchant, and in 1676 was residing at 
Bordeaux, whence, ten years later, he dated 
a small expository work, entitled * A Rational 
Catechism ' (London, 1687, 12mo). He was 
appointed secretary to the board of trade in 
1696, and became intimate with John Locke 
(a commissioner of the board from 1696 to 
1700), whose 'Letter on Toleration' he was 
the firet to translate from the Latin (London, 
1689, 8vo and 12mo). Some manuscript trans- 
lations in his hand are in the British Museum 
(Add, MS. 8888). He died in 1708, in the 
parish of St. Clement Danes ; his widow Mary 
was living in Holborn in 1709. 

The dramatist entered the cofferer's office 
about 1730, and in June 1737 was promoted 
solicitor and clerk of the reports to the com- 
missioners of trade and plantations. He was 
appointed governor of the Bermudas in March 
1745, 'in the room of his relative, Alured 
Popple' (1699-1744), and held that post until 
shortly before his death at Hampstead on 
8 Feb. 17 '64 (Miscellanea GeneaLetHemldica, 
new ser. iii. 364). He was buried on 13 Feb. 
in Hampstead churchyard, where there is an 
inscribed stone in .his memory. 

Some of Popple's juvenile poems were in- 
cluded in the * Collection of Miscellaneous 
Poems' issued by Richard Savage [q. v.] in 
1726. The encouragement of Aaron Hill 
[q. v.] was largely responsible for his inde- 
pendent production of two comedies, to -both 
of which Hill wrote prologues. The first of 
these, ' The Lady's Revenge, or the Rover 
reclaim'd* (London and Dublin, 1734, Svo),. 
was dedicated to the Prince of Wales, and 
produced on four occasions at Covent Garden 
in January 1734. ' Dull in parts, but a pretty 
good play,' is Genest's verdict -upon it. The 
second, entitled 'The Double Deceit, or a 
Cure for Jealousy > (London, 1736, 8vo), de- 
dicated to Edward Walpole, was produced 
on 25 April 1735, also at Covent Garden. It 
is the better play of the two, and, according 
to Genest, deserved more success than it met 
with. About this same time (1735) Popple 
collaborated with Hill in his 'Prompter,' and 
incurred a share of Pope's resentment, which 
took the usual shape of a line in the 'Dun- 
ciad : * 

Lo P p le's brow tremendous to the town. 

Warburton elucidates by defining Popple as 
, * author of some vile plays and pamphlets.* 




Good Hope without ordain, t 
the colony to groat danger* On thin 
litt was trwd at Portmnouth on March and 
followinffdayt*. Ho apguod with much ability 
that, thn work at OnpuTWn having buon ac- 
compliMhod and t honafoty oft ho towuuHJUirwl, 
it- was hiH duty to HWKO any opportunity of 
clifltrrtHwng thu tmnmy. But hn \vas unablo 
to convince tbo court, and wan accordingly 
*HttVtfwly wprimawlod.* Tho judgnumt, was 
strictly m accordance with <wt ahlinluHl iiHagt*. 
Th city of London, on tho othor hand, 
considering Pophum'H action an a gallant 
attempt to optm out; nw uwrkotH, 

him with a sword of honour ( Ntw, 
(xix.&l). Buttwm in tho navy tim reprimand 
had no mou oonwum<wrt. * In tho follow- 

ing July, notwithstanding a rwnoutran<c 
from Sir Samuel Uood [q, v/1, Mir Richard 

Jf-m Vtt 4V . I" -^ * A h * i a L* ^ 


Goodwin Koatu [q. v,L and Kobort Ktopford 
[q. v.| (M. pp. 08-71 ), Pophnm WIIH appointed 
captain of tho Hoot with Admiral Jamtw ( Jam* 
"bier (aftorwardfl Lord (himbinr) (q, v,"|, in th 
yxpeditum ugainHt Cowenlmgtw, and in (Con- 
junct urn with Sir Arthur \\VlltKltvy> aftir 
wards dukw of Wellington, and 1/unitwwnt* 
colonel ( org Murray - waa a commiHKionir 
for Buttling tin* twnx of tho taipitulation by 
which all tho Danish ulujw of war vroni Huf- 
rwulurod. In 1801) ho oomiuandtMl tho 
Yenemblo of 74 gunn in th nxpodition to 
the Hcholdt undor Sir Hiiihnrd John St rachan 
[o. v.], and Ijy his local kttowldg w^ndtm'd 
mciixt ftorvico in piloting tho iWfc. Htill 
in the Vonttrablo in IHli^, ho had com- 
mand of a mall aquudron on t.U north count 
of Spain, m-oporaking with thw gunrilliw, 
On 4 June IKUUtj wan promotml to tho rank 
of rear-ttchttiral, and on tho mnmstitution 
of th ordr of tho Bath) in IB 15, wan 
nominated a K.C*B. From 1817 to 18SO ho 
was commaud*r-in-chif on thn Jamaica 
Btation, and, returning to England in broken 
hwiltlx in July, diod at Chwltonham on 
10 Sopt, 1820* 1I marriod, in 178H t Bott.y, 
daujfhter of Captain Priiico of tlio Eawt 
India Company'** military norvictt, and by hop 
bad a largo family. 

Popham'fl HervicGB wwe diRtinpfuishod, but, 
being for the most part ancillary to military 
operation^ they did not win for him muck 
popular recognition. He was well v<ird in 
the more scientific branches of his proftoHion, 
and was known as anexcllmt surveyor and 
astronomical obsor vnr. "When in the Ked Sea, 
in the Bomney, he determined many longi- 
tudes by chronometer (N<tv. Qhron. x. SOS), 
a method at that time but rarely employed* 
He was also the inventor, orrather tho adapter, 
of a code of signals which was adopted by 
the admiralty in 1808, and continued in use 

for many yc^H, 


olttctpcl F.R.8. in 
J " to * 

An anotiymoiiH ^orl.nit, whioh ha boen en- 
gravml, i in Nntional Portrait Gallery 

[Hip Homo Poplmm: a momoir privr.Jy 
prmtiHl in 1H07, oii.lhi K with tluu^urtAnavtiaP 
in thtt im'ountof public mat tow it JH very in' 
.icvnrato Tiu; Muinnir ( with a portrait) in the Olimnik xvi. ^J5 f ,, i h, V sod on thi 

Oont. M^ ltj?/> ii' 

a fow inoro 

27 Vo, 1 ^"- 10 ! 1 ^^! 1 ^. 105 voln iv.nd 
x, 18l xvm, U/>; Minute of th Court *mnr- 
tuvi(prnitl 1807, Hv); JnmrH'a Naval HiHtory 
Navy hiMtM; information iY.m tho family' 
Hovoral pamphlets n^lutn^ to tho ropairHof the 
Komimy won puhtiHhwt in 1806. auiong whiHi, 
in addition to IVplmm'H own * U<>WMH fltai omenG 
rif KJWIH ( iilrwuly rofi-rml to, may I to monti<mo.l 
4 OWrwttotw on a Pumphlct which HAM boea 
Hrtiulatiwl, Hitiii to ho 4< A Ooneiwi 
of 1'WtH , * ,,"to whi(*h in uddotl a 
<Mpy of Urn Iii|nr tuado hy tlio Nnvy Board to 
th Admiralty , . .,' atoH/mouH hut admitted 
to ht) by Bmijumw Ttioknr; A, fow brief ro- 
marltH on u pamphlet pulil'mhod by omo Indi- 
dividualH HuppoM^l to ho coimort-wl with tho 
luto Hoiird <f Admiralty, mititlod M Obnerva- 
, ^<%" (an ubov), iti whieh tho calumnies 

of Mono writow iiro oxuniiutul niul ox]n>Hod/ hy 
M'X'hincM/ who di*t'luimn any porHonal aequaiiu,- 
aiu'.o wit h I'opham, Imt iHov<ptlo\vi^ with venom 
uguin8t.Tiu'kriindHt.Vim(nt; und*Chronoloi- 

byOrdrof tlui Houwoof (lommtmH in Fehruary, 
Murch,iui*l April IHOfi, roHpwtinfr tho ropairnof 
tho Homncy , . , with their ruatorial oonrmit 
and nwnit tow t*urnry romarkK in lucidation,' 
Tho foniplMto viudiwition of I'oplmm in, however, 
to bo Nought pnthttr in tho rarliamtmtary Pajpora 
already rofom)d to*l J, K, L 

POVHAM, Hut JOHN (d, U(* P), mili 
tary (unuiuandor und Hpalr-tilt of the 
JlouHo of CommnnH, WUH wn\ of Sir John 

im of tlw anc'umt 


whiru family of Popham of Popham bwtwwen 
and WiuchtHt^r. His mothp f 

to luivo b<uw Mathilda (Ancmt 
, i, 217 ; Cte/. Af. !>. p. *^). His 
uncl ; I Itmry Popham, tho hoad of th family, 
inhwpitud, through au hips, th entates of 
thu Baint Martinn at (IritiHtond in Wiltshire 
l)an in llampHhir**, and Alveratone in the 
' of Wight ; wpvwl m knight of the hire 

for HumpHhiro in various parliaments, from 
13 to 1404, and did in 1418 or 1419 (i 
pp, 19B,i^5SJ; C/. /we/, jw/tf mortem, lv. SO ; 
thw family tm in B 

P 181, cannot be reconciled with the clocu- 
montary avidrniou)* From a collnteral branch, 
settilod'at H uut worth, noar Bpidgwater, Sir 
Jolin Popham [q, v.], tho chief juntice, was 



In 1415 Popham -was constable of South- 
ampton Castle, and in that capacity had 
the custody of the Earl of Cambridge and 
the others engaged in the conspiracy dis- 
covered there just before the king set sail 
for France ( Hot. Parl. iv. 66 ; cf. Ord. Privy 
Council, ii. 33). He took part in that expe- 
dition at the head of thirty men-at-arms and 
ninety archers. Two years later he was one 
of Henry's most prominent followers in the 
conquest of Normandy, became bailli of 
Caen, and received a grant of the seigniory 
of Thorigny stir Vire, forfeited by Iierv 
de Mauny. Henry also gave him the con- 
stableship of the castle of Snith for life (ib. 
v. 179). Continuing in the French wars 
under the Duke of Bedford, Popham became 
chancellor of Anjou and Maine, and captain 
of St. Susanne in the latter county. He is 
sometimes described as 'chancellor of the 
regent ' (Pans pendant la Domination An- 
glaise, p. 298). After Bedford's death he was 
appointed to serve on the Duke of York's 
council in Normandy, but showed some re- 
luctance, and stipulated for the payment of 
his arrears, and for his return at the end of 
the year. In 1437 he was appointed trea- 
surer of the household, but before the year 
closed French affairs again demanded his 
presence, and he acted as ambassador in the 
peace negotiations of 1438-9. The Duke of 
York, on being reappointed lieutenant- 
governor of France in 1440, requested his 
assistance as a member of his council (STE- 
YENSON, ii. [586]). In the parliament of No- 
vember 1449, in which he sat for Hampshire, 
his native county, he was chosen speaker. 
He begged the king to excuse him, on the 
ground of the infirmities of an old soldier 
and the burden of advancing 1 age ; his re- 
quest was acceded to, and William Tresham 
accepted in his stead (Hot. Parl. v. 171). 
The Yorkists in 1455 reduced his pension, 
and he seems to have been deprived of his 
post at court ($. v. 312). He died, apparently, 
in 1463 or 1464 (Cal. Ing. post mortem, iv. 
320, 338, cf. p. 375). There is no satisfactory 
evidence that he married, and his lands ulti- 
mately passed to the four coheiresses of Ms 
cousin, Sir Stephen Popham (son of Henry 
Popham), -who had died in 1445 or 1446 
(Cal. Hot. Pat.?* 322; cf. BERRY, p. 21). 
One of them married Thomas Hampden of 
Buckinghamshire. The male line of the 
Pophams thus died out in its original seat. 

[Rotuli Parliamentorum ; Rymer's Fcedera, 
original edition ; Proceedings and Ordinances of 
the Privy Council, ed. Harris Nicolas ; Steven- 
son's Wars in France, Rolls Ser. ; Returns of 
Names of Members of Parliament (1878) ; Cal. 
Inquis. post mortem and Cal, Rot. Pat. pubL by 

Rec )rd Commission; Calendar of Ancient Deeds, 
publ. by the Master of rhe Rolls; Parin pendant 
la, Domination Anglaise, ed. Longnon for Soc. da 
1'Histoirede Paris; Warner's Hampshire ; Berry's 
Pedigrees of Hants ( 1 833).] J. T-T. 

POPHAM, SIB JOHN (1531 ?-l 607), 
chief- j ust ioe of the king's bench , born at Hunt- 
worth in Somerset about 1531, was the second 
son of Alexander Popham by Jane, daughter 
of Sir Edward Stradling of St. Donat's Castle, 
Glamorganshire ( Visitation of Somerset, Harl. 
Soc. xi. 125; CLAUK, Limbus Patrum,f>. 437). 
It is stated (GuiPBELL, Lives of the Chief 
Justices, i. 209) that while quite a child he 
was stolen by a band of gipsies; but the 
story is probably no more than a gloss upon 
a statement made by Aubrey (Letters by Emi- 
nent Persons, ii. 492), and repeated in more 
detail by Lloyd (State Worthies), to the 
effect ' that in his youthful days he was a 
stout and skilful man at sword and buckler 
as any in that age, and wild enough in his 
recreations, consorting with profligate com- 
panions, and even at times wont to take a 
purse with them/ It is more certain that 
he was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, 
and subsequently entered the Middle Temple, 
becoming reader in the autumn of 1568, and 
treasurer twelve years later. A certain 
John Popham is mentioned (Official List of 
Members of Parliament) as representing 
Lyme Regis in Queen Mary's last parlia- 
ment, but his identity is uncertain. Pop- 
ham, however, represented Bristol, of which 
city he was recorder, in the third or fourth 
parliament of Queen Elizabeth i.e. in 1571 
and from 1572 to 1583 (BAEHBTT, History 
of Bristol, p. 156). He was created a privy- 
councillor in 1571, and in the following ses- 
sion (1576) assisted in drafting bills for a 
subsidy, for abolishing promoters and for pre- 
venting idleness by setting the poor to work. 

Meanwhile he had acquired considerable 
reputation as a lawyer, and on 28 Jan. 1578-9 
he was specially called to the degree of the 
coif. In the same year he accepted the post 
of solicitor-general, considering that, though 
inferior in rank to that of a serjeant-at-law, 
it more certainly led to judicial honours 
(DuGDALE, Oriff. Jund. p. 127; Ohron. Ser. 
p. 95). The death of Sir Robert Bell [q. v.] in. 
1579 having rendered the speakership vacant, 
Popham was elected to the chair on 20 Jan. 
1580. On taking his seat he desired the 
members to ' see their servants, pages, and 
laclues attending on them kept in good 
order ' (D'Ewjas, Journal, p. 282). A few 
days later he was sharply reprimanded by the 
queen for allowing the house to infringe her 
prerogative by appointin g a day of public fast- 
ing and humiliation. He confessed his fault, 




and it is Haul (lUcon, Ap<if*kthnjmA) that on 
bdng anlced by tho queen shortly before tho 
prorogation of parliament what. had passed 
in tho house, he wittily renited, ' If it please 
your Majesty, seven \vodks, 1 On 1 Juno 
1581 he Hueeoecicd Sir Gilbert (lcrard[q. v.], 
created master of the rolls, as aUoruoy- 
genaral. IIo held tho post, tor cloven years, 
and took a prominent part OH crown proHoou- 
tor in many state trials (IIoWBi.T,, 8taf 
Trial*, 1 1080-1820). Jojham endeavoured 
to discharge his difficult ofhoe with humanity. 
Tn 158(5 he was induced to oiler himself as 
an undertaker in tho plantntion of Minister 
in conjunction with his sons-in-law, Kdward 


labourers thither, the diilieulties ho encoun- 
tered lod him to desist from tho enterprise 
(CaL 8tot* Pttper*, Irl. Klto. iii,77,ft9,f>08), 
Jlo was, however, appointed to assist Chiof- 
juHtice Anderson amimronOeut in examin- 
ing and compounding all claims to escheated 
lands in Minister m 15H8, Ho landed at 
"WaterFord on $2 A ug M returning to Knghmd, 
apparently, in tho autumn of tho following 
year, lie succeeded Sir Christopher Wray 
[q. v.] as lord chief justice on 3 Jun 15U*J, 
and at the aino time was Itni^htocL IIo 
prewded over tho co\irt of hiu|r*H hoiich 
Tor the romaining fiftoen years of his lifo, 
On the occHHion of tho l*3arl of KWH^X'B in- 
surrection, he wont, with other high oilicnrn 
oF utate, to Easox llouso on 8 F<>1>. HJOl for 
the purpOBo of remonatmting with him, and 
was, with thorn, contintul in a ' biw^lc cluunbur ' 
in tlw* houHO for several hourn. 1I refused au 
oiler of toleaao for himlf alone (DinvBUiiux, 
Liws t]f the flarl* <>/7sW,r r ii, 14^), At the 
trials ariwnff out of the rebellion he coin* 
b'mttd somewliat inconpfruounly tho characters 
of witness and judge (IIowKLL.tftete Trials. 

Shortly after the accesmon of James T, Pop- 
ham presided at the trial of Hir Walter Kalepi, 
and very feebly interpoaed to mitigate the 
violence of the attorwsy-gonoral, Sir Kdwanl 
Coke. His decwion that the evidonco of one 
jjeraon* whom it was not necoaaary to pro- 
duce in open court, was sufficient in <iases 
of treason, was not as is Hometimos twp* 
posed an attempt to twiflt tho law againnt 
the prifloner, but the mtorprtitution univor- 
$ally placed upon tho law of treason, an it 
was supposed to have bwn modified by tho 
statnte 1 and 2 Philip and Mary, cap. 10 (of. 
GAtoiraft, ZKf, of JBnffl I ifiO). Though 
apparcsnliy convinced of Ralogh'H guilt, ho 
sytijpHithised Bincerely with him, Aft a mem- 
ber of parlJumexxt rophain had 

for effectually 
ami vagabonds by Retting 
them to work, and as lord ehiol'justico he had 
assisted in drafting the Act ,'tti Klix. cap. 4, 
whereby ban Kslummt 'into such parts beyond 
the anus as shall be at any time hereafter for 
that purpose assigned,' was for the first time 
appointed as tho muunhnient for vagrancy, 
'taken in connection with his exertions m 
KiOtt in procuring patents for the London 
ami Plymouth companies for the colonisation 
of Virgin' I, it is perhaps not, diilieult to see 
what moaning is to be attached to Aubrey's 
statement that ho 'first set t afotte tho Plan- 
tations, e.ff. Virginia, which he stockt and 
planted out of all the gaoles of England,' 
Whether the Popham colony was really com- 

moot-pomt which has been discussed at con- 
siderable length, and with no little acrimony, 
in America (Wwsou's Hwt, of America, hi. 
175, *j()9). Popham presided at the trial of 
Guy Fawken and the other conspirators in the 
' gunpowder plot/ in !<{()(?, Ho sat on the 
bench till Master term, 1(>07* 

He died on 10 June 1(107, and was buried 
at Wellington in Somerset in the chapel on 
the south side of the parish church, 11 is 
wile lies beside him, and a nohlo monument 
was erected over thorn, with ciligies of him 
and his wife. ( )n the outskirts of the town 
stood Pophatn's house, a large and stately 
mansion, which wa destroyed during 1 tho 
civil wars, lu accordance with lus will, 
dated 31 Hopt, 1(504, a hospital was erected 
at the wont end of the town for the main- 
tenance of twelve poor and aged people, 
whereof six were to he men and six women, 
and for two poor men's children, During his 
lifetime he acquired by purchase several con- 
siderable estates in ^Somerset, Wiltshire, and 
Devonshire, According to an improbable 
story recorded by Aubrey, and alluded to by 
Hir 'Walter Bootf. in his notes to * Uokoby/ 
Littlucntt) in Wiltshire was tho price paid 
to him by Dai'ell, its previous owner, a dis- 
tant, kinsman, for corrupt ly allowing him to 
escape the legal eonsoquewws of a most atro- 
cious murder, Popham doubtless acquired 
the property by purchase, Aubrey adds that 
Popfjam * fi rut' brought in fi.o, revived] brick- 
building in London (sc alter Lincolne's Inn 
and St. Jamos's).' 

dom and of singular learning 1 and judgement 
in tho law 1 (iIo*HM, f 8M Trial** '^ W), 
and Ookii spoko of him with liko admiration 
(Oth Hep, p. 75), 
According to Fuller ( Wwthto*) il 




he is said to have advised James to be more 
sparing of his pardons to highwaymen and 
cutpurses. His severity towards thieves was 
proverbial, and it is referred to by Dr. Donne 
in his poetical epistle to Ben Jonson (1603). 
According to Aubrey i he was a huge, heavie, 
ugly man.' His portrait and a chair belong- 
ing to him are at Littlecote (BuiTTOtf, 
Beauties of Wiltshire, iii. 259). Another, 
bv an unknown hand, is in the National 

* * 

Portrait Gallery, London ; and a third (also 
anonymous) belonged in 1866 to the Duke 
of Manchester. 

Popham was the author of e Reports and 
Cases adjudged in the Time of Queen Eliza- 
beth, written with his own hand in French,* 
translated and published posthumously in 
1656; but the book is not regarded as an. 
authority. A number of legal opinions ex- 
pressed by him are preserved in the Lans- 
downe collection of manuscripts in the British 
Museum (1. 26-8, 39, 64, 70, Ivii. 50, 72, 
Ixi. 7S,lxviiL18). " His opinion on Sir Walter 
Ralegh's case touching the entail of the 
manor of Sherborne is in Additional MS. 
6177, f. 393. 

Popham married Amy, daughter and heiress 
of Robert Games of Castleton in St.Tathan's, 
Glamorganshire (or by other accounts, Ann, 
daughter and heiress of Howel ap Adam of 
Castleton). Her portrait, by an unknown 
hand, belonged in 1866 to Mr. F. L. Pop- 
ham. Sir John was succeeded by his son, 
Sir Francis Popham [q. v.] According to 
Aubrey, Popham * left a vast estate to his son, 
Sir Francis (I thinke ten thousand pounds 
per annum) ; [the latter] lived like a hog, but 
his son John was a great waster, and dyed 
in his father's time/ 

[Foss's Judges, vi, 179-85 ; Wood's Athenae 
Oxon. ed. Blis-s, i). 20 ; Collinson's Hist, of Somer- 
set, ii. 483 iii.7 1; Aubrey's Lives of Eminent Men, 
ii. 492-5 ; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. viii. 218, 
8th aer. x. 110 ; Somersetshire Archaeol. Soc. Pro- 
ceedings, xi. 40-1 ; Manning's Speakers of the 
House of Commons. A number of letters and 
documents written by or relating to Popham 
will be found in Earl. MSS. 286, 6995-7 ; Eger- 
ton MSS. 1693 f. 122, 2618 f. 11, 2644 f. 78, 
2651 f. 1, 2714 f. 32; Addit. MSS. 5485 f. 212, 
5753 f. 250, 5756 f. 106. 6178 ff. 613, 653, 705, 
803, 15561 f. 99, 19398 f. 97, 27959 f. 21, 
27961 ff. 9, 10, 28223 f. 13, 28607 f. 33, 32f>92 
f. 145, 33271 f 186 ; Lansd. MSS. adv. 34. Ixi. 
53, Ixviii. 90, Ixxvii. 50.] E. D, 

POPPLE. WILLIAM (1701-1764), dra- 
matist, born in 1701, was the only son of 
"William Popple of St. Margaret's, Westmin- 
ster, who died in. 1722, and was buried at 
Hampstead, by his wife Anne. 

His grandfather, also WILLIAM POPPLE (d. 

1708), was son of Edmund Popple, sheritt" of 
Hull in 1038, who married Catherine, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Andrew Marvell, and sister 
of Andrew Marvell [q. v.] the poet ; he was, 
accordingly, the nephew of Marvell, under 
whose guidance he was educated, and with 
whom he corresponded. He became a Lon- 
don merchant, and in 1676 was residing at 
Bordeaux, whence, ten years later, he dated 
a small expository work, entitled ' A Rational 
Catechism ' (London, 1687, 12mo). He was 
appointed secretary to the board of trade in 
1696, and became intimate with John Locke 
(a commissioner of the board from 1696 to 
1700), whose * Letter on Toleration' he was 
the first to translate from the Latin (London, 
1689, 8voandl2mo). Some manuscript trans- 
lations in his hand are in the British Museum 
(Add. MS. 8888). He died in 1708, in the 
parish of St. Clement Danes ; his widow Mary 
was living in Holborn in 1709. 

The dramatist entered the cofferer's office 
about 1730, and in June 1737 was promoted 
solicitor and clerk of the reports to the com- 
missioners of trade and plantations. He was 
appointed governor of the Bermudas in March 
1745, ' in the room of his relative, Alured 
Popple' (1699-1744), and held that post until 
shortly before his death at Hampstead on 
8 Feb. 17 '64 (Miscellanea Gfeneal. etlferaldica, 
new ser. iii. 364). He was buried on 13 Feb. 
in Hampstead churchyard, where there is an 
inscribed stone in his memory* 

Some of Popple's juvenile poems were in- 
cluded in the * Collection of Miscellaneous 
Poems' issued by Richard Savage [q. v.] in 
1726. The encouragement of Aaron Hill 
[q. v.] was largely responsible for his inde- 
pendent production of two comedies, to both 
of which Hill wrote prologues. The first of 
these, * The Lady's Revenge, or the Rover 
reclaimed* (London and Dublin, 1734, 8vo),. 
was dedicated to the Prince of Wales, and 
produced on four occasions at Covent Garden 
m January 1734, ' Dull in parts, but a pretty 
good play,' is Genest's verdict upon it. The 
second, entitled 'The Bouble Deceit, or a 
Cure for Jealousy > (London, 1736, 8vo), de- 
dicated to Edward Walpole, was produced 
on 25 April 1735, also at Covent Garden. It 
is the better piay of the two, and, according 
to Genest, deserved more success than it met 
with. About this same time (1735) Popple 
collaborated with Hill in his * Prompter,' and 
incurred a share of Pope's resentment, which 
took the usual shape of a line in the 'Dun- 
eiad : * 

Lo P p le*s brow tremendous to the town. 

Warburton elucidates by defining Popple as 
* author of some vile plays and pamphlets*' 




Tbo dramatist was not detorred from pub- 
lishing-, in 17515, a smooth but diMmo tranH- 
lation of tho' Aw 1'oottea' of Horace (Lon- 
don, 4 to), which ho dedicated to tho Earl of 

[Baker's Biogr. prnmatiea ; GonoHt's ITist of 
thrt Stage, vol. iii. ; Shoahan'ti lUwt. of Hull, 
180 1, p. 461; ManrhttHtw ft-hool Hop;. (Oholham 
fr)e,\i, 131-2; Ilowitt'M Northern Heights of 
London, 18W, pp. 148, 2M ; JVhirvoll'H Wurlw, 
1776, VO!H, i iii, piiHHttn; Oont. Mae;. 170-t, p.107; 
JsotoH and tiuoricH, 4th wr, vi, 15)8, 22'2> Olh 8or, 
i>. 30, 7th hur. ix. 48.5; Urit. MUM. Out. (whoro, 
liowevor, tho druniatint in oonfuHdd with his 
, the wsphuw of MnrveUj.] T* B. 

nn-utr, HNNKY JOHN OMOIWW, third KAII& ou 1 
CARNARVON, 1800-18.19,] 

PORDAGEj'JOIlN (1007-1031), astro- 
logor and mystic, oldt'Ht won of Sumuol Por- 
<hi#o (f/. !(&()), tfrofior, by htMwifoKlizabnth 
(Taylor), was born in, tho parish of St. DioniH 
iWkuhurch, London, and baptisdon2 1 April 
](K)7. Ho wan curato in ohar^o of St. J^aw- 
rence's, Koadin^, in J(iM, tho vicar boing 
TIiomaH(Ulburt(HH;^H}i)l)| n .v,| I'wdatfo 
in latter duficribod us viwir, bul; ommooimly, 
By 1(^7 (ailw 9 Nov. I(W)Ueww K5tor 
of Jlradflold, HorkHluro, a living 1 in the giffc 
of KlittH Awhinolo [q, v.j, who tliought highly 
of liift antrolo^icat knowliKig^, Baxter, who 
duHcrilwrt him UN ehiuf of tho * IMimtniBt,V 
or English followttrn of Jacob Jto(>hmi^kn(>w 
of him through a young man, probably 
Ab'uwr Coppo [i. v.l, who in l(UI) was 
living undtir Pordafjf*M roof in a * family 
comnmnion,' thw m<Ttibtrrt * aHpiring aft^r 
tho highest Hpiritual Htato* through * vinibla 
communion with angeln,* JJaxttir thought 
thy triwl to carry too far 'tho pnrft1 ion of 
a monaHtical lift*/ Among tlummdvoM this 
family wont by acripturo nattit; Pordnga 
was* Father Abraham/ hU wife was 'Do- 

lie \va chargod beforo tho committoe for 
plundered ininiHturw with liortsHioH comprised 
in nine articluw, ucciiHing him of a ort of 
inyBtical pantlwiftm, Jiut on 27 March 1 051 
the committee acquitted him on all counts, 
On 18 Sept. 1064 ha wa summoned to ap- 
pear on 5 Get, before the county coimniH- 
si oners (known as ' expurgated) at tho 
Boar Inn, Specnhawland, Borknlure. Tho 
nine articlea wore revived against him at tho 
instance of John Tickel [q, v,], a prosbytcrian 
divine at Abingdou, Berkshire. The inquiry 
was successively adjourned to 19Qct,, 2 Nov., 
2% Nov., and 80 Nov., fwah art ickfl being from 
time to time brought forward against him, 
to the number of ilfty-siz, in additiou to 

tho original nino. Most of thorn dealt with 
unHubHtnutiul mnttorw of personal goaaip* 
tho aatUHation of intercourse with spirits 
wan prmod (from 19 Oct.) by Christopher 
I'owhsr [, v, 1 Tt WOH intido a charge turainst 
him that h had Rhlt,rod Robert Everard 
[q. v. J and ThomaH Tuny [q. v.] One of his 
maid-HervaiitH, wluio attoting some of the 
MiorioH about. apirilH, boro witness to the 
purity and j>icty of tho family life, By 
a() Nov. l*owjyo WJIH too ill to appear; the 
in<|uiry wan adjournod to 7 Doc. at tho Bear 
Inn, Uwiding'. On 8 Doe. tho commissioners 
ojootod him a ' i( s nu)ratit and very insufficient 
for the work of the' U.e was to 
loavo tho roctory by ^ I^ob. and clear out 
LIB barns by 25 Alimih 1(>55, 

AUho HHt oration l^mla^ewaflnnnstttted, 
In l(J(j:$ ho IXTIUUO ao.quaintnd with Jane 
Load or Uwdo fq. v/), and ansisUid hur in 
tho study of Jacob 'Boohmo. In August 
1(573 or I74(lhoro in a doubt about the 
y oar ) 4 Port lu^o and Mm, l^ad'iirHt agroed 
to wait toyot bcr in )>mynr and purt^ dedica- 
tion ,' I<Vnci,H 1 .<(* [ q/v. ], Jane J Bead's son- 
in-hiw, HjioaUn warmly of I > or(la^e T H chwout- 
IUSSH and nincority, maintaining' that Miis 
cotiviM'Hution wiw aw tnalieo iUelf can 
hardly c*xcopt against./ Ho was not, how- 
over, a tmm of robuHt intolloct; his iunight 
into Hoelnut% f 8 writing was fet^blo, and his 
thooHophy wiw of tho t^motiotuil order* In 
hiH will lio doMoribort hiniHolf as t doc,tor in 
phywiidc/ It, dooH not. appear that ho hold 
tho dotfivo of M.U., though it wiw iwHigned 
to him by othorn, and he was commonly 
callod Dr, Pordaj^o. 

Ho dind in l(J8l,and was Juried in Sfc 
AndrowX n<in>om,on 1 1 Doc. Hirtwili,made 
on 28 Nov. KWl, and ppcivtwl ,17 Jan. 1(JS, 
was witnoHHod by .Jnm Ij^ad. UIN portrait 
wan ( njyravod by Miilhorms, Ilirt lirnt wife, 
Mary (Lane), of Tonbury, WorccBtornhiro, 
waHburitnl at Hradfiold on Sifi Any. UiOB. 
,11 IH second wifo wa Mliziibeth, widow of 
Thomas Faldo of London* 11,18 son Samuel 
i aoparutcly notic.nd; he had other sons: 
John, William, and Honjamin, Ills daughter 
Kliaabath was buriud at Jiradfiold on 23' Dec. 
1(1(^1; othor daujfhtors wore Mary, Sarah, 
(married StiRtoad), and Abigail His brother 
Franom, who gurvivod him, was rector of 
Stan ford- Dingloy, Hiirlwhin*. 

I Jo publiHiioJl: L 'Truth appearing 
through tlio Oloud of undtworved Scandal/ 
&c., Itt/5l5,4to (publittlwd on 23 Doc. 154, 
according to ThomnHon's noto on the British copy). & ' Innoconcy appearing- 

4* IH **>*' M ^%b Irk 4 9 lhJt t-1 *t bm I* II I I i^J* ft *ft * Wh MtJ tJ" 1 t* *r* Jrlji^l f*ifel4l4' ' 



missioners of Berks . . . against John Por- 
dage,' &c., 1655, 4to; reprinted in* State 
Trials ' (Cobbett), 1810, v. 539 sq. 4. The 
Fruitful Wonder . . . By J. P., Student in 
Physic/ c., 1674, 4to (account of four 
children at a birth, at Kingston-on-Thames, 
probably by Pordage). Posthumous were : 
5. * Theologia Mystica, or the Mystic Divi- 
nitie of the ^Eternal Indivisible ... By a 
Person of Qualitie, J. P., M.D.' c., 1683, 
8vo (prefaced by Jane Lead, and edited by 
Dr. Edward Hooker; Francis Lee had a 
* much larger ' treatise of similar title ' under 
the Doctor's own hand ; * subjoined, with the 
second title-page, is * A. Treatise of Eternal 
Nature '). 6. * Ein griindiich philosophisches 
Sendschreiben/ &c., Amsterdam, 1698, 8vo; 
reprinted (1727) in F. Roth-Scholz's ' Deut- 
sches Theatrum Chemicum,' 1728, 8vo, vol. i. 
7. * Vier Traetatlein,' &c., Amsterdam, 1704, 
8vo. A. two-page advertisement in Jane 
Lead's * Fountain of Gardens,' 1697, 8vo, 
gives full titles of the following works of 
Pordage, unpublished in English: 8. 'Philo- 
sophia Mystica/ &c. 9. *The Angelical 
World/ c. 10. < The Dark Fire World/ &c. 

11. 'The Incarnation of Jesus Christ/ &c. 

12. The Spirit of Eternity/ &c. 13. 'Sophia,' 
&c. 14. * Experimental Discoveries/ &c. The 
Vita J. Orellii Franci/ by J. P., M.D V pre- 
fixed to Crell's * Ethica Aristotelica/ Cosmo- 
poli (Amsterdam), 1681, 4to, assigned to 
Pordage, is by Joachim Pastorius, M.D., and 
was originally published in Dutch, 1663, 4to 
(see SAND, Bibl. Antitrinit. 1684, p. 149). 

[Pordage's Narrative, 1655, and other tracts 
(most of the Narrative is reprinted in Cobbett's 
State Trials, vol. v. and in earlier collections) ; 
Fowler's Daeraoniura Meridianum, 1655-6 ; 
Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 1098, iv. 405, 
715; Reliquiae Baxterianae, 1696, i. 77 sq. ; Poiret's 
Bibliotheca Mysticorura, 1708; Calamy's Ac- 
count, 1714, p. 96 ; Granger's Biographical Hist, 
of England, 1779, iii. 55 sq. ; Lys<>ns's Magna 
Britannia (Berkshire), 1813, p. 246 ; Walton's 
Memorial of William Law, 1854, pp. 148, 192, 
203, 240; Notes and Queries, 15 Feb. 1862, p. 
136 ; Chester's Registers of St. Dionis Back- 
church (Harleian Soc.), 1878, p. 93; Foster's 
Marriage Licenses, 1887, p. 469; Hist. M*S. 
Comm. llth Rep. App. pt. vii. pp. 189, 192; 
Harleian MS. 1530, f. 34 (pedigree) ; W. Law's 
Works, 1892, vi. 201 ; Pordage's will in the Pre- 
rogative Court of Canterbury (8 Cottle) ; infor- 
mation from the rectors of Bradfield and St. 
Andrew's, Holborn.] A. Gr. 

PORDAGE, SAMUEL (1633-1691?), 
poet, eldest son of John Pordage [q. v.] by his 
first wife, was baptised at St. Diouis Back- 
church, London, on 29 Dec. 1633 (Register, 
published by Harleian Society, 1878). He 

entered Merchant Taylors' School in 1644, and 
at the trial of his father ten years later he ap- 
pears to have been one of the witnesses. In his 
title-pages he variously described himself as 
' of Lincoln's Ina ' and * a student of physick.' 
He was at one time chief steward to Philip 
Herbert, fifth earl of Pembroke [see under 
HEBBEBT, PHILIP, fourth EARL], but he 
chiefly devoted himself to literary work ( COB- 
BBTT, State TrialSyVoLv.) While residingwith 
his father at the parsonage of Bradfield, Berk- 
shire, in 1660 he published a translation from 
Seneca, with notes, called * Troades Englished/ 
About the same time he published ( Poems 
upon Several Occasions, by S. P., gent.,' a 
little volume which included panegyrics upon 
Charles II and General Monck, but which con- 
sisted for the most part of amatory poems, 
full of conceits, yet containing among them 
a few graceful touches, after the fashion of 

In 1661 a volume appeared called ' M un- 
dorum Explicatio, or the explanation of an 
Hieroglyphical Figure. . . . Being a Sacred 
Poem, written by S. P., Armig.' This book, 
which was reissued in 1663, is attributed to 
Samuel Pordage by Lowndes and others ; but 
its contents are entirely unlike anything else 
which he wrote. The writer of the unsigned 
preface to this curious work of over three 
hundred pages says that the hieroglyphic 
'came into my hands, another being the 
author ; * and there is a poetical i Encomium, 
on J. [~Behmen] and his interpreter J. Spar- 
row, Esq.' It has been suggested that tha 
real author was Pordage's father, a professed 
Behmenist. Mr. Crossley argues that there 
is no proof that the work is by either John, 
or Samuel Pordage. Bishop Kennett, how- 
ever, writing in 1728, attributed the work to 
Samuel. Possibly both John and Samuel 
Pordage had a share in the authorship of this 
* sacred poem.' 

In 1661 Samuel Pordage published a folio 
pamphlet, i Heroick Stanzas on his Maiesties 
Coronation. 1 In 1673 his ' Herod and Mari- 
amne,' a tragedy, was acted at the Duke's 
Theatre, and was published anonymously. 
Elkanah Settle, who signed the dedication 
to the Duchess of Albemarle, said that the 
play, which was ' little indebted to poet or 
painter/ did not miss honours, in spite of its 
disadvantages, thanks to her grace's patron- 
age. The principal parts- in this rhymed tra- 
gedy, the plot ot which was borrowed from 
Josephus and the romance of l Cleopatra,' were 
taken by Lee, Smith, and N orris (GterEST, 
Account of the English Stage, ; . 17 1) . Lang- 
baine says that the play had been given by 
Pordage to Settle, to use and form as he 
pleased. In 1678 appeared *The Siege of 




Babylon, by Samuel Pordago of Lincoln's 
Inn, Ka<|,, author of tho tragedy of " Herod 
nit A Manamno." ' Thift play had been licenced 
"by L'Kfitrange on 2 Nov. 1077, and acted at 

Gwyn appeared, Tho wtory IH bused upon 
* Oaasandra ' and other romancea of the day 
(2?;. i. 213), In the dedication to tho Duchess 
of Yorlc, LVmliigti said that. ' Herod and 
Mariumno' had hilhorto pawned under the 
name of another, while ho was out of Kng~ 
land; but, as her royal highnowH was HO 
ploasotl with it, Pordago could nob forbear 
to own it. 

Pprdago broug-ht out in 1(171) tho sixth 
edition of John Reynolds^ 'Triumphs of 
God's Revenge ngaiust tho sin of Murthor j ' 
hu prefixed to it a dedication to ShaftoHbury. 
Jn 1081 he wrote a Kinglo folio hoot, * A new 
Apparition of Sir Edmundbury Godfrey ' 
UhoKt to tho M, of I>~ in the Tower/ and 
tho printer wus obliged to nwlte a public 
apology for tho reflections on Dauby which it 
contained (jfitott*/V# Dumwtick Infotlit/mM, 
21 July KivSJ). Between 1U81 and im he 
irtttuod 'Tho Ueinainmg Medical Worlc of . . 
,I)r. Thomaa AVUlfa . , , Englished by 8. P., 
Kq.' Thero IH a Amoral dtidicatiou to Sir 
Tlwophilua Biddulph, bart, f ni^ned by Poi^ 
dape; and vrH *(,)n the aut.hor' Mtxltco* 
philosophicnl DincourseH/ in all probability 
by him, precede t he flrat part. 

Drydwi's 'Absalom and Aelritophol ' ap- 
peared in Novemb< k r 1($H1, and among the 
anawors which it called forth WIIH Pordnge'H 
'Aaiaria and Huwhai, a Poem,* 108^, pub- 
liHhed on 17 Jan., according to a contem- 
porary note* In this piece Ajsaria was the. 
Ihilw of Monmouth, Amazia tho lung, ll'iwliai 
Bhaftesbuyy, and Slumoi Drydon; and tho 
pot^m, so far from being, m it in somotimos 
callo<i, a malignant attack on T)ryden, itt 
comparatively free from pemmalitioa *As 
to truth, who hath the better hold let tho 
\vorld judge; and it is no now thing for the 
same persons to be ill or wall represented by 
several parties/ Somo limjs, too, wore devoted 
to L'Estrange, who wa called Biblmi, On 
16 March ]08S Dryclon brought out 'Tlio 
Medal, a -Satire against Sedition,* an attack 
on Shafteabury, and on 31 Marclx Fordage 
published ^The Medal rcvorn'd, a, Batyro 
against /Persecution/ with an epistle, ad* 
dressed, m imitation, of Dryden t to his eno- 
,wiio, the toriea, Pordage rtuid ho did not 
"believe that the authors of ' Abbttlom aud 

Achitophol ' and Tho T\rdal ' woro tho same, 
yet, as thy cl<wird to bo thought so, each 
boar tho roproaohca of tho other. 


JVEntrango attacked Pordago in the ' Ob- 
rvator ' for 5 April 1GH2 on account of ' A 

.-,,._, ,. i !' i, >* Airrvnn* VfAAv? iLUUJLUEtu 

LMfat -range. Drydtm, in tho fteoond part of 
< Abaalom and Aehitophel/ published in No- 
vember, described Pordago as 

Lame Mophibowhoth, tho wizard's eon. 

Tn Mnjr John Olclhnm, in his < Imitation of 
tho Third Satire of Juvenal,' had ridiculed 
Pordago, and in another * Satire' mentioned 
Pordago among tho authors who had ' grown 
contemptibly und Hlightod Hinco.' Besides 
tho pieeun already mentioned, Pordage is 
staled to havij written a romanco called 
'KHana/ but the date is not given, and no 
copy Heonm known. 

Writing in 1091 , Langbaino flpoke of 
Pordago aw lately, if not Hi ill, a member of 
Lincoln's Inn. Tho exact dale of his death 
IwHnot boon Mcortainod, A fckmuel Pordage, 
a Htranger, who, like tho poet, wan born in the 
pariah of St., Hionis Baehdwrdi in Kfttt, was 
buried there in HJGH, Pordage married about 
KHJO Dorcaa, yonngtwt daughter of William 
Langhorno, by whom lu> had a son, Charles, 
born in KW1, and othw insno. When his 
father ditwl in 1081 ho left Hilver Bpoons to 
two of SamiN'l'H children (ftarl.M&\ ir)3().f. 
U j will of John Pordago, LMXG. 8 Cottle). 

[Author it ion i twl ; l^ooti^'fi Marriago Lic< 
Jtobinnon'tt Mtu'eliunt Taylorn* KrpjiHtor; Gent. 
Mag, 183-1, ii, 4i)f> ; Cenwura Liforarin, by Huslo- 
wcjod, viii. 247-fil ; Not** and Quoriow, 3rd sor. 
vii, 443 ; liiogr, Dnunatiea ; HcoU.'a Drydon, ix, 
872 j Profiiwjor II, Morlv*H VirBfc Sketch of Eng- 
ViHh Literature, pp. 710-10; Jacob, i, 204; 
Wood*8 Atheuttj Oxou* d. Blian, ii, 149, 150, iiu 
1008-11 00.] 0* A, A* 

poetess, [SooJ" 

POEBEK, WILLIAM (17554823), 
architocty born in 1755 at II all, w grandson 
of llogur Pourden, an arehit ect of York* His 
early tato for tho art> procured him the 
notice of tho j)oet Mawon, -who introduced 
him to James Wyatt; [<j t vj After studying 
architecture in Wyattn otlico, he became the 
pupil of Samuel PupyB (Joclcoroll [q. v.] On 
leaving th lattur ho waft made secretary to 
Lord Bhdfwld, and by him appointed pay- 
mawter to tho 2&id dragoons; but, on the 
reduction of thin regiment oon afterwards, 
1 ro3um<3d hits former atudioa, In 1778 ha k 



exhibited designs for a Gothic church at the 
Koyal Academy, where his work continued 
to be seen at intervals. In 1785-6 Porden 
vas chosen to make the necessary fittings in 
"Westminster Abbey for the Handel festival. 
He was also employed by the parish of St. 
George's, Hanover Square, and was surveyor 
of Lord Grosvenor's London estates. From 
1790 onwards he designed a number of 
churches and mansions in various parts of 

In 1804 Porden began his most important 
work, Eaton Hall in Cheshire for Lord 
Grosvenor a palace of celebrated, if some- 
what too florid, magnificence. This work 
occupied him till 1812. He was assisted, 
first by his son-in-law, Joseph Kay, and later, 
by B. Gummow, who built the wings in 
1 823-5. Besides the superintendence of the 
works at Eaton, he was busy with several 
other buildings, chiefly at Brighton, where 
he erected, in 1805, stables, riding-house, and 
tennis-court for the Prince of Wales's Pavi- 
lion ; adding, during the two following years, 
the west front and entrance hall. In 1808 he 
designed Broom Hall, Fifeshire, and Eccle- 
ston church, near Chester, in 1809 and 1813. 
He died on 14 Sept. 1822, and was buried m 
St. John's Wood chapel. According to Hed- 
grave, his end was hastened by annoyance 
at being superseded two years before in his 
employment as architect to Lord Grosvenor, 
to whom his work did not give entire satis- 
faction. Extensive alterations and additions 
have been made to Eaton Hall since his 

Porden had a numerous family, all of 
whom died young, except two daughters ; the 
elder of these married, in 1807, Joseph Kay 
(1775-1847), the architect of the new post 
office in Edinburgh -and surveyor to Green- 
wich Hospital j the younger, Eleanor Anne 
(1797 P-1825), the first wife of Sir John 
Franklin, is separately noticed. 

[Diet, of Architecture ; Redgrave's Diet, of 
Art ; sts ; Eicklin's Guide to Eaton Hall; private 
information.] L. B. 

POEBETT, BOBERT (1783-1868), 
chemist, son of Robert Porrett, was born in 
London on 22 Sept. 1783. When he was 
eleven years of age he * amused himself by 
drawing up and writing out official papers 
for his father/ who was ordnance storekeeper 
at the Tower of London. These productions 
led the war office officials to oner to keep 
him in the department as an assistant. Pie 
was appointed in 1795, promoted later to be 
chief of his department, and retired on a pen- 
sion in, 1850, when his services received 
ollicial acknowledgment, He died on 25 Nov. 

1868, unmarried. Robert Porrett Collier, 
lord JNlonkswell [q. v.], was his nephew. 

Porrett was elected fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries on 9 Jan. 1840 and of the 
Royal Society in 1848. He was an original 
fellow of the Chemical Society, and also a 
fellow of the Astronomical Society. His 
position and residence in the Tower led him 
to take an interest in antiquities. He was a 
recognised authority on armour, on which 
he contributed several papers to 'Archieo- 
logia ' and the * Proceedings ' of the Society 
of Antiquaries. 

Although, he was not a professional che- 
mist, Porrett did valuable work in experi- 
mental science. Towards the end of 1808 
he found that by treating prussic acid with 
sulphuretted hydrogen a new acid was formed, 
which he termed prussous acid. For this 
investigation he was awarded a medal by the 
Society of Arts. In 1814 he discovered the 
qualitative composition of the acid, and 
showed that it was formed by ihe union of 
prussic acid and sulphur, and termed it sul- 
phuretted chyazic acid. Its present name 
of sulpho-cyanic acid was given by Thomas 
Thomson (1773-1852) [q. v.] (THOMSON'S 
Annals of Philosophy, sii. 21 (5), and its 
quantitative composition was determined in 
1820 by Berzelius. In 1814 Porrett also 
made the important discovery of ferrocyanic 
acid, which he termed ferruretted chyazic 
acid. He showed by the electrolysis of the 
salts, then known as triple prussiates, and 
by the isolation of the acid itself, that the 
iron contained in the salts must be regarded 
as forming part of the acid, thus confirming 1 , 
a suggestion previously put forward by Ber- 
thollet (Kopp, Geschichte der Ohemie^ iv. 
377). He examined the properties of the 
acid carefully, and showed that it can easily 
be oxidised by the air, Prussian blue being 
formed at the same time; this observation, 
has been utilised in dyeing (Porrett in Philo- 
sophical Transactions, 1814, p. 530, and 
WATTS, Diet, of Chemistry, ii. 227). Ppr- 
xett attempted to determine the quantitative 
composition of prussic acid, and showed that 
when it is oxidised the volume of carbonic 
acid formed is exactly twice that of the 
nitrogen. But his other data are erroneous, 
and the problem was completely solved by 
Gay-Lussac shortly after, Porrett in 1813 
made some interesting experiments in con- 
junction with Rupert E.irk and William 
Wilson on the extremely dangerous sub- 
stance, chloride of nitrogen, 

His * Observations on the Flame of a 
Candle, 3 a paper written in 1616, contain 
important and hitherto neglected confirma- 
tion of Davy's then just published view of 




the structure of luminous flame, recently 
defended by Srnithelltt (Ckem,, Soc. Tram, 
1892, p. 217), According to Porrett, the 
light is mainly due to free carbon formed in 
the flame owing to the decomposition by heat 
of gaseous hydrocarbons. His ingenious 
experiments deserve repetition, and the ob- 
servation that the luminous portion of the 
llama is surrounded completely by an almowt 
invisible mantle, arid that a spirit-lamp flame, 
though more transparent than glass, casts a 
shadow when placed in front of a candle 
flame, are of much importance. His cliomi- 
cal investigations on gun-cotton, published 
in 1840, are not of groat value, 

Porrett's sole contribution to physics was 
the discovery of electric ondnamosis in 181<> 
(THOMSON, Annals of JPhilow^Jiy, viii. 74). 
The phenomenon had, according to Wiodo- 
mann (Galwntmnuit und fltektruitftt, Ifited. 
i. 370), boon observed previously by Jteuas, 
but Porrott'H discovery was independent, 
and the phenomenon for long wunt in Uer- 
many by his name. 

Porrett's style in clear and unpretentious, 
his exposition methodical and workmanlike. 
Probably owing to lack of time, ho did not 
attain the technical nlull necessary to com- 
plete the investigations he began so bril- 
liantly. It is unfortunate for wcionco that 
a man of such marked capacity should have 
given to it only his leisure. 

The following is a list of his scientific 
papers: 1. In the 'Transactions' of the So- 
ciety of Arts : ' A Momoir on the Prussic 
Acid' (1809, xxvii, fc9-108). In Nicholson's 
* Journal :' 2, ' On the Pruseie and Pruflsous 
Acids ' (1810, xxv. 4-l). & < Oa the Com- 
bination of Chlorino with Oil of Tarpon- 
tine 1 (1812, xxxiii. 194) (> 4 'On the Explo- 
sive Compound of Chlorine and Azote' (in 
conjunction with H. Kirk and W, Wilson) 
( 1 8'1 #, xxxiv. 27tt). In the < Philosophical 
Transactions : ' 5. ' On the Nature of the 
Salts termed Triple Pruasiateft, and on Acids 
formod by tho Union of certain Bodies with 
the Elements of Prussic Acid ' (ft Juno 1814, 

1815). In Thomson V Annals of Philosophy ;' 
7, 'Curious Galvanic Experiments' (1816, 
viii. 74). 8, ' Observations on the Flame of 
a Candle' (viii, 8S7). 9. 'On the Triple 
Prusaiateof Potash' (1818, xii. 214), 10, 'On 
the Anthrassothion of Von Grotthuss, and 
on Sulphuretted Chyasic Acid ' (1819, xiii. 
350). 11. ' On Ferrochya&ate of Potash and 
the Atomic Weight of Iron' (1819, xiv. 
2)/5). In the Chemical Society's * Memoirs : ' 
' On the Chemical Composition of Guxx- 

Cotton' (in conjunction with E, Tesehe- 
machor) (184(f, iii. sJfiH). 18. <(m tlie 
Kxistonce of a new Alkali in Gun-Cotton' 

( * i \ t tM \ vw\^*^ 

HI. 287). 

[Besides tho sourcoa montionod aboro, 
olntiiarioa in Chom. 8oc. Journ. 189, p. vii; 
Proc, Koy, iSoc. vol. xviii. p, iv,; Proc. Soe. of 
AntiquariwB. 2nd or. iv. 06; rog^endorff's 
lttugraphtHi'h-litttniriHclu'8 llandwortorbuch zur 
OeBch. der oxnkten WiH8onchafton; Porrott's 
ownpupern.] E J. H. 

PORS03JT, KIOTIARD (1759-1808), 
Greek scholar, was born on 26* Dec. 1759 
at Eotit Huston, noar North Walehara, Nor- 
folk, wlujre his father, Huggiu Porson, was 
parish chirk; his mothur, Anne, was the 
daughter of a shoonmhor named Palmer in 
the neighbouring- village of Hacton. Richard 
was the aoeona of jour children, having 
two brothers and a sister Elizabeth (17r>lj- 
IW2). He was sent first to the village 
school of Duct nn, and thence, after a short 
fit-ay, to tho village school of llappiwburgh, 
whoro tho martUir, Summers to whom 
Poraon was always grateful grounded 
him in Latin and mathematics. The boy 
nhowod an extraordinary memory, and was 
wpmtialty roitiarkablo Jor his rapid pro- 
iiciency 'in arithmtitic, His father muant 
to put him to tho loom, und meanwhile 
took a keen interest hi his educntion, making- 
him nay over every evening the lessons 
learned during tho d'ny* Whtn Porsou had 
been three yirH witli Summern, and was 
eleven yoarn old, hi rare promise attracted 
the notice of tho Uov. T. tltnvii.t (curate of 
the purish which included Kant Huston 
and liacton), who undertook to educate him 
along with \m own HOUM, keeping him at his 
liousii at Bncton during tho week, and send- 
ing him home ibr Sundays, For nearly two 
years Porson watj taught by Hewitt, con- 
tinuing hiw .Latin au<l mathematical studios, 
and beginning (jruok. In 177% whontho 
"boy waa thirteen, J\Ir* N orris of VVittou 
Park, moved by Hewitt, float him to bo ex- 
amined at Cambridge, with a view to de- 
ciding whether he ought to bo prepared for 
tho university. Tho examiners wuro James 
Lambert [q. v.], tho regi us professor of C|rook ; 
Thomas rostluthwaito fq. v] and William 
Oollior,tutors of Trinity Oollogoj andGoor^o 
Atwood [q, v.], tho mathematician. Their 
report dotorminod JMr. Norria to Bend Por- 
eon to somo great public school. It was 
desired to place him oiUhe foundation of the 
OhartorhouBo, but the* governors, to whom 
application was mudo, had promised their 
nominations for the nwtt vacancios; and, 
eventually, in AuguBt 1774, ho was ontort'd 
on tho fouudatiou of Eton Gollogo. At 




Eton he stayed about four years. The chief 
source of information concerning his school- 
life there is the evidence given, after his 
death, by one of his former schoolfellows, 
Dr. Joseph Goodall, provost of Eton, who 
was examined before a committee of the 
House of Commons on the state of educa- 
tion in the country, and was asked, among 
other things, why ' the late Professor Por- 
son * was not elected to a scholarship at 
King's College, Cambridge. The answer to 
that question was, in brief, that he had 
entered the school too late. When he came 
to Eton he knew but little of Latin prosody, 
and had not made much progress in Greek, 
His compositions, though correct, ' fell far 
short of excellence.' ' He always under- 
valued school exercises, and generally wrote 
Ins exercises fair at once, without study/ 
* Still, we all looked up to him/ says Goodall, 
*in consequence of his great abilities and 
variety of information.' It is said that once 
in school he construed Horace from memory, 
a mischievous boy having thrust some other 
book into his hand. He wrote two plays to 
be acted in the Long Chamber, one of which, 
called l Out of the Frying-pan into the Fire,' 
exists in manuscript in the library of Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; it is full of rollicking 
fun, but nowhere rises above schoolboy level. 
While at Eton he had a serious illness, due to 
the formation of an imposthume in the lungs, 
which permanently affected his health, and 
caused him to be frequently troubled by 
asthma. In 1777 his benefactor, Mr. 
N orris, died. This loss threatened to mar 
Porson's career ; but Sir George Baker, then 
president of the College of Physicians, 
generously started a fund to provide for his 
maintenance at the university, and, as Dr. 
Goodall tells us, * contributions were readily 
supplied by Etonians.' 

Porson was entered at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, on 28 March 1778, and commenced 
residence there in the following October. 
He was then eighteen. Thus far he had been 
distinguished rather by great natural gifts 
than by special excellence in scholarship. 
While he was at Eton the head-master, Dr. 
Jonathan Davies [q. v.], had given him as a 
prize the edition of Longinus by Jonathan 
Toup [q. v.] This book is said to have been 
the first which excited his interest in critical 
studies. His systematic pursuit of those 
studies began in his undergraduate days at 
Cambridge. He had a distinguished career 
there. In 17SO he was elected a scholar of 
Trinity College. In December 1781 he 
gained the Craven University scholarship. 
A copy of seventeen Greek iambics which 
he wrote on that occasion is extant ; it is 

without accents, and is curious as exhi- 
biting, besides some other defects, three 
breaches of the canon respecting the ' pause ' 
which Porson afterwards enunciated. In 1782 
he took his degree of B.A. with mathema- 
tical honours, being third ' senior optime * 
(i.e. third in the second class of the tripos), 
and shortly afterwards won the first of the 
two chancellor's medals for classics. In 
the same year he was elected a fellow of 
Trinity College, while still a junior bachelor, 
though, under the rule which then existed, 
men of that standing were not ordinarily 
allowed to be candidates. He took the de- 
gree of M. A. in 1785. 

The story of the great scholar's life is 
mainly that of his studies, but clearness will 
be served by postponing a survey of his writ- 
ings to a sketch of the external facts of his 

From 1783 onwards Porson contributed 
articles on classical subjects to several 
periodicals, but the work which first made 
his name widely known was the series of 
* Letters to Travis ' (1788-9 ) . These ' Letters ' 
were the outcome of theological studies in 
which he had engaged for the purpose of de- 
termining whether he should take holy orders. 
He decided in the negative, on grounds which 
he thus stated to his intimate friend, Wil- 
liam Maltby [q. v.] : 'I found that I should 
require about fifty years' reading to make 
myself thoroughly acquainted with divinity 
to satisfy my mind on all points.' The 
decision was a momentous one for him. He 
had no regular source of income except his 
fellowship (then about 100J. a year), and, 
under the statutes of Trinity College, a fellow 
was then required to be in priest's orders 
within seven years from his M.A. degree, 
unless he held one of the two fellowships 
reserved for laymen. Porson, having be- 
come M.A. in 1785, reached that limit in 
1792. A lay fellowship was then vacant, 
and would, according to custom, have been 
given to Porson, the senior lay fellow, but 
the nomination rested with Dr. Postlethwaite, 
the master, Porson formally applied for it; 
but the master, in reply, wrote advising him 
to take orders, and gave the lay fellowship 
to John Heys, a nephew of his own. The 
appointment of Heys is recorded in the * Con- 
clusion Book 7 of Trinity College, under the 
date of 4 July 1792. In the summer of 1792 
Porson, who was then living in London, called 
on Dr. Postlethwaite at Westminster, where 
he was staying with the dean (Dr. Vincent), 
for the purpose of examining for the West- 
minster scholarships. The interview was a 
painful one. Porson said that he came to 
announce the approaching vacancy in his 




fellowship, H'mco he could not talio order*. 
Dr Post lot hwnite expressed wurpriHo at. 
that nwolvo. Poroou indignantly w joined 
that, if ho had inhmdud to take orders, he 
would not have applied fora lay followHlnp. 
r JV> the mid of hifl days I'orwni belwvod 
that in thin matter Iw had Ruiltsnsd n onto 
wrowr; and the to'liol" wns Hhnmlby iwyoral 
of IUH friends. Dr, Oharlefl Bnrnuy, writ ing 
in Iteemnbur 171)2 to Dr. Samuel Purr, inn- 
t lows that Porwon (roftsrring to IUH BtudioH) 
had boen wiying ho\v hard it wan, ' wluw a 
man's spirit- luidoiuw botw hrohon,to renovate 
it. 1 Having lost hi fellowship, Porson wan 
now (to nau bin own phrase) 'a gentleman 
iu London with ixponoo in his pocket.: At 
tlii linns an ho iift-or wards told hifi nephow, 
"Ha\veB,he watt indeed inthogniat^tHtraitrt, 
und wan compiled, by Htinting h;r u < 
food, to nmko a guinea hwt a mouth. 
whilo Homo of hi* t'riondw and admirorw 
privately raised a fund for the purposo ot 
luiying Itim aa annuity, A hitter from I)r. 
MaUho\v Unino (of UluwtrhouH) to Dr. 
Parr shown the good Wing of tho mib- 
auribnw. Person wan givwn to understand 
that ' this wan a tribute of literary nin to 
literature/ and a protest ngainnt auch treat- 
ment; a he had recently experienced, Iho 
amount eventually weurod to him was 
about 100*. a year. He accepted it on con- 
ditiou that the principal Hum of which he 
was to receive the interoHt whouldbe voHtod 
in trustees, and returned, at hifl death, to 
the donors, Alter his duwwiw, tlw donora, 
or their repwwmtativtw, having dwlmod to 
recoive back their gift*, th wsiduo of the 
fund WOK applied to tmtabliHlung the PorHon 
priKe and the Porson choliubip m the 
univerHity of Oambridgo. 

PorBon had now taken rooms at, J!.BBOX 
Court in the Temple, Ili fellowship wan 
vacated in July 1702. Shortly afterward* 
"William Oooke [see under (boKfi, WIILIAM, 
i{, 1780], rogiua profcBBorof (Jreok at Oam- 
bridMjireaignwl that pot, Dr, lotlothwait 
'themastoof Trinity) wrote to Porson urging 

,,,. then attached to the oflico was the 
tw*. a ytmr with which Henry VI II hud en- 
dowed it in Io40. The dinti notion conferred 
on the chair hy HH fivst occupant, Sir John 
Cheko, had b<um maintamed hy several of 
his wuccoHHorn, wueh UH James Duport, Isuac 
jJarrow, and Walter Taylor. But latterly 
t)ui(<ro<>k profeMMorn had ceaH( v d to lecture. 
Porwon, at the time of hi.s election, certainly 
mU^nded to bocouu^ an active teacher, But 
he mover fulilllcul IUH iuteution* It has been 
paid that be could not obtain rooms in his 
college lor the purpose, Thiw is improbable, 
though Homo temporary difficulty on that, 
score tnay have diHOOxiragod him. When his 
friend Maltby akd him why he had not 
lor.ttirod, he wild, * ttoeajuw I have thought 
b(tter on it; whatever originality my lectures 
might have had, people would have cried out, 
"Wo knew nil thm before."' Some such 
fcwlingwaH, no doubt, one cause; another,- 
probably, wan t ho indolence which grew upon 
him (in r<'#ard to everything except private 
tudy). And in thono days there was no 
KtinwluH at the univevHitk v H to pnr a reluc- 
tant innn into lonturing. But if he did 
nothing in that way, at any rate ho served 
the true purpose of bin chair, as few have 
Bwved it, hy writing which advanced the 
knowlodgu of hi wubject. p 

After bin oUwtion to the profeftflorahrp, 
Porwin continutsd to live in London at the 

_ 4 *4* i . . jf "*4 . .._ . 

jturntini. v.^/*l^ l **J l * '" -' --- ---- -- 

Timpl, ranking occasional visits to uam 
bridge, where it. wan IUH duty to take part 
in certain clasweal oxaminatiom, lie alno 
Wint Homt^timeH to ISton or to Norfolk; but 
he dinlikwl t vavellinK, In hia chambers at 
the Temple be inunt have worked very hard, 
though tirobaMy by fit* and atari H rather than 
C(itinuouMly. ' ( )n morning, 1 nayw Maltby, 
I went to call upon him t hurts and, having 
inquired at his biu-ber'H cloa by if Mr, 1 ornoix 
was at homo, WUH anHwonxl, '* VOH ; but ho has 
won no otitt for two day. w I> however, -pro- 
cooded to WH chamber , and 1< n ockwd at the door 
wove than once. t He would not P^.^ a ^ 
Icamw " 

the impreHflion that . - -~ * 

mjm the Thirty-nine Articles, and wrote to 

Postlethwaite, Oct, 179S: 'The name reason 

which hindered me from keeping my fellow*- 

ship by the method you obligingly pointed out 

to me would, I ajn greatly afraid, prevent. me 

from being Greek profuaBor.' On learning 1 , 

however, that no such test was exacted, he 

resolved to Htaud, He delivered Wow the 

seven elcctorw a Latin prelection on Kunpidea 

(which he had written m two days), and, 

having been unanimously ebcted, was ad- 

joitted jroftiBflor ow 8 Nov. 1T9^ Ilxo only 

uiti viBiuu*-, %II.U..VM, tlm window and 

m/ The work in which Powoii was then 

UWl 1**<K TT H,._^ -. ^ 

abwwbed wa tho collation ot tlio 
manunoript of tlm Odytwf fi * Gpuvdk 
Homer, publinhrf in lHt)i. 1U aoaety wJ 
much sought by iaon of lottew, and twmewhnt 
bv lion-huntiiw; but to the luttwr, i however 
dkinguislu'd they might bo, he had a strong 
ftvmftum Amont? hin intiwitito ftiends wns 


insr Ohvonioiot' In November uwoj.omui 
marriod Ptirry'n itr, Mrs. Liman ; thpr 
uuion aeom to have boeu a happy one, ^ 



it was brief, for Mrs. Person died of a decline 
on 12 April 1797. [The year of the marriage 
is given as 1795 by some authorities, but 
H. R. LUA.ED, Cambridge Essays, 1857, p. 
154, is right in giving 1796.] During the 
few months of his married life Person lived 
at 11 Lancaster Court, but after his wife's 
death he went back to his chambers at 
the Temple in Essex Court. The six years 
1797-1802 were busy; they saw the pub- 
lication of the four plays of Euripides 
which he edited. About 1802 a London 
firm of publishers offered him a large sum 
for an edition of Aristophanes. A letter 

Preserved among the Person MSS. in the 
brary of Trinity College proves that even 
as late as 1805 such a work was still ex- 
pected from him. Dean Gaisford had found 
in the Bodleian Library l a very complete 
and full index verborum to Aristophanes,' 
and on 29 Oct. 1805 he writes to Porson 
offering to send him the book, * that if it 
should suit your purpose, it might be sub- 
joined to your edition, which we look for 
with much eagerness and solicitude.' But, 
during the last five or six years of his life, 
Person's health was not such as to admit of 
close or sustained application to study. He 
now suffered severely from his old trouble of 
asthma, and habits had grown upon him 
which were wholly incompatible with steady 
labuur. In 1806 the London Institution 
was founded ; it was then in the Old Jewry, 
whence it was afterwards removed to Fins- 
bury Circus. The managers elected Porson 
to the post of principal librarian, with a salary 
of 200/. a year and a set of rooms (No. 8 Old 
Jewry), an appointment which was notified to 
him on 23 April by Richard Sharp (* Conversa- 
tion Sharp '), one of the electors. * I am sin- 
cerely rejoiced,' Sharp writes, f in the jjrospect 
of those benefits which the institution is likely 
to derive from your reputation and talents, 
and of the comforts which I hope that you 
will find in your connection with us.' The 
managers afterwards complained (and justly 
in the opinion of some of Porson's friends) 
that his attendance was irregular, and that 
he did nothing to enlarge the library ; but in 
one respect, at least, he made a good librarian 
he was always ready to give information to 
the numerous callers at his rooms In the In- 
stitution who came to consult him on matters 
of ancient or modern literature. 

Early in 1808 his wonderful memory began 
to show signs of failure, and later in the year he 

Court, Strand, and, not finding him at home, 
went on. towards Charing Cross. At the 
corner of Northumberland Street he was 
seized with apoplexy, and was taken to the 
workhouse in St. Martin's Lane. He could 
not speak, and the people there had no clue 
to his identity ; they therefore sent an adver- 
tisement to the t British Press,' which de- 
scribed him as ' a tall man, apparently about 
forty-five years of age, dressed in a blue coat 
and black breeches, and having in his pocket 
a gold watch, a trifling quantity ef silver, 
and a memorandum-book, the leaves of which 
were filled chiefly with Greek lines written 
in pencil, and partly effaced ; two or three 
lines of Latin, and an algebraical calculation ; 
the Greek extracts being principally from 
ancient medical works.' Next morning 
(20 Sept.) this was seen by James Savage, 
the under-librarian of the London Institu- 
tion, who went to St. Martin's Lane and 
brought Porson home. As they drove from 
Charing- Cross to the Old Jewry, Porson 
chatted with his usual animation, showing 
much concern about the great fire which had 
destroyed Covent Garden Theatre the day 
before. On reaching the Institution, he 
breakfasted on green tea (his favourite kind) 
and toast, and was well enough to have a 
long talk with Dr. Adam Clarke in the 
library, about a stone with a Greek inscrip- 
tion which had just been found in the 
kitchen of a London house. Later in the 
day he went to Cole's Coffee-house in St. 
Michael's Alley, Cornhill. There he had 
another fit, and was brought back to the Old 
Jewry and put to bed. This was on Tuesday 
afternoon, 20 Sept. His brother-in-law Perry 
was sent for, and shewed him the greatest 
kindness to the end. He sank gradually 
during the week, and died at midnight on 
Sunday, 25 Sept. 1808, in the forty-ninth 
year of his age. On 4 Oct. he was buried in 
the chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge, the 
funeral service being read by the master, Dr. 
Hansel, Many Trinity men have heard the 
veteran geologist, Professor Adam Sedgwick, 
tell how he chanced to come into Cambridge 
from the country on that day, without know- 
ing that it had been fixed for the funeral, and 
how, anxious to join in honouring the memory 
of the great scholar, he borrowed a black 
coat from a friend, and took his place in the 
long procession which followed the coffin 
from the college hall through the great 
court. Porson s tomb is at the foot of New- 

suffered from intermittent fever. In Septem- [ ton's statue in the ante-chapel, near the 
ber he complained of feeling thoroughly ill, I place where two other scholars who, like 
with sensations like those of ague. On Mon- him, died prematurely Dobree and John 
day morning, 19 Sept., he called at the house Wordsworth were afterwards laid. Bent-ley 
of his brother-in-law, Perry, in Lancaster rests at the eastern end of the same chapel* 




Ole-brity and eccentricity combined to 
make Porson the subject of count loss stories, 
many of which wtjru exaggerated or apo- 
cryphal ; but there remains enough of trust- 
worthy testimony towipply a tolerably clear 
picture of the man, His personal appearance 
IH described in Prvwe Kockluirt (Gordon's 
'Personal Memoirs r (i. iiHH). Ho was tall 
nearly six foot in stature ; tho head was 
a very fine one, with an expansive foroheud, 
ovor \vhlch 'his shining brown hair' was 
sometimes combed straight forward; tho 
nosn was Roman, and rather long; the. eyes 
*keen and penot rating/ and shaded wit h long 
lashes, * 11 is mouth was full of expression ; 
and altogether his countenance indicated 
deep thought.' Them are t.wo portraits of 
him at Cambridge ; one by Hoppner (in the 
university library), the original of a well- 
luwwn engraving ; another, by Kirkby, in 
tho master's lodge, at Trinity l-ollego, Two 
busts of him alno exist: ono by Ulmntrey, 
which, in tins opinion of his nephew, Siday 
Hawas (the write.r of tho article * Porson 1 
in Knight's * Wngliah Kneye.lopiedia 1 ), was 
not a good likeness; atid another which 
tho same authority commends as excellent 
by Qangimulli, from a caut of tlw head 
and face taken after death, The 


preiixod to Powm'H * Advcrn 
from (UnautdU'H btint. UIH f 


according to Mr. Gordon, waw 'a Hinart bluo 
coat, white vent;, black wit in nether gnr- 
mtmtfl and flilk Ht,ockin|jfH, with a whirl 
rulllcd at tho wrists/ But, acx'-ording to 
Maltby, ( \w waft j(tmmHy iH-dr<^s^d and 
dirty*' Dr. Ka'me, indtwd, naid that he had 
known Powm to bo refused ftdmittanc by 
wrvantfl at the hoim^H of IIIH friondH. Dr. 
I )avi t a phywician at Bath,onco took Portion 
to a bail at tho aaseinbty rotmiH thon, and 
introduced him to th H^v li. Wartitsr, who 
]\m det*ibed the horror folt by th miiKt^r 
ofthticeromom8 at the fitrangidipnw * with 
lank T uncombtid locks, a IOOH<J ntuslkcloth, and 
wrinkled fitockinga,' It waft in, vain that 
Warner triod to explain what a #mit man 
was there (WAKOTK, iterary Jteeollections, 


AB a companion, Person Rwmfito have btn 
delightful when ho felt at home and liked the 
peoplotowhomliBwa talking, 'In company,' 
says Thomas Kidd, fc H, P, waa the gntlt 
being I ever met with; hi conversation 
was engaging and delightful ; it wae at once 
animated by force of reasoning, and adorned 
with all the graces and ombttlltohmtmts of 
wit/ Gilbert Wakefield, on tho othur hand 
t least after 1797, disliked 

assigns three reasons why th&ir interoourso 
haxi ixot beem more frequout : viu. Porsou'B * iu- 

~ ' ^ - i B 

attention to time* and seasons,' which made 
him an inconvenient, guest ; his < immoderate 
drinking- ; ' and tho uninteresting insipidity 
of his conversation.' Tho last charge means 
probably, that Porson stubbornly refused to 
bo communicative in Wakeiield's company, 
A less prejudiced witness, William Heloe 
Iq. v.], nays of Porson that, ' except, where 
he was exceedingly intimate, his elocution 
wns perplexed and embarrassed,' But Dr. 
John .Jolmstone, tho. biographer of T)r, Parr', 
1ms described what Porson's talk could be 
like when he felt, no such restraint, They 
mot at, Purr's house in the winter of 1790-1. 
Porson was rather gloomy in the morning, 
more, genial after dinner, and 'in his glory' 
at nijrht, ' Tho charms of his society wore 
then irresist ible. Many a midnight hour did 
1 sjwnd with him, listening with delight 
while ho poured out torrents of various 
literature, the, best, sentences of the best 
writers, and Hometimestho ludicrous beyond 
the gay; pages of Barrow, whole lettera of 
Uichardsou, whole scenes of Konte, favourite 
pieces from the periodical press.' His me- 
mory was marvellous, not only for its tena- 
city, but. also for its readiness; whatever it 
contained he could produce at. the right mo- 
ment. He was owe at a party given by 
Dr, Charles Burney at Hammersmith, when 
the guests worn examining Homo old news- 
papers which gave a detailed account of tho 
execution of Charles F, ( )ne of the company 
remarked that some of the particulars there 
given had not been mentioned, he thought, 
by Hume or Hap'nu Porson forthwith re-* 
pe.ated a hmg passage from Hanm in which 
these circumstances were duly recorded. 
.Rogers once took him to an evening party, 
where he was introduced M o several women 
of fashion/ * who were very anxious to sou 
the great Grecian* How do you suppose he 
entertained them P Ohieily hy reciting an 
immense quantity of old forgot'ten Vauxhall 
Hongs," Asa rule, Porwm declined invita- 
tions of this nature, * They invite nits merely 
out. of curiosity,' he once said, ' and, after 
they have, sat.mtied it, would like to kick mo 
downstairs** One day Bir James Mackin- 
tosh, with whom h*i was dining, asked him 
to go with him the next day to dinner at 
Holland UOUBO, to meet Fox, who wished to 
be introduced to him. Porwm seemed to 
assent, but the next morning made some 
excuse for not going, H WHB a proud man, 
of high spirit, who resented the faintest suspi- 
cion of patronage ; and he als i disliked the 
restraints of formal society* With regard to 
his too frequent intmnpomnee, the facts ap- 
pear to bo HK follows it was not believed by 
his friends that ha dntuk to excusa when he was 




alone. He could, and often did (even in his 
later years), observe abstinence for a longer 
or shorter period. But from boyhood he had 
been subject to insomnia ; this often drove him 
to seek society at night, and to sit up late ; 
and in those days that easily led to drinking. 
A craving was gradually developed in him, 
which at last became essentially a disease. 
His best friends did their utmost to protect 
him from it, and some of them could suc- 
ceed; but he was not always with them, 
and, in less judicious company, he would 
sometimes prolong his carouse through a 
whole night. Byron's account of him is to 
the effect that his demeanour in public was 
sober and decorous, but that in the evenings, 
in college rooms, it was sometimes the re- 
verse. It should be remembered that these 
recollections refer to the years 1805-8 (in 
which Byron was an undergraduate), when 
Person's health was broken, and when his 
infirmity was seen at its worst (cf. LUA.BD, 
Correspondence of Ponton, p. 133), That 
the baneful habit limited Person's work and 
shortened his days is unhappily as little 
doubtful as are the splendour ot his gifts and 
the rare vigour of constitution with which he 
must have been originally endowed. 

The most salient feature of Person's cha- 
racter is well marked by Bishop Turton in 
his ' Vindication * (1815). 'There is one 
quality of mind in which it may be confi- 
dently maintained that Mr. Person had no 
superior I mean the most pure and in- 
flexible love of truth. Under the influence 
of this principle he was cautious, and patient, 
and persevering in his researches, and scru- 
pulously accurate in stating facts as he found 
them. All who were intimate with him 
bear witness to this noble part of his cha- 
racter, and his works confirm the testimony 
of his friends/ It might be added that the 
irony which pervades so much of Person's 
writings, and the fierce satire which he could 
occasionally wield, were intimately con- 
nected with this love of accuracy and of 
candour. They were the weapons which he 
employed where he discovered the absence 
of those qualities. He was a man of warm 
and keen feelings, a staunch friend, and also 
a good hater. In the course of life he had 
Buffered, or believed himself to have suffered, 
some wrongs and many slights. These, acting 
on his sensitive temperament, tinged it with 
cynicism, or even with bitterness. He once 
described himself (in 1807) as a man who 
had become * a misanthrope from a morbid 
excess of sensibility.' In this, however, he 
was less than just to himself. He was, in- 
deed, easily estranged, even from old ac- 
quaintances, by words or acts which offended 

him. But his native disposition was most 
benevolent. To those who consulted him on 
matters of scholarship he was liberal of his 
aid. Stephen "Weston says *he told you all 
you wanted to know in a plain and direct 
manner, without any attempt to display his 
own superiority, but merely to inform you.' 
Nor was his liberality confined to the im- 
parting of his knowledge. Small though his 
means were, the strict economy which he prac- 
tised enabled him to spare something for the 
needs of others : he was * most generous (as his 
nephew, Mr. Siday Hawes, testifies) to the 
three orphan children of his brother Henry.* 
There is a letterof his extant written in 1802 
when his own income was something under 
140Z. to his great friend Dr. Martin Davy 
(master of Caius) asking him to help in a 
subscription on behalf of some one whom 
he calls ' the poor poet. 7 He was free from, 
vanity, 1 1 have made myself what I am,' he 
once said, 'by intense labour; sometimes, hi 
order to impress a thing upon my memory, I 
have read it a dozen times, and transcribed it 
six.' And, though he could be rough at times, 
he was not arrogant; never sought to impose 
his own authority, but always anticipated 
the demand for proof. His capacity for great 
bursts of industry was combined with chronic 
indolence in certain directions. He had a 
rooted dislike to composition ; and though, 
under pressure, he could write with fair 
rapidity, lie seldom wrote with ease unless, 
perhaps, in some of his lighter effusions. 
This reluctance was extended to letter- 
writing ; even his nearest relatives had cause 
to complain of his silence. In the case of 
some distinguished scholars, his failure to 
answer letters was inexcusable. Gail, of the 
College de Prance, sends him books, with a 
most courteous letter, in 1799, and a year 
later writes again, expressing a fear that the 
parcel must have miscarried, and sending 
other copies. Eichstadt, of Jena, had a pre- 
cisely similar experience in 1801-2, aggra- 
vated by the fact that the book which he 
seat (vol. i. of his * Diodorus ') was actually 
dedicated to Person, in conjunction with 
Koraes, Wolff, and Wyttenbach. The sarfe 
kind of indolence unfitted him for routine 
duties of any sort. In his later life he was 
i also averse to travelling. * He hated moving/ 
says Maltby, e and would not even accom- 
pany me to Paris.' Long years passed with- 
out 'his once going from London to Norfolk 
to see his relatives ; though he was a good 
son and a good brother, and, when his father 
became seriously ill, hastened down to stay 
with his sister. The sluggish elements which 
were thus mingled with the strenuous in his 
nature indisposed Mm for any exertion be- 




yond the range of his dioson mid favourite 
pursuit*. As he cured nothing 1 For money, 
so ho cared little lor rtjpulation, at leant, in 
tho popular sense; the only applauwo which 
be valued wus that of scholars who satistiod 
Ills fastidious judgment. Ho worked with a 
clear consciousness of the limitH within 
which he could work bast. Rogers men- 
tions that someone asked l*oron why he did 
not produce more original work, and he re- 
plied/! doubt if I could produce any original 
work would command tho attention 
of posterity, I can be known onlyjiy nry 
notes; and I am quite satisfied if, three 
hundred yearn hence, it shall be wild that 
one Pomm lived towards the, clowo oF the 
eighteenth century, who did a good deal for 
the text of Kuripi'des/ 

All Porson's principal writings aro com- 
prised in the short period from h'm twenty- 
fourth to his forty-Fourth year ( 1 788-1 HIM). 
Tim last five year's ofhw lite (1H04- 8), when 
his health was failing, are represented only 
by a very few private letters ; though somo 

o'f the WHOM in h w books mav be of that time. 


short paper on SchutK 1 tt/K8chylu,ivnda moro 
elaborate one on Brtmek's Aristophanes; in 
17H4 a notiee of the book in which Stephen 
Weston dealt with tho fragments of the ele- 
giac poet Hwnnmanax, and a few pages on 
d L Uunt'mgford's defence of his Oreek 
verses ('Apology for tho Monostrophics * ), 
Comparatively slight though these articles 
tire, taey give glimpses of his critical j;ower; 
one fragment of Ilerinossianax, in particular, 
(<tp, Athen, p. 5JK)A, vv, 90 if.) is brilliantly 
restored, In 1780, when II utohinson's edition 
of the ' Anabasis' was boiuja? reprinted, ho 
added some notes to it. (pp. xli4ix), with a 
short preface, During these early yeara, Por- 
8011*8 thought* were turned especially to- 
wards yEsehyhiH, It had already been an- 
nounced in * Maty's Kevkvw '(for March and 
October 1788) that ' a scholar of Cambridge 
was preparing a new edition of Stanley's 
^acliyius, to which ho proposed to ndd his 
own note, and would be glad of any com- 
munications on the subject, either from En- 
glishmen or foreigners/ Tho syndics of the 
Cambridge University Press were then con- 
templating a new edition of /Kschylus, and 
offered the editorship to Poronj Who, how- 
ever, declined it, on finding that Stanley's 
text was to be followed, and that all Ptiuw'w 
xio,tes were to bii included. Ho was anxious 
to be sent to Florence to collate tho Medicoan 


mission at, .small cost- ; but the propoHafwuR 
rejected, one of the syndics remarking that 
Porsou might < collect ' his manuscripts 
at home. It was always characteristic of 
Porson to vary his graver studies by occa- 
sional writings of a light or humorous kind. 
One of the earliest examples, ami porhapa 
the best, is a Nories of three lot tors to the 
'Gentleman's Magaxine 1 (August, Snptem- 
bur, October 1787) on the < I a to 'of Johnson 
by Sir John I fawkins an ironical panegyric, 
in which 11 a wkin.s's pompous style isparodied. 
Tho f Fragment ' in whieh Sir John is sup- 
posed to relate what passed between him- 
self and Johnson's ins^ro servant about tho <le* 
caused I)od.or*H watch -is wpial to any thin 
in Thftkiray. It was in tho ' ( % hmtl!man'a 
Ma^uints* too, tor 1788 and 1780, that Por- 
son published his first important work, the 
'Lett owtoTriwiH.'ArchdweonOiM)rj3fo Travis, 
in his * to Gibbon,* had dtstendod tho 
f^MUun<tneHH of the text 1 St. John v, 7 (tho 
three heavenly witness), to which Gibbon, 
(ch. tt7, note 1^0) hud nfemul us bem# an 
Juterpolatltm. The lusst orities, from Ilrasmus 
to Bontley, hud been of (iibbon's opinion, 
Porson, in bin * Letters to Travis,' ru views 
the history of the disputed text in detitil> 
and proven its sjwriousness with conclusive 
force, llts morit here is not originality, biit 
critical tlnoroughuosft, luminous method, and 
sound reasoning Travis rciv<s no morey ; 
but his book deserved none* Portion was an 
admirer of Swift and of ' Juntas.' In thwso 
'Letters* he occasionally reminds us of both* 
*To pru8uch a mnssof sophistry/ he said, 
* without sometimes giving way to' laughter, 
and sometimes to indignation*, was, to me 
at leunt, imposHible,* The collectml Matters 
to Travis* wero published in 1790,^ In the 
preface is Porson H well-known osthnate of 
Uibhon, whose, style he crit icises, while fully 
appreciating the' monumental greatness of 
lus work, Otto of the results of Person's 
labours was that an old lady, who had mtant 
to leave him a large sum, on being informed 
that h had * attacked Christianity,' cut down 
the legmy, In 17HO, while the ' Letters to 
Travis * were in progress, Porson found leisure 
to write an article in the ' Monthly lleview/ 
defending tho geuuimm<ss of the 'Parian 
Chroniclo* ngainst certain objections raised 
by the Rev* J, Robertson* A new edition of 
TWp's 'KiiwwlatkmrtHiu Suklam* came forth 
from the Oxford Press in 1790, with notes 
and a preface by Porson (which ho had 
written in 1787), 'This was tho work which 
first made IUH powera widely known among 
I scholars. Tho three yours l78HflOinay thus 
I bo said to be those in which his high rupu- 




tation to be raised still higher afterwards 
was definitely established. 

In 1793 he wrote for the ' Monthly Review * 
a notice of an edition, by Dr. T. Edwards, 
of the Plutarchic tract on education ; and 
in 1794 a notice of an essay on the Greek 
alphabet, by R. Payne Knight. The London 
edition of tleyne's Virgil (4 vols. 1793) ap- 
peared with a short preface by Person, who 
had undertaken to correct the press. He was 
blamed for the numerous misprints ; but a 
writer in the ' Museum Criticum ' (i. 395) 
says, ' he has been heard to declare that the 
booksellers, after they had obtained permis- 
sion to use his nume, never paid the slightest 
attention to his corrections.' In 1795 a folio 
JSschylus was issued from the Foulis Press 
at Glasgow, with some corrections in the 
text. These were Person's ; but the book 
appeared without his name, and without his 
knowledge. He had sent a text, thus far 
corrected, to Glasgow, in order that art 
edition of JEschylus for a London firm 
might be printed from it ; and this edition 
(in 2 vols. 8vo) was actually printed in 1794, 
though published only in 1806, still with- 
out his name. This partly corrected text 
was the first step towards the edition of 
^Eschylus which he had meditated, but 
which he never completed. 

In 1796 Samuel Ireland [q. v.] was pub- 
lishing the Shakespearean papers forged by 
his son, W. H. Ireland : Kemble acted for 
Sheridan at Drury Lane in * Vortigern and 
Rowena/ and shortly afterwards Malone ex- 
posed the fraud. Person wrote a letter to the 
'Morning Chronicle,' signed *S. England,' 
setting forth how a learned friend of his had 
found * some of the lost tragedies of Sophocles' 
in an old trunk. As a specimen he gives 
twelve Greek iambic verses (a translation of 
* Three children sliding on the ice '). Among 
his other contributions to the 'Morning 
Chronicle ' at this period, the best are 'The 
Imitations of Horace '(1797),political satires 
of much caustic humour, on the war with 
France, the panic as to the spread of revo- 
lutionary principles, &c., couched in the form 
of free translations from the Odes, introduced 
by letters in prose. In 1797 his edition of 
the ' Hecuba ' of Euripides was published in 
London, without his name. The preface (of 
sixteen pages) states that the book is meant 
chiefly for young students, and then deals 
with certain points as to the mode of writing 
Greek words, and as to metre. The notes 
are short, and all ' critical.' Gilbert Wake- 
field, angry at not finding himself mentioned, 
attacked the book in a feebly furious pam- 
phlet (* Diatribe Extemporalis '). Godfrey 
Hermann was then a young man of twenty- 

VOL. xivi. 

five. In 1796 (the year iu which he brought 
out the first edition of his treatise on Greek 
metres) he had written to Person, asking for 
help in obtaining access to the manuscripts 
of Plautus in England: a request which 
Heyne supported by a letter from Gottinaren. 
Nothing could be more courteous or appre- 
ciative than the terms in which young Her* 
mann wrote to Porson (the letter is in the 
library of Trinity College) ; but he was now 
nettled by Porson's differences from him on 
some metrical points : and when, after edit- 
ing the ' Kubes' in 1799, he brought out a 

* Hecuba * of his own in 1800, he criticised 
the English edition with a severity and in a 
tone which were quite unwarrantable. There 
are tacit allusions to Hermann (as to some 
other critics) in Porson's subsequent writings, 
and once at least (on 'Medea,' v. 675) he cen- 
sures him by name. As Blomfield observed, 
traces oft he variance bet ween these two great 
scholars may be seen in the attitude of Her- 
mann's pupils, such as Seidler and Reisig, 
towards Porson. The c Hecuba' was followed 
in the next year (1798) by the ' Orestes,' and 
in 1799 by the ' Phoenissse. 7 Both these plays, 
like the first, were published in London, and 
anonymously. But the fourth and last play 
which Porson edited the' Medea' came out 
at the Cambridge Press, and with his name, 
in 1801. The ' Grenville' Homer, published 
in he same year at the Clarendon Press, had 
appended to it Porson's collation of the Har- 
leiau manuscript of the Odyssey (HarL MS* 
5674 in the British Museum). In 1802 he 
published a second edition of the * Hecuba,* 
with many additions to the notes, and with 
the famous ' Supplement ' to the preface, in 
which he states and illustrates certain rules 
of iambic and trochaic verse, including the 
rule respecting the ' pause ' (' canon Porso- 
nianus ' ) . This ' Supplement * may be regarded 
as, on the whole, his finest single piece of 
criticism. Here his published work on Euri- 
pides ended. A transcript by Porson of the 

* Hippolytus,' vv. 176-266, with corrections 
of the text, was in J. H. Monk's hands when 
he edited that play (1811). As appears from 
the notes on Euripides in Persons 'Adver- 
saria' (pp. 217 ft), the 'Supplices' -was an- 
other piece on which he had done a good deal 
of work ; but there is no reason to think that, 
after publishing the four plays, hehad brought 
any fifth near to readiness for the press. 

i His original purpose, no doubt, had been to 
! give a complete Euripides (preface to the 
'Hecuba,' p. xiii) ; but after 1802 his health 
was unequal to such a task. The ' Monthly 
Review ' for October 1802 contained a curious 
letter, so characteristic of Porson as to de- 
serve mention. Having discovered an over- 




sight in one of his own notes (on ' Hecuba ' 
782), he wrote to the * Review,' signing 
himself 'John NIC. Dawes/ and instructively 
correcting ' Mr. Person's ' blunder. His choice 
of the pseudonym was suggested by the fact 
that the eminent critic llichard Dawes had 
onee pointed out the similar oversight of 
another scholar ( DAWES, Misc. Crit. p. 2 16). 
On 13 Jan. 1803 Porson presented to the 
Society of Antiquaries his restoration of the 
last twenty-six lines of the Greek inscription 
on the Rosetta stone, with a Latin transla- 
tion. It is printed in the transactions of 
the society (Archeeologla, vol. xvi. art. xxvii.) 

After Person's death his literary remains 
were published in the following works: 
1. l Ricardi Porsoni Adversaria/ 1812. His 
notes and emendations on Athenseus and 
various Greek poets, edited by Monk and 
Blomfield. 2. H is ' Tracts and Miscellaneous 
Criticisms/ 1815, collected by Thomas Kidd. 
3. < Aristophanica/ 1 820. His notes and emen- 
dations on Aristophanes, edited by Peter 
Paul Dobree. 4. His notes on Pausanias, 
printed at the end of Gaisford's 'Lectiones 
RatonicsB,' 1820, 5. 'The Lexicon of Pho- 
tius/ printed from Person's transcript of a 
manuscript presented to Trinity College by 
Roger Gale (' Codex Galeanus '), edited by 
P. P. Dobree, 1822, 2 vols. 6. Porson r s 
Notes on Suidas, in the appendix to Gais- 
ford's edition, 1834. 7. l Person's Corre- 
spondence/ edited for the Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Society, by H. R. Luard, fellow of 
Trinity College and registrary of the univer- 
sity, 1867. A collection of sixty-eight letters 
written or received by Porson (1783-1808), 
including letters from eminent scholars at 
home and abroad. Pew men, probably, have 
ever had so distinguished a series of literary 

Person's papers in the library of Trinity 
College were arranged in 1859 by Dr. Luard, 
and are bound in several volumes, to each of 
which a table of contents is prefixed. The 
collection includes: (1) The originals of 
many of the letters printed in the ' Corre- 
spondence/ (2) Person's transcript of the 
Lexicon of Photius, from the Gale MS. This 
was the second copy which he made, the 
first having been destroyed in a fire at Perry's 
house in 1797. It consists of 108 leaves, 
written on one side only, in double columns. 
(3) Person's transcripts of the 'Medea' 
and the * Phrenissse.' These, with the Pho- 
tius, are truly marvels of calligraphy. The 
so-called ' Porson ' type was cut from this 
manuscript of the 'Medea.' 4. Scattered 
notes on various ancient authors, written in 
copy-books, in a hand so minute that forty 
or fefty notes, on miscellaneous subjects, are 

sometimes crowded into one small page. A 
collation of the Aldine^schylusis especially 
remarkable as an example of his smallest 
writing : it might be compared to diamond 
type. Besides Person's papers, the college 
library possesses also about 274 of his books, 
almost all of which contain short notes or 
memoranda written by him in the margins 
or on blank leaves. "The notes, edited by 
Monk, Blomfield, and Dobree, were taken 
mainly from the papers, but partly also from 
the books. 

Textual criticism was the work to which 
Person's genius was mainly devoted. His 
success in it was due primarily to native 
acumen, aided in a degree perhaps un- 
equalled by a marvellous memory, richly 
stored, accurate, and prompt. His emenda- 
tions are found to rest both on a wide and 
exact knowledge of classical Greek, and on a 
wonderful command of passages which il' us- 
trate his point. He relied comparatively,, 
little on mere * divination/ and usually ab- 
stained from conjecture where lie felt that 
the remedy must remain purely conjectural. 
His lifelong love of mathematics has left a 
clear impress on his criticism ; we see it in 
his precision and in his close reasoning. 
Very many of his emendations are such as 
at once appear certain or highly probable. 
Bentley's cogent logic sometimes (as in his 
Horace) renders a textual change plausible, 
while our instinct rebels ; Porson, as a rule, 
merely states his correction, briefly gives 
his proofs, and convinces. His famous note 
on the ' Medea/ vv. 130 f M where he dis- 
engages a series of poetical fragments from 
prose texts, is a striking example of his 
method, and has been said also to give some 
idea of the way in which his talk on such 
subjects used to flow. AtlicniBus, so rich 
in quotations from the poets, afforded a 
field in which Porson did more, perhaps, 
than all former critics put together. He 
definitely advanced Greek scholarship iu 
three principal respects ; (1) by remarks on 
countless points of Greek idiom and usage ; 
(2) by adding to the knowledge of metre, 
and especially of the iambic trimeter ; (3) by 
emendation of texts. Then, as a master of 
precise and lucid phrase, alike in Latin and 
in English, he supplied models of compact 
and pointed criticism. A racy vigour and 
humour often animate his treatment of 
technical details. He could be trenchantly 
severe, when he saw cause ; but his habitual 
weapon was irony, sometimes veiled, some- 
times frankly keen, always polished, and 
usually genial. Regarding the correction of 
texts as the most valuable office of the critic, 
he lamented that, in popular estimation, it 




stood below 'literary' criticism, which he 
very unduly depreciated (KiBD, Tracts, p. 
108). He admitted the utility of explana- i 
tory and illustrative comment (Pr&f. ad 
JTec.), but he never wrote it. Textual criti- 
cism can seldom, however, neglect interpre- 
tation without incurring a nemesis. Porson 
(speaking of Heyne) once said, ' An eagle 
does not catch flies, and the higher criticism 
is sometimes so intent on subject-matter 
[rebus] that it neglects words' which is 
true ; but there is the converse danger ; and, 
in cases where Porson's emendations do not 
command assent, it is sometimes because the 
larger context condemns them. He had 
much humour, but little imagination. In all 
that concerns diction, he was an acute judge 
of style, for prose and verse alike; but it 
may be doubted whether his taste in poetry 
was equally sure ; in his Latin discourse on 
Euripides, he is far less than just to Sopho- 
cles ; and a passage in the * Tempest ' (' The. 
cloud-capped towers,' &c.) was ranked by 
him beneath similar but very inferior lines 
in ' Darius/ a tragedy by Sir William Alex- 
ander, lord Stirling [q, v.] His range of read- 
ing was a wide one. Among his favourite 
English authors were Barrow, Swift, Ri- 
chardson, Smollett, and Foote; Shakespeare, 
whom he knew thoroughly ; Milton, whom 
he wished to vindicate from Johnson's injus- 
tice ; Dry den, and (in a special degree) Pope. 
He had read many French writers, and some 
Italian. From almost every book that he 
loved he could quote pagps. 

Porson's place in the history of scholarship 
may be concisely indicated. Bentley had 
been a brilliant textual critic, and also (as 
in his 'Phalaris') a pioneer of the higher 
criticism. The emendation of texts was the 
line in which he was followed by our chief 
classical scholars of the eighteenth century, 
such as John Taylor, Markland, Dawes, 
Toup, Tyrwhitt, Heath, Musgrave. . Now, 
Porson's work in this field had a finish, an 
exactness, and a convincing power which 
tended to raise the general estimate of all 
such work as a discipline for the mind. Por- 
son did much to create that ideal of scholar- 
ship which prevailed at Cambridge, and 
widely in England, for more than fifty years 
after his death ; an ideal which owed its in- 
fluence largely to the belief in its educa- 
tional value. On the other hand, he lived 
before the study of manuscripts and of their 
relations to each other had become sys- 
tematic. Hence his work necessarily lac&d 
one element of scientific value, viz, a con- 
stant regard to the relative weight of dif- 
ferent witnesses for a text. A time came, 
therefore, when the type of criticism which 

i . , ., . 

he represents was felt to be, though excel- 
lent^in itself, yet, from the scientific point 
of view, incomplete ; while its limitation to 
the linguistic side of scholarship made it ap- 
pear, from the educational point of view, less 
satisfactory than it had once been deemed. 
There was a reaction one-sided at first 
against the Porsoniaii school ; but already 
the forces of a larger and maturer view are 
reacting against the reaction. And no vicis- 
situdes in the tendencies of classical study 
can ever obscure the fame of Porson. He 
brought extraordinary gifts and absolute 
fidelity to his chosen province, leaving work 
most important in its positive and perma- 
nent result, but remarkable above all for its 
quality the quality given to it by his in- 
dividual genius, by that powerful and pene- 
trating mind, at once brilliant and patient, 
serious and sportive by turns, but in every 
mood devoted, with a scrupulous loyalty, to 
the search for truth. 

[Gent. Mag. Sept. and Oct. 1808 ; Narrative of 
tbe last. Illness and Death of R. Porson, by Dr. 
Adam Clarke, London, 180S (there is also an ac- 
count by James Savage, the under-librnrian of the 
London Institution, to whom Clarke owed several 
particulars) ; A Short Account of the late Mr. 
Porson, London, 1808 : reissued in 1814 -with a 
new preface and a piece entitled Tejuiix^ &c., or 
Scraps from Porson's Rich Feast, by Stephen 
Weston (of little valued ; Imperfect Outline of the 
Life of R. Porson, by T. Kidd (prefixed to the 
Tracts, &e., London, 1815): The Sexagenarian, 
by the Rev. W. Beloe, London, 1817, vol. i. (not 
always trustworthy) ; A Vindication of the lite- 
mry Character of the late Professor Porson, by 
Crito Cantabrigiensis (Dr. T. Turton, bishop of 
Ely), Cambridge, 1829 ; Parriana, by E. H. 
Barter, vol. ii., London, 1829; Porsoniana (by 
Barker), including several articles from periodi- 
cals of Porson's day, with Dr. Young's memoir 
of Mm (from a former ed tiou of the Encycl. 
Brit.X London, 1852; Maltby's Porsoniana in 
Dyce's Recollections of the Table-Talk of Samuel 
Rogers, London, 1856 ; a short article on Porson 
in Knight's English Encyclopaedia (1857) which 
is of interest, especially in regard to matters con- 
cerning his family, as being the work of his 
nephew, Mr. Siday Hawes; Porson, in Cam- 
bridge Essays, London, 1857, by H. R. Luard 
(excellent) ; Life of Porson, by the Rev. John Selby 
Watson, London, 1861 ; Porson's Correspondence, 
edited forthe Cambr. Antiq. Soc. by H. R. Luard, 
Cambridge, 1867; Porson in Encycl. Brit. 9th 
edit., Edinburgh, 1885, by H. R. Lirard; Notes 
and Queries, 8th ser. x. 111.] R. C. J. 

PORT or PORZ, ADAM BE (d. 1213 ?), 
baron, eldest sou of John de Port and Maud, 
his wife, was grandson of Henry de Port, 
lord of Basing in Hampshire, and a justice 
itinerant in 1130. Henry founded the priory 




of West Sherborne in that county, a cell of 
St. Vigor's Abbey at Cerisy, and took his 
name from the Norman fief of his house in 
the Bessin. Adam reported to the exchequer 
in 1164, his father John being then alive, for 
about twenty-four knights' fees in Hereford- 
shire (Liber Niger dt Scaccario, i. 151), said 
to be the fief of Sibilla, daughter and heiress 
of Bernard of Neufmarche* (f. 1093) [q. v.], 
and widow of Miles, earl of Hereford [see 
Rotuli Soaccarii Nonnannice, i. Observations 
clxi). During her lifetime he gaye a charter 
to the priory of West Sherborne relating 
to an exchange (Monasticon, vi. 1014), and 
also in the reign of Henry II granted Little- 
ton in Hampshire to the abbey of St. Peter, 
Gloucester, the manor being claimed by the 
convent (Ilistona S. Petn Gloucestria, ii. 

He was in 1172 accused of treason and of 
plotting the death of the king ; he was sum- 
moned to appear before the king's court, dis- 
obeyed the summons, fled from England, and 
was outlawed (Gesta Henrici II, i. 35). 
During the barons' rebellion in 1174 he joined 
William, king of Scotland, with a body of 
knights, marched with him against Carlisle, 
shared in his defeat before Alnwick, and fled 
in company with Roger de Mpwbray [q. v.], 
probably taking refuge with him in Scotland 
(JORDAN FAKTOSME, 11. 1340, 1360, 1846). 

^2_. _ if i m 1 4 < Mf / 

scripts), and from the description of the lands 
in Herefordshire that he had lost (see above). 
At the time in question, 1201, he still owed 
the same amount in respect of the fine of 1 1 80 
as in 1189, together with SI. 10$. in respect 
of the scutage of Wales. In 120:2 he fined 
ten marks and a palfrey in respect of a divi- 
sion of land in Hampshire with the abbot of 
Abingdon (llotuli de Obkititi, p. 183). In 
1203 he was twice employed to convey the 
king's prisoners from Normandy to England 

u.s. Observations, vol. i. p. clxi, 
vol. ii. p. cxxvi). In 1208 he received from 
the king the custody of Sherborne Priory. 
He acted as a jnsticiar in 1208-9, fines 
being acknowledged before him at Carlisle. 
He was warden of Southampton Castle in 
1213, and died in or about that year, when 
his eldest son had livery of his lands in 
Hampshire and Berkshire (Itotuli de Qblatis, 
p. 477). He is said to have rebuilt the 
church of Warnford, Hampshire (WiLKs). 
Jordan Fantosme (u.s.) speaks of him as a 
valiant baron, one of the bost warriors of 
his time. 

His first wife is said by Stapleton (u.s., 
accepted by Bishop STUBTJS in his edi- 
tion of Gesta Iltmrici II, u.s., and by Foss, 
Judges of England, ii. 108) to have been 
Sibilla, widow of Miles, earl of Hereford, 
and this is borne out by Adam's charter to 
Sherborne Priory (u.s.), where, among his 

He seems to have been in England in 1176, witnesses, is written * Sibilla comitissa uxore 
when he was fined three hundred marks for mea.' Sibilla was married to Miles in 1121 
trespassing in the royal forests (DtfGDALE, (KouND, Ancient Charters, p. 8), and it is 
Baronaye). He made his peace with the extraordinary to find her married again to a 
king in 1180, submitting to a fine of a thou- husband who died 92 years after her first 

*' '* - * marriage, and about 108 after the latest date 

that can well be assigned to her own birth. 
There was an older Adam de Port, the brother 
of Henry de Port, and therefore gr^at-uncle 

sand marks, and receiving back his paternal 
lands, together with those that he held in 
Normandy in right of his second wife, Ma- 
bil ; the lands that he had held in Here- 
fordshire remained forfeited, and were de- 
scribed as ' feodum Adae de Port fugitivi ; ' 
they appear to have passed to William, de 
Braose in right of his mother Bertha, a 
daughter of Sibilla by Miles of Gloucester, 
for in 1194 he paid 22J. 13s. for Adam's fee. 
Of Adam's fine two hundred and fifty-one 
marks remained unpaid at the accession of 
Richard I (Pipe Roll, 1189-90, p. 199). He 
is said to have served the king in Normandy 
in 1194 (DUGDALE, Baronage). 

Dugdale has a story that early in John's 
reign he was accused of causing the death of 
Henry II, and fled the country. This straw ge 
story, derived by Dugdale from a Cqttonian 
manuscript, to which no reference is given, 
seems to have arisen from a misunderstand- 
ing of the passage relating his outlawry in 
1172 (*calumniatus demorte . . . regis; ' Gesta 
Henridll which is in twoCottonian manu- 

of this Adam, whose name occurs in several 
charters of the reigti of Henry I (Historia 
S. Petri Qloueettrtoi I 93, 23(3, ii. 220 ; M. 
PARIS, vi., Additamenta, p. 38 ; Genealogist, 
new ser. iv. 135 ; ROUND, Geoffrey de Mande- 
'dlle, p. 233); but the husband of Sibilla 
was, lie himself states in the Sherborne 
charter, the grandson of Henry. By 1180 
Adam married Mabil, daughter of Reginald 
d'Orval or Aurevalle, and his wife Muriel, 
daughter of Roger St. John, to whom Mabil 
appears eventually to have become heiress, 
and in her right he in that year held the 
honour of Lithaire and Orval in the vicomt6 
of Coutances (STAPLETON) ; by her he had 
issue, his son and heir being William, who 
assumed the name of St. John (Manttfiticon, 
u.s.) Later he married a sister of William 
de Braose (DWDALE, Baronage, p. 416). 
Dugdale .and Nicolas make two Adams 




Port, one of Basing and the other of Here- 

220, 388 (all Bolls Ser.) ; Stapleton's Magni Rot. 
Seacc. Norm. i. Obs. clxi, ii. Obs. cxxvi (Soc. 
AntiqV Liber Niger de Scacc. i. 151, ed. 
Hearne; Madox's Hist, of Excheq. i. 473 (2nd 
edit.); Pipe Roll, 1189-90, p. 199, ed. Hunter, 
Hot. Curiee Rfgis, ii. 177, 225, ed. Palgrave, 
Eot, de Oblatis, pp. 145, 183, 477, ed. Hardy 
(these three Record publ.); FOPS'S Judges of 
England, ii. 107-9; Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 
1014, and Baronage, i. 416, 463-5; Nicolas s 
Hist. Peerage, p. 387. ed, Courthope; Rounds 
Geoffrey de Mandeville, pp. 233, 428, and Am-ient 
Charters, p. 8 (Pipe Roll S>c.) ; Wi-ks's Hist, of 
Hampshire, ii. 62, Hi. 238 ; Norgate's Angevin 
Icings, ii. 162.] 

PORT, SIB JOHN (1480 P-1541), judge, 
was born about 1480 at Chester, where his 
ancestors had been merchants for some 
generations ; his father, Henry, was mayor 
of Chester in 1486, and his mother was a, 
daughter of Robert Barrow, also a mayor of 
Chester. John studied law in the Middle 
Temple, where he was reader in 1509, Lent 
reader and treasurer in 1515, and governor 
in 1520. In 1504 he was one of the com- 
missioners appointed to raise a subsidy in 
Derbyshire; on 2 June 1509 he was made 
king's solicitor, and on 26 Nov. signed a pro- 
clamation as member of the privy council 
(Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, 1509- 
1514, No. 702); in the same year he was 
^keeper of the king's books' (ib.), and in 1511 
clerk of the wardrobe. Before 1512 he was 
appointed attorney to the earldom of Chester, 
and In that year appears as one of the com- 
missioners selected to inquire into the ex- 
tortions of the masters of the mint. In 15 15 
and most succeeding years he served on the 
commission for the peace in Derbyshire. In 
1517 he was * clerk of exchange in the Tower,' 
and in 1522 was made serjeant-at-law. -He 
acquired an extensive practice as an advocate, 
and early in 1525 was raised to a judgeship 
in the king's bench and knighted ; iuFebruary 
of that year he was on the commission for 
gaol delivery at York, and in June went on 
the northern circuit as j ustice of assize ; he 
was also a member of Princess Mary's coun- 
cil. In 1535 he was placed on the commis- 
sion of oyer and terminer for Middlesex to 
try Fisher and More, and in the following 
year was similarly employed with regard to 
Anne Boleyn. He died before November 
1541, having been twice married ; his two 
wives were Margery, 


daughter and coheir of John Fitzherbert, 
uncle of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert [q_. v.], and 
widow of John Pole of Radburn. By the 
latter marriage he acquired the manor of 
Etwall, Derbyshire, and had a son, Sir John. 
Port took a prominent part in the trans- 
actions relating to the foundation of Brase- 
nose College, Oxford ; he gave to it a garden 
lying on the south side of the college, and 
completed John "Williamson's bequest^ of 
200Z. * to provide stipends for two sufficient 
and able persons to read and teach openly in 
the hall, the one philosophy, the other hu- 
manity ; ' the stipend was 4/. a year, but the 
limitation to the descendants of Williamson 
and Port was abolished by the university 
commission of 1854. 

The son, SIB JOHW (d. 1557), with whom 
the father has been confused, was educated 
at Brasenosw, where he was the first lecturer 
or scholar on his father's foundation. He was 
knighted at the coronation of Edward VI, sat 
in the first parliament of Mary as knight of 
the shire for Derbyshire, and served as sheriff 
for that county in 1554. He died on 6 June 
1557, having married, first, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Sir Thomas Grifford, and secondly, 
Dorothy, daughter of Sir Anthony Fitzher- 
bert, By his first wife he had three daugh- 
ters, who married respectively Sir Thomas 
Gerard of Bryn, Shropshire, ancestor of the 
baronets of that name, George Hastings, 
fourth earl of Huntingdon, and Sir Thomas 
Stanhope, ancestor of the earls of Chester- 
field. By his will he left bequests for the 
foundation of a hospital at Etwall and a 
school at Repton, which has since become 
one of the great public schools of England ; 
he also confirmed and augmented his father's 
grants to Brasenose College, Oxford. 

[Letters and Papers of Hen. VIII, ed. Brewer 
and Gairdner, passim; Rot. Parl. vi. 539; 
Bymer' tfcedwna, ed. 17*5 ; Eugdale's Origin. 
Jurid.pp. 163, 170, and Chrontca Series, pp. 79, 
81, 82; Foss's Judges of England, v. 228-30; 
Churton's Lives of the Founders of Brasenose, 
pp. 271, 283, 412, 446-50; Notitia Cestriepsis, 
ii 262. 349, and Lane, and Ches. Wills, 5. 28 
(Chatham Soc.); Strype's "Works, Index, -Nichols's 
Leicestershire, p. 853 ; Sandford's aenealogical 
K'st. p. 442 ; Collius's Peerage, iii. 96, 309; 
Bigsby's Kepton, pp. xii, 103, 106, 160, where 
the younger Sir John's -will is-prrated m full ; 
Statutes of the Colleges of Oxford, 1853 ; Miscell. 
Genealog. et Herald. 2nd ser. ii. 54 : Notes and 
Queries, 7th ser. xii. 302-3; information kindly 
supplied by the Rev. Albeit Watson, formerly 
principal of Brasenose.] A. F. r. 

PORTAL, ABKAHA3I (^. 1790), dra- 
matist, was the son of a clergyman, who may 




of an ancient family of Huguenot origin 
which migrated to England in 1686 (cl. 
FOSTER, Alumni Own. 1715-1888; Gent. 
Maff. 1768, p. 447). Andrew Portal matri- 
culated at Oxford from Exeter College in, 
1748, became vicar of St. Helen's, Abingdon, 
in 1759, proceeded M.A. in 1761, and died on 
18 Sept. 1768. The dramatist started in life 
as a goldsmith and jeweller on Ludgate Hill, 
but lost money both in this trade and that 
of bookselling, .and finished his career as a 
box-keeper at Dr ury Lane Theatre. It appears 
from his 'Poems' that Portal was a close 
friend of Dr. John Langhorne [q. v.], the 
translator of Plutarch. Portals writings 
include : 1. ' Olindo and Sophronia : a Tra- 
gedy, 1 the story taken from Tasso, two edi- 
tions, 1758, London, 8vo. 2. 'The Indiscreet 
Lover: a Comedy/ performed at the ILiy- 
market for the benefit of the British Lying-in 
Hospital in Brownlow Stroet ; dedicated to 
the Duke of Portland; two c litions, London, 
1 768, 8 vo. Baker remarks of this piece that 
'charity covereth a multitude of failings.' 
Genest, however, finds two of the characters, 
Old and Young Reynard, ' excellent.' To the 
printed copies is appended a list of ' errata/ 
in which the reader is requested to substitute 
polite periphrases for coarse expressions in 
the text. 3. ' Songs, Duets, and 1< male,' from 
Portal's comic opera ' The Cady of Bagdad/ 
London, 1778, 8vo, The opera, which was 
given at Drury Lane on 19 Feb. 1778, was 
not printed. 4. ' Poems/ 1781, 8vo. The 
volume includes dedicatory verses to R. B. 
Sheridan, and two bombastic poems, ' War : 
an Ode/ and 'Innocence : a Poetical Essay/ 
which had previously been issued separately. 
5. ' Vortimer, or the True Patriot : a Tra- 
gedy/ London, 1796, 8vo. Among the dra- 
matis personse are Vortimer's father, Vorti- 
gern,his mother Rowena, Hengist, and Horsa. 
Ireland's ' Vortigern' had appeared in March 
1795. Neither ' Vortimer ' nor ' Olindo and 
Sopiironia' was acted. In the spring of 1796 
FortaLseems to have been living in Castle 
Street, Holborn, but the date of his death is 
not known. 

[Baker's Biogr, Dramatica, 1812, i. 577 ; 
Genest's Hist, of the Stage, v. 212; Portal's 
Works in Brit. Mas. Library.] T. S. 


(1858-1894), diplomatist, second son of Mel- 
ville Portal of Laverstoke, Hampshire, and 
l^acty Charlotte Mary Elliot, daughter of the 
second Earl of Minto, was born at Laverstoke 
on 13 March 1858, and educated at Eton, 
where he played in tie school cricket team. 
He entered the diplomatic service on 12 July 
1879, and, after tie usual period of proba- 


tion in the foreign office, was sent to Rome 
on 29 June 1880. He became third secre- 
tary of legation on 2:2 July 1881. 

In June 1S82 Portal had the good fortune 
to be temporarily attached to the consulaie- 
general at Cairo, at a critical period in the 
history of British relations with Egypt. He 
was present at the bombardment of Alex- 
andria, and for his services on that occasion 
received a medal with clasp and the khedive's 
star. He became a favourite with Sir Eve- 
lyn Baring (afterwards Lord Oromer), the 
British representative, and in April 1884 was 
confirmed as third secretary at Cairo. On 
1 April 1885 he was promoted second secre- 
tary. For some weeks in the summers of 
1886 and 1887 he took charge of the resi- 
dency during Lord Cromer's absence, and con- 
ducted its affairs with credit. 

On 17 Oct. 1887 Portal was ordered to 
attempt a reconciliation between the king of 
Abyssinia and the Italian government. On 
21 Oct. he left for Massowah. To succeed in 
such a mission was almost impossible, but 
he made every effort, and showed rare judg- 
ment and coolness in travelling through a 
disturbed country. He returned on 31 Dec., 
without effecting- his purpose, but with a 
considerably enhanced reputation. He was 
made C.B., and in 'My Mission to Abys- 
sinia' (1888) he gave an account of the 

Returning to his duties at the Cairo agency, 
Portal was charge 1 d'aiFaires in the autumn 
of 1888. From 30 April to 14 Nov. 1889 he 
acted as consul-general at Zanzibar, and on 

10 March 1891 was permanently appointed 
to the agency there, under the scheme of 
the British protectorate, which was then 
inaugurated. To these duties he added those 
of consul-general for German East Africa on 
2 June 1891, and for the British sphere on 

11 Feb. 1892. He vigorously entered upon 
the duties of his new post, and reformed the 
administration. He was made K.C.M.G. on 
4 Aug. 1892. 

On 10 Dec. 1892 Portal was directed to 
visit Uganda, and to report whether that 
part of Africa should be retained by the 
British or evacuated. The journey was at- 
tendedby great difficulty and hardship. In the 
course of it Portal lost, on 27 May 1803, his 
elder brother, Capt. Melville Raymond Portal 
(b. 1856), North Lancashire regiment, who 
was with him as chief military officer. Portal 
arrived at the coast again on 21 Oct. 1893, 
and reached London in November, He had 
sent -in his reports on the country, and had 
completed the greater pnr'tof a book relating 
his experiences, when ne was struck down by 
fever, the result of his hardships, and died 




at 5 B Mount Street, Grosvenor Square, Lon- 
don, on 25 Jan. 1894. His book on* The Bri- 
tish Mission to Uganda* was published a 
few months later. His recommendation that 
Uganda should be retained by the British 
government was ultimately adopted. 

Portal was a man of handsome presence 
and athletic mould, and possessed tact, firm- 
ness, and daring. He married, on 1 Feb. 
1890, Lady Alice Josephine Bertie, daughter 
of the seventh Earl of Abingdon. 

[Times, 26 Jan. 1894; Foreign Office List, 
1893; Memoir prefixed to British Mission to 
Uganda.] C. A. H. 

PORTEN, Sm STANIEK (d. 1789), go- 
vernment official, was the only ,son of James 
Porten, merchant of London, of Huguenot 
descent, who lived in an old red-brick house 
adjoining Putney Bridge, which he was 
obliged, through his failure in business, to 
vacate at Christmas 1748. The son entered 
the diplomatic service, and for some years 
before 1760 he was British resident at the 
court of Naples. He was transferred in April 
1700 to the post of consul at Madrid (Gent. 
May. 1700, p. 203 ; CLARK, Letters on Spain^ 
pp. 346-54). In July 1766 he was appointed 
secretary to the extraordinary embassy of 
Lord Rochford to the court of France (Home 
Office Papers, 1766-9, p. 435 ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 3rd Rep, App. j>. 138). Several reports 
were made by Porten in 1766-7 on the terms 
1 of liquidating the Canada paper in France ' 
(#. pp. 136-9 ; Home Office Papers, 1766-9, 
p. 176). Porten was appointed in November 
1768 as under-secretary to Lord Rochford, 
then secretary of state for the northern de- 
partment, and in December 1770 he followed 
that nobleman to the southern branch (ib. 
1766-69), remaining under-secretary until 
1782. He was knighted on 5 June 1772, 
appointed keeper of the state papers at 
"Whitehall in 1774, and from 1782 until 
November 1786 was a commissioner of the 
customs. He was characterised as the ' man 
of business ' in his department, and as pos- 
sessing a gravity of demeanour which was 
exaggerated by his long official residence at 
Naples and Madrid (HA WKIJTS, Memoirs, 1824, 
ii, 7-11). After * long infirmities and gradual 
decay/ he died at Kensington Palace on 
7 June 1789. 

Porten's youngest sister, Judith, married, 
on 3 June 1736, Edward Gibbpn of Buriton, 
Hampshire, and was mother of Edward 
Gibbon, the historian, who spent in his 
grandfather's house at Putney the greater 
part of his holidays and the months between 
his mother's death in 1747 and the break-up 
of that establishment, He was tenderly 

cared for by his eldest aunt, Catherine 
Porten, who, after her father's ruin, esta- 
blished a boarding-house for Westminster 
School, in which Gibbon lived, and which 
proved very successful. She died in April 
1786. The third sister married Mr. Darrel 
of Richmond in Surrey. 

Gibbon wrote on 24 May 1774 that Portea 
was ' seriously in love' with Miss W./an 
agreeable woman,' and that he was ' seriously 
uneasy that his precarious situation precludes 
him from happiness. We shall soon see 
which will get the better, love or reason. I 
bet three to two on love.' Gibbon's prophecy 
proved correct. The lady's name was Miss 
Mary Wibault of Titchfield Street, London, 
and the marriage took place at the close of 
that year (Gent. Mag. 1774, p. 598). They 
had two surviving children : a son, Stanier 
James Porten, B.A., of Brasenose College, 
Oxford, 1801, and rector of Charlwood, 
Surrey, who died in November 1854 ; and a 
daughter Charlotte, who married, on 7 Feb. 
1798, the Rev. Henry Wise, rector of Charl- 
wood^ At Porten's death, the widow, a 
very lively woman, who long survived him, 
was left with a moderate pension for her 
subsistence. Gibbon thereupon proposed 
adopting the eldest child, Charlotte, * a most 
amiable, sensible young creature/ and re- 
warding ' her care and tenderness with a 
decent fortune;' but the mother would not, 
at that time, listen to the proposition. By 
his will, dated 1 Oct. 1791, Gibbon left his 
money to these two children, his nearest 
relatives on his mother's side. 

Numerous letters to and from Porten are 
in the Marquis of Abergavenny's manu- 
scripts (Hist MSS. Comm. 10th Rep. App, 
pt, vl.), and in the official papers of Lord 
urantham, Sir Robert Gunning, and others, 
at the British Museum. Archdeacon Coxe, 
in the preface to his ' Memoirs of the Kings 
of Spain of the House of Bourbon, 1700- 
1788 ' (1813 ed. pp. xviii-xlx), acknow- 
ledges his indebtedness to the papers of 

A picture of the Porten family, painted 
by Hogarth and the property of the Rev* 
Thomas Burnmgham, was on view at the 
exhibition of the old masters in 1888. Stanier 
Porten was depicted as handing a letter to 
his father (Catalogue^ p. 13). 

[Gent, Mag. 1775 p. 550, 1782 p. 207, 1789 
pt. i. p. 577, 1798 pt. i. p. 169; Townsend's 
Knights from 1760, p. 47; Chatham Corre- 
ppondence, iL 31-40 ; Hiscell. Works of Gibbon 
(1U), i. 24, 33-4, 36-8, 296, 315, 426, ii. 125, 
132, 392-3, 429-30; Old Houses of Putney, 
p. 11.; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit, i. 152; Foster's 
Alumni Oxuu.] W P. 0. 





POETEOTJS, JOHN (d. 1736), captain of 
the Edinburgh city guard, was the son of 
Stephen Porteoue, a tailor in the Canongate, 
Edinburgh, and was bred to his father's 
business ; but Ms unsteady habits and vio- 
lent temper led to serious quarrels with 
his parents, and he enlisted in the army. 
After serving for some time in Holland 
he returned home, and ultimately obtained, 
or assumed, the management of his father's 
business, treating his father so badly that 
h'j was reduced to poverty, and had to become 
an inmate of Trinity Hospital. 

On account of his military experience, 
Porteous in 1715 was employed to train theeity 
guard to assist in the defence of the city in 
view of the expected rising ; and as he had 
married a young woman who had previously 
been housekeeper to the provost of the city, 
he was, through the provost's influence, subse- 
quently promoted to be captain of the force. 
I)r. Alexander Carlyle of Inveresk mentions 
' liis skill in manly exercises, particularly the 
golf (Autobiografihy, p. 35); and in April 
1721 ne played a match at golf for twenty 
guineas with an Edinburgh gentleman on 
L^th links (CiUMBEKS, Domestic Annals 
of Scotland, iii. 566). The stories of his 
licentious adventures, his profanity, and his 
inconsiderate severities are probably exag- 
gerated. Dr. Carlyle,, however, states that 
his admission (through his skill in athletics) 
to ' the companionship of his superiors * 
* elated his mind, and added insolence to his 
native Toughness, so that he was hated 
and feared by the mob of Edinburgh J (Auto* 
biogt*aphy, p. 35). This mutual ill-will no 
doubt in part explains the tragic incidents 
that occurred in connection with the execu^ 
tion, 14 April 1736, of Andrew Wilson, an 
Edinburgh merchant, who,in retaliation for 
the severe measures put in force by the 
government against smuggling, had, with 
the assistance of a youth named Robertson, 
robbed the custom-house of Pittenweem. 
The sympathy of the bulk of the Edinburgh 
citizens was with the smugglers ; and the 
remarkable feat of Wilson in accomplishing 
the escape of his companion, by seizing three 
of the keepers as he and his fellow-prisoner 
were leaving the Tolbooth church, excited 
general admiration, A rumour arose that 
an attempt would be made to rescue Wilson 
on the scaffold, and on this account unusual 
precautions were taken. As the corpse of 
Wilson was being cut down, the mob 
* threw, as usual, some dirt and stones, which 
falling among the city guard, Captain Por- 
teous fired, and ordered his men to fire, 

whereupon 20 persons were wounded, C> or 7 
killed, one shot through the head at a win- 
dow up two pair of stairs ' (account in 
Gent. Mag. 1736, p. 230). Dr. Alexander 
Carlyle, who was a spectator from an upper 
window, affirms that 'there was no attempt 
to break through the guard and cut down 
the prisoner,' and that it was ' generally 
said that there was very little, if any, more 
violence than had usually happened on such 
occasions ' (Autvbioyraphy, p. 37), 

Porteous was subsequently apprehended 
and brought to trial. In his indictment it 
was charged that he had fired himself, and 
that when, on ordering his men to fire, 
he saw them hold their pieces so as to 
fire over the heads of the multitude, he 
called out to them to ' level their pieces 
and be damned to them,* or words to that 
effect. This accusation was supported by a 
large number of witnessos, and is corrobo- 
rated by Dr. Alexander Carlyle, who states 
that when * the soldiers [city guard] showed 
reluctance ' to fire, he saw Porteous * turn to 
them with tbreatoninpr gesture and an inflamed 
countenance ' (z/;.) The defence of Porteous 
was that he did not fire himself, but that 
several of his men, without orders from him, 
4 unfortunately fired upon the multitude.' 
On being found guilty and sentenced to 
death, he presented a petition to the govern- 
ment for pardon, in which he repeated the 
plea urged in his defence. When a reprieve 
was sent the indignation of the com- 
munity was roused to a high pitch, and cer- 
tain unknown persons resolved that he should 
not escape the doom passed upon him. About 
ten o'clock on the night of 7 Sept. a body 
of men in disguise entered the city, seized 
all the firearms, battle-axes, and drums be- 
longing to the city guard, and locked and 
secured all the city gates. They then pro- 
ceeded to the prison, and, after attempting 
in vain to break down the door, set fire to 
it and burnt it out. On entering the prison 
they compelled the under-warden to open 
the double locks of the apartment where 
Porteous was confined, and, hurrying him 
away, proceeded with lighted torches to the 
place where the gallows was usually erected. 
Having procured a rope from a sliop which, 
they opened, they threw one end of it over 
a signpost about twenty feet high, belonging 
to a dyer. * They then pulled him up in 
the dress in which they found him viz. a 
nightgown and cap. lie having his hands 
loose, fixed them betwixt his neck and the 
rope, whereupon one with a battle-axe struck 
towards the hands. They then let him 
down, and [he] having on two shirts, they 
wrapped one of them about his face, and 




held his arms with his night-gown; they 
palled him up again, where he hung next 
morning till daylight' (Method taken by 
the Mob, London, 1736). ^ Notwithstand- 
ing the most rigorous investigation, no clue 
was ever found to the perpetrators of the 
murder. Several persons were seized and im- 
prisoned on suspicion ; but of these only two 
one of them a coachman to the Countess ! 
of "Wemyss, who was in a state of hopeless 
intoxication when he followed the mob 
were brought to trial, and they were found 
not guilty. Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe was 
accustomed to express full belief in state- 
ments made to him by ' very old persons * 
that several of high rank were concerned in 
the affair, many of them disguised as women 
(WILSON, Memorials of Edinburgh, ed. 1891, 
1. 144) ; and Home Tooke, in defending him- 
self before Lord Mansfield in 1777, signifi- 
cantly asserted that l at this moment there 
are people of reputation, living in credit, 
making fortunes under the crown, who were 
concerned in that very fact ' (ib>) 

The outrage led to the introduction of a 
bill in the House of Lords for the punish- 
ment of the provost of Edinburgh, the exac- 
tion of a fine from the city, the removal of 
the Netherbow Port in token of the level- 
ling of its dc fences as a rebellious city 
and the abolition of the city guard ; but, as 
modified by the House of Commons, the 
bill merely disqualified the provost from 
holding any other office throughout the em- 
pire, and levied a fine of 2,000 on the 
city for the widow of Porteous. Another 
act was also passed denouncing the murderers 
of Porteous, offering rewards for their cap- 
ture, and threatening punishment to all 
who aided or harboured them. It was 
further decreed that this proclamation should 
be read from every pulpit in Scotland on the 
first Sunday of each month for a year. Ac- 
cording to Dr. Alexander Carlyle, one half 
of the clergy declined to read the proclama- 
tion (Autobiography, p. 41) ; but the idea of 
inflicting a fine on them for the neglect was 
dropped. Porteous is described as having 
been * of the middle size, broad-shouldered, 
strong-limbed, short-necked, his face a little 
pitted with the small-pox, and round ; his 
looks mild and gentle, his face having 
nothing of the fierce and brutal ; his eyes 
languid, not quick and sprightly, and his 
complexion upon the brown' (Life and 
Death of Captain Porteous, j>. 7). 

The plot of Sir Walter Scott's < Heart of 
Midlothian ' turns upon the incidents of the 
Porteous riot, and many interesting particu- 
lars were collected by Scott in his notes to 
that novel. 

[Information for her Majesty's Advocate, &o., 
with a full and particular Account of the 
Method taken by the Mob, &c., London, 1736; 
Account of the Cruel Mussacre committed ly 
Captain John Porteous, 1736; Genuine I rial of 
Captnin John Porteous, London, 1736 ; Life and 
Deatli of Captain John Porteous, with an Ac- 
con nt of the two Bills as they were reasoned on 
in both Houses of Parlinmenr, and the Speeches 
of the Great JVTen on both, London, 1737; Copy 
of the Porteous Boll sent to the Mini-ters of Scot- 
land to be read from the Pulpits of each of 
them, 1738. These and various other pamphlets 
on the Porteou.s occurrences are bound together 
in two volumes in the library of the British Mu- 
seum. Gent. Mag. for 1736 and 1737, passim; 
Mahon's History of England; State Trials, vol. 
xvii. ; Criminal Trials illustrative of Scott's 
novel, * The Heart of Midlotbm;' Dr. Alexander 
Carlyle's Autobiography ; Memoirs of Duncan 
Porbes of Culloden ; Wilson's Memorials of 
Edinburgh,] T. P. H. 

PORTEOUS, WILLIAM (1735-1812), 
Scottish divine, was the son or James Por- 
teous, minister of Monivaird, Perthshire, by 
his -wife, Marjory Faichney. He was born at 
Monivaird in 1735, and educated for the 
ministry. Receiving a license from the pres- 
bytery of Auchterarder on 13 Sept. 17o7, he 
was presented by Lady Mary Cunninghaine 
to the parish of tVhitburn, Linlithgowshire, 
in Novernber 1759. He was transferred on 
27 April 1770 to the ministry of the "VVynd 
Church, Glasgow. A man of strong character 
and an able preacher, he billed this important 
post with success. His congregation increased 
so rapidly that he had to abandon the parish 
church, which had been rebuilt in 1764, for 
the new St. George^s Church in 1807. Por- 
teous took a leading jmrt for many years in 
the proceedings of the Glasgow presbytery, 
and of the church in the west generally. 
Strongly orthodox in his views, he resisted 
the smallest innovations. He defended his 
position with his pen, and did not spare his 
adversaries* He resolutely opposed the intro- 
duction of organs in 1807-8 (cf. The Organ 
Question: Statements by Dr. Ritchie and Dr. 
Porteoits^for and against the use of the Organ 
in Public Worship, in the Proceedings of the 
Presbytery of Glasgow, 1807-8, with an 
introductory notice by Robert S. Candlish, 
' Edinburgh, 1856). His attack on the asso- 
ciate synod, in his * New Light examined,' 
provoked the withering sarcasm of James 
Peddie's * Defence/ In the general assembly 
he took no prominent position. In Novem- 
ber 1784 he was granted the degree of D.D. 
by Princetown College, New Jersey. He died 
on 12 Jan. 1812. 

He married first, 26 June 1760, Grizel 
Lindsay (d. 1774), by whom he had two 




sons, James and George, and a daughter 
Elizabeth, afterwards wile of Robert Spears, 
merchant, of Glasgow. On 8 Aug. 1785 
Porteous married Marion, daughter of the 
Rev. Charles Moore of Stirling. She died, 
without issue, on 4 March 1817. 

[HewScott'sFa*tiEcclesiScoticanae ; Cleland's 
Annals of Glasgow, 1817; Story's Church of 
Scotland Past and Present ; Cancllish's Preface 
to The Organ Question, &c.] E. G-. H. 

PORTER, ANNA MARIA (1780-1832), 
novelist, born at Durham in 1780 after her 
father's death, was the younger sister of 
Jane Porter [q, v.l and of Sir Robert Ker 
Porter [q. v.], in whose memoir an account of 
the family is given. Educated at Edinburgh 
with her sister Jane, she not only shared the 
latters studious tastes, but was attracted by 
music and art. She resolved, like Jane, to 
devote herself to literature, and at thirteen 
years of age began a series of ' Artless Tales,' 
which was completed in two anonymous vo- 
lumes in 1795. Other tales, entitled * "Walsh 
Colville' and 'Octavia' (3 vols.), appeared 
anonymously in 1797 and 1798 respectively. 
After settling with her family in London 
"before 1803, she attempted dramatic com- 
position, and in May 1803 the 'Fair Fugi- 
tives/ a musical entertainment, was acted at 
Covent Garden, with music by Dr, Busby. 
It met with no success, and was not printed 
(BAKEB, Jtioffr.Dramatiea, ii.211 ; GENJSST, 
Mist, of the Stage, vii. 585). 

In 1807, when she was living with her 
mother and sister in a cottage at Esher, Surrey, 
she published her chief work, and the first to 
which she put her name/ The Hungarian Bro- 
thers/ It is a novel in three volumes, dealing 
with the French revolutionary war. She 
feared that her heroes might be viewed as 
women masquerading as men (cf. Addit. MS. 
18204, f. 150), and subsequently excused the 
admiration of l martial glory,' of which the 
book is full, on the score of her youth (pref, 
1831). But the vivacity and enthusiasm o 
the writer atone for most of the book's de- 
fects. It was popular at home and abroad. 
General Moreau placed it in his travelling 
library, and in 1818. it was translated into 
French, Later English editions are dated 
1808, 1831, 1847, 1856, and 1872. 

In 1809 appeared ' Don Sebastian, or the 
House of Braganza/ a novel in four volumes, 
A second edition, in three volumes, soon fol- 
lowed, and the latest edition came out in 
1855. It lacks the verve of its predecessor. 
Among others of her novels, ' The Knight of 
St, John/ a romance in three volumes, pub- 
lished in 1817, was the last book read aloud 
by Piince Leopold to Princess Charlotte the 

I * 

day before her death [see CIIAKLOTTE AU- 

In May 1832 the sisters, who had removed 
from Esher to London on their mother's 
death in 1831, visited their brother, Dr. 
William Ogilvie Porter, at Bristol. Anna 
was seized with typhus fever there, and died 
on 21 Sept. 1832, at the house of Mrs. Colo- 
nel Booth, Montpellier, near Bristol. She 
was buried in the churchyard of St. Paul's 
Church in that city. 

Jane Porter said of Anna that 'the quick- 
ness of her perceptions gave her almost an 
intuitive knowledge of every thing she wished 
to learn.' S. C. Hall described her as a blonde, 
handsome and gay, and dubbed her ' L' Al- 
legro,' in contrast to Jane, a brunette, whom 
he named * II Penseroso ' (Retrospect of a 
Long Life, ii. 143-5). 

Her portrait was engraved by Woolnoth 
from a drawing by Ilarlowe, and is repro- 
duced in Jerdan's * National Portrait Gallery/ 
vol. v. Her brother Robert, when design- 
ing an altar-piece which he presented to 
St. John's College, Cambridge, made a study 
of her for Hope. 

Anna Maria Porter wrote, besides the 
works noticed : 1. ' Tales of Pity.' 2, 'The 
Lake of Killarney/ 3 vols. 1804 ; the last 
edition, 1856, was entitled * Hose de Bla- 
quiere.' 3. ' A Soldier's Friendship.' 4. ' A 
Soldier's Love,' 2 vols. 1805. 5. * Ballads 
and Romances and Other Poems/ 1811. 
6. 'The Recluse of Norway/ 4 vols. 1814 j 
last edit. 1852. 7. < The Fast of St. Magda- 
len/ 3 vols. 1818, 1819, 1822, 8. < The Vil- 
lage of Mariendorpt/4 vols, 1821. 9. ' Roche 
Blanche, or the Hunter of the Pyrenees/ 
3 vols. 1822. 10. < Honor O'Hara,"' 3 vols. 
1826. 11. 'Coming Out/ 2 vols. 1828. 
12. 'The Barony/ 3 vols. 1830. She con- 
tributed in lB k 26 three stories, ' Glenowan/ 
'Lord Howth/ and 'Jeanie Halliday/ to 
' Tales round a Winter's Hearth/and in 1828 
a poem to S. 0. Hull's ' Amulet/ Nearly 
all her books were translated into French, 
and some were published in America. 

[Elwood'a Litprary Ladies of .England, ii. 276- 
303 ; Jordan's National Portrait (rallery, vol. v.; 
Allibone's Diet, of English Lit. II 1780.] 

JE. L. 

Irish lord chancellor, was a son 01 Edmund 
Porter, prebendary of Norwich. According 
to Boger North, who professed to speak en- 
tirely from his own knowledge or 'from 
Porter's own mouth in very serious conver- 
sation/ he was engaged in the London riots 
in April 1648, being then an apprentice in 
the city, lie escaped on board a Yarmouth 




boat to Holland, where he trailed a pike as a 
common soldier, and was in several actions. 
He kept an eating-house; but his cavalier 
customers generally forgot to pay, and he 
made his way back to England. ' Being a 
genteel youth, he was taken in among the 
chancery clerks.' He was admitted at the 
Middle Temple on 25 Oct. 1656, and called 
to the bar in 16CO. Porter was immoderately 
addicted both to wine and women, but was 
nevertheless industrious, quick, and well ac- 
quainted with all the forms of the court, and 
his ' speech was prompt and articulate. 7 He 
began with drawing pleas, then practised at 
the bar, and soon had a great deal of business. 
Lord-keeper Guilford took notice of him ; but 
his good fortune had a hard struggle with his 
dissipated habits, and he was always in debt. 
On 7 and 30 March 1668-9 Pepys had 
interviews with Porter, who was acting as 
counsel for certain creditors of the navy. 
The ' State Trials ' give full details as to his 
part in the violent contentions between the 
two houses in Shirley v. Fagg and other cases. 
In 1675 he was junior counsel with Peck, 
Pemberton, and Sir John Churchill [q. v.] 
for Sir Nicholas Crispe against Mr. Dal- 
mahoy, M.P., when the case was argued at 
the bar of the lords. The House of Commons 
resented Dalmahov's trial by the lords as a 
breach of their privileges, and ordered all the 
parties into the custody of the sergeant-at- 
arms, while the House of Lords granted them 
a protection against all arrest. Porter was 
seized in the middle of an argument. He 
managed to read out the lords' protection 
audibly, but was nevertheless lodged in the 
Tower on 4 June,; the imprisonment was put 
an end to by a prorogation five days later. 
So far as Porter was concerned, the chief 
result of the dispute was to bring him into 
prominent notice, and he was knighted soon 

Porter spent money as fast as he made it ; 
and at the accession of James II he was 
known to be a needy man. 'His character/ 
says North, * for fidelity, loyalty, and face- 
tious conversation were without exception. 
He had the good fortune to be loved by 
everybody.' It was hoped that he would 
prove a useful tool ; and he was appointed 
lord chancellor of Ireland on 22 March 1686, 
displacing the primate Michael Boyle [q. v.] 
The lord-lieutenant Clarendon did not like 
the change. He warned Port er that he would 
make no fortune in Ireland ; for the salary was 
only 1,OOOJ. a year, and it turned out that 
other sources or income scarcely yielded 400& 
Porter took the oaths on 15 April, dined with 
the lord lieutenant, and was careful to show 
himself in friendly companionship with his 

aged predecessor. He told every one he mt 
that the king had resolved not to have the 
acts of settlement shaken, and that he knew 
nothing of any intention to remodel the judi- 
cial bench ; but Clarendon was better in- 
formed. The first patent sealed by Porter 
was one for Colonel William Legge, Lord 
Dartmouth's brother, as governor of Junsale. 
In May 1686 Porter's salary was increased 
to 1,5001., and that was the last mark of 
iavour he received from James II. He ad- 
vocated a commission of grace to confirm de- 
fective titles, and the raising of a revenue in 
this way while adding to the general security. 
Tyrconnel's policy was entirely different ; he 
accused Porter of taking bribes from the 
whlgs, and Justin MacCarthy [q. v.] fixed 
the sum at 10,000/. The charge, Clarendon 
wrote on 1 May, was as true as if he had 
been said to have taken the money from the 
Grand Turk. The struggle went on for the 
rest of the year, Porter, Ohiei-justice Keat- 
ing, and Sir John Temple, the solicitor- 
general, contending for moderate courses, 
while Tyrconnel, Nugent, and Sir Richard 
Nagle [q. v.l combined to secure the supremacy 
of the King's religion. On 4 Jan. 1686-7 Cla- 
rendon dined with Porter, and within a week 
they both received their letters of recall. 
Porter was generally regretted in Ireland, and 
on reaching London he sought an interview 
with James, which was very unwillingly 
granted. He asked what he had done to 
deserve removal, and the king said it was 
his own fault. Further audience was re- 
fused, and no information was ever given of 
the reasons for his dismissal. Porter re- 
turned to his practice at the English bar, 
and on 18 Jan. 16S8-9 Clarendon notes that, 
he was ' at the Temple with Mr. Roger North 
and Sir Charles Porter, who are the only 
two honest lawyers I have met with.' 

Porter was known as an active adherent 
of "William as early as December 1688 (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. llth Rep. App. vii.) He re- 
turned to Ireland in December 1690, and 
was sworn in lord chancellor and lord justice, 
with Coningsby as a colleague in the latter 
office. In October 1691 he signed the articles 
of Limerick in the court there, and these 
were enrolled in chancery on 24 Feb. 1691-2. 
Like "William, he was in favour of keeping 
faith with the Irish. In 1692 Porter attended 
Sidney, the lord lieutenant, when he went to 
open parliament. At the beginning of the 
session, on 10 Oct., he made a short speech, 
in answer to that of Sir Richard Levinge 
[q. v'.], the speaker. On 3 Nov. Porter spoke 
again, at Sidney's request, against the claim 
of the Irish House of Commons to originate 
money-bills, contrary to Poynings*s act and 




to the practice of two centuries, On Sidney's 
departure, in July 1693, Porter again became 
a lord justice, but for less than a month. 
Having been dismissed by James because he 
was aprotestant, he was now threatened with 
vengeance because he was not protestant 
enough. Articles of impeachment were ex- 
hibited against him in the English House of 
Commons by Richard Coote, earl of Bella- 
mont [q. v.], himself an Irish protestant ; but 
the matter soon dropped. Lord Capel also 
urged the king to remove Porter; but Wil- 
liam refused, and Porter continued to lead the 
more tolerant party. 

On 30 Sept. 1695 Colonel Ponsonby pre- 
sented articles to the Irish House of Com- 
mons, in which Porter was accused of favour- 
ing papists and refusing to discharge magi- 
strates * who have imbrued their hands in 
protestant blood/ of corruption in his office, 
and of -various irregularities. On 25 Oct. 
Porter was heard in person, a chair being 
set for him within the bar of the House of 
Commons. The speech is unfortunately lost ; 
but the house voted his explanation satisfac- 
tory by 121 to 77. That night he overtook the 
carnage of his enemy, Speaker Rochfort [see 
ROCHFOKT, EGBERT], in a narrow lane. 
Porter's coachman tried to pass the other ; 
but Rochfort lost his temper, produced the 
mace, and declared that he would not be 
driven. Porter complained to the lords that 
his servant had been assaulted and himself 
insulted, and a communication was made to 
the other house. The commons declared that 
the whole thing was pure accident, and the 
matter dropped. There were no street lamps 
in Dublin until after the act 9 Will. Ill, 
cap. 17, was passed. 

Capel died in May 1696, and Porter was 
elected lord j ustice by the council immediately 
afterwards. Lord Dartmouth arrived in Dub- 
lin the night after Capel died, and found the 
whole town * mad with joy '(note to BURNET, 
ii. 159). Porter remained a lord justice until 
his fiudden death, from apoplexy, at his 
own house in Chancery Lane, Dublin, on 
8 Dec. 1695. He died insolvent, or very 
nearly so. 

"Whigs and tories formed different esti- 
mates of Porter. Lord Somers, on the part 
of the whigs (#.), wrote to Shrewsbury after 
Porter's death that it was ' a great good for- 
tune to the king's affairs in Ireland to be rid 
of a man who had formed so troublesome a 
party in that kingdom.' Dart mouth thought 
Lim a wise man, not actuated, as Burnet said, 
toy * a tory humour/ but bent upon uniting 
all protestants without distinction of party. 
And his friend Roger North says ' he had 
tliat magnanimity and command of himself 

that no surprise or affliction, by arrest or 
otherwise, could bo discerned either in his 
countenance or society, which is very ex- 
emplary; and hi cases of the persecuting 
kind, as injustices and the malice of powers, 
heroical in perfection/ 

[Le Neve's Fasti Ecclosijc Anglicanae ; Claren- 
don and Rochester Correspondence, ed. Singer; 
Howell's State Trials, vol. vi. ; Roger North's 
Life of G-uilford ; Popys's Diary, ed. Mynors 
Bright ; Bumet's Hist, of his Own Time, ed. 
1823; Liber Munmim Publlcorum Hibeniiae; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities; O'Flanagan's Lives 
of the Irish Chancellors; Oliver Burko's Hist, 
of the Irish Chancellors ; Fronde's English in 
Ireland, vol. i. ; Macaula/s Hist, of England.] 

R. B-L. 

PORTER, ENDYMION (1587-1640); 
royalist, descended from William Porter, ser- 
geant-at-arms to Henry VII, was the son of 
Edmund Porter of Aston-sub-Edge, Glouces- 
tershire, by his cousin Angela, daughter of 
Giles Porter of Mickleton in the same county. 
Giles Porter married Juana do Figueroa'y 
Wont Salve, said to have been a relative of 
the Count of Feria, who was Spanish am- 
bassador in England at the beginning of 
Elizabeth's reign. On Lord Nottingham's 
mission to Spain in 1005, Giles Porter was 
employed as interpreter (BuKKE, CommontM, 
ill 577 ; WIFVVOOD, Memorials, ii. 76). En- 
dymion Porter was brought up in Spain, and 
was sometime a page in the household of 
Olivares ( WILSON, Life of James I, p. 225 ; 
CLARENDON*, Rebellion j iv. 28). On nis re- 
turn to England he entered the service of 
Edward Villiers, and passed thence into that 
of his brother, then Marquis of Buckingham. 
Through Buckingham's influence lie obtained 
the post of groom of the bedchamber to Prince 
Charles, which he continued to hold after the 
accession of Charles to the throne (GARDINER, 
Hist of Em/land, i v. 870). On 20 Nov. 1 (519 
the manor of Aston-sub-Kdge was conveyed 
to Porter by his cousin Kichard Catesby (note 
communicated by Mr. S. G. Hamilton). 
About the same time, or in 1620, he married 
Olivia, daughter of John Boteler (afterwards 
Lord Boteler of Bramfield) and of Elizabeth 
Villiers, sister of Buckingham. 

Porter's knowledge of Spain arid of the 
Spanish language opened his way to diplo- 
matic employments. Buckingham used him 
to conduct his Spanish correspondence, and 
in October 1622 he was sent to^ Spain to 
carry the demand for Spanish aid in the 
recovery of the Palatinate, and to prepare 
the way for the intended journey of Prince 
Charles. In December he returned with the 
amended marriage articles, and with a secret 
message accepting the intended visit from 




the prince (GARDINER, Hist, of England, iv. 
870, 374, 383, 398). Porter accompanied 
Prince Charles and Buckingham to Spain in 
1623, and sometimes acted as their inter- 
preter. His letters to his wife contain an 
interesting account of their reception (Foir- 
BLANQTJE, Live* tf the Lords Strong ford, p. 
29 ; NICHOLS, Progresses of James I, iv. 80S, 
818, 912). In 1026, when the Earl of Bristol 
attacked Buckingham's conduct of the mar- 
riage negotiations, he involved Porter in his 
charges (GARDINER, vi. 96 ; Hardwicke State 
Papers, i. 501). Porter was again sent to 
Spain in 1628 to pro pose negotiations for peace 
between that country and England (ib. vi, 
333, 373 ; Report on the MSS. of Mr. Shrine, 
pp. 156-66; FONBLANQTTE, p. 51). In 1634 
he was employed on a mission to the Cardinal 
Infante Ferdinand of Spain, them governor 
of the Low Countries, which ended in nothing 
but a dispute about questions of etiquette (ih. 
p, 59 ; Cal State Papers, 1634-5, p. 461). 
Charles also commissioned him in October 
3639 to warn Cardenas of the danger of the 
Spanish fleet at Dover and the king's in- 
ability to protect it from the Dutch (GARDI- 
NER, ix. 66 ; FONBLANQTJE, p. 67). 

Porter's rewards more than kept pace with 
his services. In May 1625 he was given a 
pension of 500/. a year as groom of the bed- 
chamber, which was converted three years 
later into an annuity of the same amount 
for himself and his wife. On 9 July 1628 
he was granted the office of collector of the 
fines in the Star-chamber, estimated to be 
worth 750Z. a year (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1625-6 p. 23, 1628-9 pp 199, 219). In ad- 
dition to this, he purchased the post of sur- 
veyor of the petty customs in the port of 
London, and had an interest in the soap 
monopoly. He also frequently obtained 
smaller pecuniary favours, such as leases of 
land at low rentals, shares in debts due to 
the king, and he was liberally paid for his 
diplomatic missions ($. 1635, p. 65 ; FON- 
BLANOJJE, p. 65). He was granted one thou- 
sand acres of land in Lincolnshire which he 
undertook to drain (1G32), but the specula- 
tion was not very successful. More profit- 
able, probably, were his trading speculations. 
He was one of the association of East Indian 
traders, founded by Sir William Court-en, 
which so seriously diminished the profits of 
the old East India Company, and he had 
shares in other maritime ventures (BntJCE, 
Annal* of the East India Company, vol. i. ; 
Strafford Letters, ii. 87 ; Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1635, p. 96). The wealth thus ac- 
quired was liberally spent. 

Porter's memory owes its celebrity chiefly 
to his taste for literature and art. He wrote 

verses himself, and was the friend and patron 
of poets. Some lines, prefixed to Davenant's 

* Madagascar,' and an elegy on Dr. Donne's 
death, afford specimens of his poetic skill 
which scarcely justify Randolph's unstinted 
praise (< A Pareneticon to the truly noble 
gentleman Master Endymion Porter,' Works, 
ed. Hazlitt, p. 639). Dekker dedicated his 

* Dream ' to Porter, Gervase Warmstrey his 
' England's Wound and Cure J (1628), and 
May his * Antigone ' (1631); Edmund Bolton 
addressed to him his ' Historical Parallel * 
(1627), and he was one of the eighty-four 
1 Essentials' in Bolton's intended ' Academy 
Royal/ Porter's influence with Charles *I 
saved Davenant's play of * The Wits ' from 
the excessive expurgations of the master of 
the revels. ' Your goodness,' said Davenant's 
dedication, c first preserved life in the author, 
then rescued his work from a cruel faction' 
(COLLIER, English Dramatic Poetry, i. 484 ; 
DAVENANT, Works, ed. 1673, ii. 165). Dave- 
nant, who addresses Porter as * lord of my 
muse and heart,' and frequently refers to gifts 
of wine received from him, was poet in ordi- 
nary to the Porter family. Among his works 
there are poems to Olivia Porter, to her son 
George, copies of verse on Endymion's ill- 
nesses, an * address to all poets ' upon his re- 
covery, and dialogues in verse between Olivia 
and Endymion and Endymion and Arrigo. 
Herrick also was among Porter's friends, and 
appeals to him not to leave the delights of 
the country for the ambition and state of the 
court ('The Country Life: an Eclogue or 
Pastoral between Endymion Porter and Ly- 
cidas/ HERRICK, Poems, ed. Hazlitt, i. 196, 
246). Elsewhere he declares that poets will 
never be wanting so long as there are patrons 
like Porter, 

who dost give 

Not only subject-matter for our Trit, 
But also oil of maintenance to it. 

(ib. p. 40). Porter's generosity also extended 
to Robert Dover [q. v J, whose Olympic games 
upon the Cotswold Hills he encouraged by 

* giving tim some of the king's old clothes, 
with a hat and feather and ruff, purposely to 
grace him, and consequently the solemnity' 
(WooD, Athena Oxon. iv. 222). 

Porter had also a taste for art ; he bought 
pictures himself, and was one of the agents 
employed by Charles I in forming his great 
collection. He procured for Daniel Mytens 
[q. v.1 the office of * one of his Majesty's pic- 
ture-drawers in ordinary ' (WAT.KILE, Anec- 
dotes of Painting in England, ed. Wornum, 
1849, i. 216, 174). Much of the correspon- 
dence with the foreign agents who bought 
pictures and statues for the king in Italy and 




the Levant passed through his hands, and lie 
was on friendly terms with. Rubens, Gtm- 
tileschi, and other painters employed hy the 
Mng. He also helped to procure the Earl of 
Arundel pictures from Spain (S.UNSBURY, 
Original Papers relating to Rubens, 18-39, pp. 
146, 203, 293, 324, 353). 

During the two Scottish wars Porter was 
in constant attendance on the king. In the 
Long parliament he represented Uroitwich, 
and was one of the fifty -nine members who 
voted against StrafFord s attainder, and were 
posted up as ' Straffordians ' and f traitors ' 
(EusHwoKTH, iv, 248). In August 1641 
he accompanied the king on his visit to 
Scotland. "What he witnessed there filled 
him with the gloomiest anticipations, and 
he told Nicholas that he feared this, island 
would before long be a theatre of distrac- 
tions (Nicholts Papers, i. 40, 4o). When 
Charles left Whitehall, Porter still followed 
his master. * Whither we go and what we 
are to do I know not, for I am none of the 
council ; my duty and loyalty have taught 
me to follow my king, and, by the grace of 
God, nothing shall divert me from it j (FoN- 
BLANQUE, p. 75), On 15 Feb. 1642, how- 
ever, the House of Commons voted him* one 
that is conceived to give dangerous counsel/ 
and on 4 Oct. folio wing included him among 
the eleven great delinquents who were to be 
excepted from pardon. In the subsequent 
treaties of peace he w;is consistently named 
among the exceptions, and on 10 March 1643 
he was disabled from sitting in parliament 
( Commons 1 Journals, ii. 433, 997 ; Iteport on 
the Duke of Portlands MSS. i. 98), The 
reasons for this animosity against a man who 
was not a minister of state or a public offi- 
cial were partly the great confidence which 
Charles reposed in Porter, and partly the 
supposition that he was one of the chief in- 
struments in the ' popish plot ' against the 
liberties and religion of England. He had 
been the favourite and the agent of Bucking- 
ham. His wife Olivia was a declared catho- 
lic, and has been described as l the soul of 
the proselytising movement ' in the queen's 
court. She had converted her father, Lord 
Boteler, and attempted to convert, her kins- 
woman, the Marchioness of Hamilton (GAE- 
DINER, viii. 238). A denunciation of the 
supposed plotters, sent to Land by Sir Wil- 
liam Bos well, the English ambassador in the 
Netherlands, made the following assertions : 
' Master Porter of tbe King's Bedchamber, 
most addicted to the Popish religion, is a 
bitter enemy of the King. He reveals all 
his greatest secrets to the Pope's legate ; 
although he very rarely meets with him, yet 
his wife meets him so much the oftener, who, 

being informed by her husband, convevs 
secrets to the legate. In all his actions he 
is nothing inferior to Toby Matthew; it 
cannot be uttered how diligently he watcheth 
on the business. His sons are secretly in- 
structed in the popish religion ; openly 'they 
profess the reformed. The eldest is now to 
receive his father's office under the kin* 
which shall be. A. cardinal's hat is pro- 
vided for the other if the design succeed 
well' (PRYNNE, Romp's Master- P/Vce, 1644, 
p. 23). Wild though these accusntions were, 
they gained som credence. What helped 
to make them believed was that Porter was 
undoubtedly implicated in the army plot, 
and was suspected of a share in instigating 
the Irish rebellion. On 1 Oct. 1641 the 
great seal of Scotland had been in his cus- 
tody, and it was asserted that he had used 

Master-Piece^ p. 33; BRODIE, Hist, of the 
British Empire, ii. 378). The charge was 
probably untrue, but it is noteworthy tint 
Porter subsequently assisted Glamorgan in 
the illegitimate affixing of the erreat seal to 
his commission to treat with the Irish (1 April 
1644). He was not a man to stick at legal 
formalities in anything which would serve 
his master (English Historical Review, ii. 53 L 

In the list of the king's army in 1642, 
Porter appears as colonel of a regiment of 
foot, but his command was purely nominal, 
and when he made his composition with the 
parliament he could assert that he had never 
borne arms against it (PEACOCK, Army L*t, 
p. 14). Porter followed the king- to 'Oxford 
and sat in the anti-parliament summoned 
there in December 1643 (Old Parliamentary 
History, xiiL 75). He left England about 
the close of 1645, stayed some time in France, 
and then proceeded to Brussels. ' I am in 
so much necessity,' he wrote to Nicholas in 
January 1647, t that were it not for an Irish 
barber, that was once my servant, I might 
have starved for want of bread. He 
hath lent me some monies, which will last 
me a fortnight longer, and then I shall be as 
much subject to misery as I was before. 
Here, in our court, no man looks on me, and 
the Queen thinks I lost my estate rather for 
want of wit than for my loyalty to my 
master ; bub, God be thanked^ I know my 
own heart and am satisfied in my own con- 
science, and were it to do again 'I would as 
freely sacrifice all without hopus of reward 
as I have done this ' ( Nicholas Papers, i. 70), 
In the Netherlands, thanks doubtless to his 
Spanish friends, Porter found it easier to 




live, and his letters from Brussels are more 
cheerful (FoNBLANQUE, p. 80 ; Fairfax Cor- 
respondence, iii. 30). On 23 Nov. 1648 he 
was given leave to come over to England to 
compound for his estate, and did so in tlie 
following spring. His fine was fixed, on 
!H June 164-9, at 222/. 10$., the smallness ot 
the sum being probably due to the fact that 
his landed property was encumbered, while 
all his movables had long since been con- 
fiscated (CaL of Committee for Compounding, 
p. 1804; cf. DRiXGiCitaloyueofCompounders, 
p. 87, ed. 1733). lie died a few weeks later, 
and was buried at St. MartinVin-the-Fields 
on 20 Aug. 1 649. 

In his will, dated 26 March 1639, Porter 
inserted a tribute to the patron to whom 
he owed his rise to fortune. * I charge all 
my sons, upon my blessing, that they, leaving 
the like charges to their posterity, do all of 
them observe and respect the children and 
family of my Lord Duke of Buckingham, 
decf'MSpd, to whom I owe all the happiness I 
had in the world ' (FoNBTASTQUE, p. 82 ; Notes 
and Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 353). 

Olivia Porter survived her husband four- 
teen years ; she died in 1663, and was buried 
at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields on 13 Dec. 

Porter's eldest son, George (1622P-1683), 
and his fourth son, Thomas, are separately 
noticed. His second son, Charles (b. 1623), 
was killed at the battle of Newburn in 1640 
( CaL State Papers, Dora. 1640, p. 231 ; RTTSH- 
WORTH, iii. 1238). Philip, the third (. 1628), 
was imprisoned in 1654 for complicity in a 
plot against the Protector ( CaL State Papers, 
l)om. 1654, p. 274). Otherwise he is only 
heard of as a swashbuckler of the worst 
type (Middlex&r Records, iii. 210). 

James Porter, the fifth son (b. 1638), en- 
tered the army after the Restoration, and was 
probably the captain of that name who held 
commissions in Lord Falkland's regiment in 
1661, and in the Duke of Buckingham's in 
1672. He was also captain of a volunteer 
troop of horse, raised at the time of Mon- 
mouth T s rebellion, and was then described as 
Colonel Porter (CuAKLES DAJ/ION, Army 
Lists, i. 20, 120, ii, 16). During the reign 
of Charles II he was occasionally employed 
on complimentary missions to France and 
the Netherlands (Saville Correspondence, p. 
1 16 : Secret-service Money of Charles II and 
James II, p. 130). On 8 March 16S6-7 he 
was appointed vice-chamberlain of the house- 
Jiold to James II, having previously held the 
post of groom of the bedchamber (LTITTKELL, 
Diary, u395; Saville Correspondence^. 167). 
He has been identified with the Porter who 
held the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the 
regiment of Colonel Henry FitzJames ia the 

Irish army of James II (J.UfES D'ALTOX, 
King James's Iresh Army List, ii. 85). In 
February 1689 James sent Porter as envoy to 
Innocent XI (MACPHEESOJT, Original Papers, 
i. 302). On his return he continued to occupy 
the post of chamberlain in the court at St. 
Germains, and furnished materials for a fune- 
ral panegyric on his master ('A Funeral 
Oration on the late King James, composed 
from Memoirs furnished by Mr. Porter, his 
Great Chamberlain ; dedicated to the French 
King/ translated into English, 1702). 

A picture, representing Endymion Porter 
and his family, by Vandyck, was in the pos- 
session of Lord Strangford. Two other por- 
traits of Porter, by the same artist, are in 
the possession of the Earl of Hard wick and 
the Earl of Mexborough. The latter was 
No. 31 in the Vandyck exhibition of 1886. 
Another is in Mr. Fenwick's collection at 
Middlehill. There is in the National Gallery 
a likeness of Porter, by Dobson, which was 
engraved by Faithorne (FAGAIT, Catalogue 
o/Faitkomes WorI:s,lS88, p. 54). Another 
portrait by Dobson is in the National Por- 
trait Gallery. A medal, representing Porter, 
was executed by Warin in 1G35, the inscrip- 
tion on which states that he was then ' set. 

[The best life of Porter is that contained in 
E. B. de Fonbianque's Lives of the Lords Strang- 
ford, 1877. A pedigree of the Porter family is 
given by Waters in The Cbesters of Chichele, i. 
144-9. The Domestic State Papers contain a 
large number of lerters from Porter to his -wife, 
many of which are printed in full by Fonblanqne; 
notes and copies of other letters kindly supplied 
by Mrs. K, B. To*nshend.] C. H. F. 

PORTER, FRANCIS (d. 1702), Irish 
Franciscan, a native of co. Meath, joined the 
Franciscans, and passed most of his life at 
Home. He became professor and lecturer, 
and was ultimately president, of the Irish 
College of St. Isidore in that city. He de- 
scribed himself in 1693 as ' divine and his- 
torian to his most Serene Majesty of Great 
Britain,' viz. James II. He died in Rome on 
7 April 1702. 

Porter was author of the following very 
rare Latin works: 1. 'Securis Evangelica 
ad Hseresis radices posita, ad Congregationem 
Propagandas Fidei,' Rome, 1674, ' editio se- 
cunaa novis additionibus aucta et recog- 
nita ; ' dedicated to Roger Palmer, lord Cas- 
tlemaine. 2. i Palinodia religionis prsetensse 
Reformats,' &c,, Rome, 1679 ; dedicated to 
Cardinal Cybo. 3. ' Compendium Annalium 
Ecclesiasticorum Regni Hiberniee, exhibens 
brevem illius descriptionem et succinctam, 
Hi8toriam,* 1690, 4to; dedicated to Alex- 
ander VIEL It contains an epistle to the 




author, by Francis Echiiiard, a Jesuit, on ; 
errors in maps of Ireland. Porter has 
drawn largely on Ussher and Ware. The 
last section of the Appendix contains con- 
temporary history down to the end of 1689, i 
Avith an account of the siege of Derry 
(taken from letters written in May, July, 
and September 1689), and of the Jacobite 
parliament at Dublin. Porter concludes 
"with an invective against Luther, as the au- 
thor of all the evils of Ireland. 4./ Systema 
Deeretorum Dogmaticorum ... in quo in- 
superrecensentur prsecipui cujuslibet Sseculi, 
errores, adversi Impuguatores orthodox*! ; 
item Recursus et Appeliationes hactenus ad 
sedem Apostolicam habitse, cum notis his- 
toricis et copiosis indicibus,' Avignon, 1693, 
ibl. ; dedicated to Cardinal Spada. This 
work is very rare : was unknown to Ware, 
and was wrongly described by Harris in his 
edition of Ware's Irish writers. 5. 'Opus- 
culum contra vulgares quasdum Prophetias 
de Electionum [sifi] Summorutn Poutincum, 
S. Miilaclms . . . hactenus falso attributas, 
Gallice primum editum, mine novis suppie- 
mentis auctum et in Latinum idioma trans- 
latum: adjunctis cel^brhim Authorum [tfic] 
r fleet iouib us et judiciis de AbbatisJoachimi 
Vaticiniis, ejusque Spiritu Prophetico,' 
Rome, 1698, 8vo. 

[Ware's Works concerning Ireland, ed. Walter 
Harris, 1764, ii. 262; Web >'s Conipend. Irish 
Biography: Brit, Mas, Cat.; Porter's Works; 
Lovendes's Bibl. Manual; Hazlitt's BiblmfrraDhi- 
cal Collections, 3rl ser p. 126.] 0. LK G-. N. 

PORTEE, GEORGE (1622P-1683), 
royalist, was the eldest son of Eudymion 
Porter [q. v.] On 19 June 1641 Charles I 
recommended him to the Earl of Ormonde to 
be allowed to transport a regiment of a thou- 
sand of the disbanded soldiers of the Irish 
armv for the service of Spain (CoxE. JFZ/fo?rm# 

V * \ ' 

Artfflicana, iii. 71, App. p. 210). At the com- 
mencement of the civil war he appears to 
have served under Prince Rupert, and then 
became commissary-general of horse in the 
army of the Earl of Newcastle (WARBXTBTON", 
Prince Rupert, i. 507 ; Life of the Duke of 
Newcastle, ed. 1886, p. 165). In March 1644 
Porter was engaged in fortifying Lincoln, and 
at the battle of Marston Moor, where he was 
wounded, he held the rank of major-general 
of Newcastle's foot ( Hist. M8S. 'Comm. 9th 
Rep. p. 435 ; YICARS, God's Ark, p. 277). 
The parliament sent him to the Tower, but, 
after lengthy negotiations, allowed him to 
be exchanged (Commons 1 Journals, iii. 658, 
709, 711 ; Report on the Duke of Portlands 
MS&. i. 194-6). On his release Porter be- 
came lieutenant-general and commander of 
the horse in the army of Lord Goring, iu the 

west, of England. Over Goring he exercised 
au influence which was very harmful to the 
king's cause ; he t fed his wild humour and 
debauch, and turned his wantonness into riot/ 
At Ilininster on 9 July 1645 he suffered 
Goriug's cavalry to be surprised and routed 
by Massey. Goring indignantly declared that 
he deserved ' to be pistolled for his negli- 
gence or cowardice, 7 and a few weeks later 
told Hyde that he suspected Porter of 
treachery as well as negligence, aud was re- 
solved to be quit of him ( CARTE, Original Let- 
ters, i. 131; BULSTBODB, Memoirs, pp. 135, 
137, 141). His final verdict was that ' his 
brother-in-law was the host company, but 
the worst; officer that ever served the king.' 
Though Goring took no steps to deprive 
Porter of his command, the character of tlm 
latter was utterly discredited by a quarrel 
between him aud Colonel Tuke, arising out 
of an intrigue about promotion (ib. pp. 137, 
141-7). In November 1645 Porter obtained 
a pass from Fairfax, abandoned the king's 
cause, and went to London (FONBLANUUK, 
Lives of the Lords Sfranflford, p. 77). He 
made his peace by this treacherous desertion 
to the parliamentary cause, for the House of 
Commons at once remitted the fine of l,000/. 
which the committee for compounding had 
imposed upon him, and passed an ordinance 
for his pardon ( Common* 1 Journals, iv. 486, 
522 ; Calendar of the Committee for Com- 
pounding, p. 1097). 

Porter was extremely quarrelsome, al- 
though his courage was not above suspicion, 
and in 1646 and 1654 his intended duels 
were prevented by official intervention 
(Lords 1 Journals, viii. 318, 338; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1654, p. 437). In 1(559 he was 
engaged in the plots for the restoration of 
Charles II) but was not trusted by the 
royalists (Clarendon State Papers, iii. 586). 
Nevertheless, after the king's return, he suc- 
ceeded in obtaining the office of gentleman 
of the privy chamber to the queen-consort 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1064-5, p. 396; 
ADY, Life of Henrietta of Orleans, p. 215), 
He died in 1083. 

Porter married Diana, daughter of ^George 
Goring, first earl of Norwich, and widow of 
Thomas Covert of Slaugham, Sussex, by 
whom he had three sons and fi v<| daughters. 
His daughter Mary married Philip Smyth, 
fourth viscount Strangford. 

[See authorities for PORTER, ENDYMION.] 

0. H. F. 

PORTER, GEORGE (/. 1695), con- 
spirator, is described in all contemporary 
accounts as a IJ-oman catholic, a man of 
pleasure, and a haunter of Jacobite taverns. 




ITe may be identical with George, son of j 
Thomas Porter [q. v.] On 10 Dec. 168-4 a 
true bill of manslaughter was brought in 
against him for causing the death of Sir 
James Halkett during a fracas at a theatre, 
but he escaped punishment (cf. Middlesex 
County Records, iv. 253). In 1088 he was a 
captain in Colonel Slingsby's regiment of 
horse (DALTOKT, Army Lists, ii. 185). In May 
1692 he was mentioned in the proclamation 
as a dangerous Jacobite, but he soon felt it 
safe to return to his old haunts, and in June 
1695 he was temporarily taken into custody 
for rioting in a Drury Lane tavern and 
drinking King James's health. After the 
death of Queen Mary, Porter associated him- 
self more closely with Sir George Barclay, 
Bobert Charnock, and other Jacobite con- 
spirators ; and jin December 1695 the inten- 
tion to secure the person of William III, 
alive or dead, was communicated to him by 
Charnock. Porter brought his servant KLeyes 
into the plot, and it was he who, with much, 
ingenuity, organised the details of the plan, 
by which William was to be surprised in 
his coach in a miry lane between Chiswick 
and Turnham Green, while his guard was 
straggling after the passage of Queensferry. 
It was arranged that Porter should be one 
of the three leaders of the attack upon the 
guards. On the eve of the intended assassi- 
nation, 21 Feb. 1696, the conspirators as- 
sembled in the lodging that Porter shared 
with Charnock in Norfolk Street, Strand. 
The plot having been revealed, Porter and 
Keyes were pursued by the hue and cry and 
captured at Leatherhead. Fortunately for 
Porter, Sir Thomas Prendergast [q. v.], the in- 
former, who was under great obligation to 
him, stipulated for his friend's life. Porter 
basely turned king's evidence, and thus pro- 
cured his pardon and a grant from the 
exchequer (1 Aug. 1696). His testimony 
greatly facilitated the conviction of Char- 
nock, King, Friend, Parkyns, Rookwood, 
Cranbourne, and Lowicke. More abominable 
was Porter's betrayal of his servant Keyes, 
whom he had inveigled into the plot. 

In November 1696 Sir John Fenwick was 
BO alarmed at the amount of information 
possessed by Porter as to the ramifications 
of this and previous plots, that he made a 
strenuous effort to get him out of the coun- 
try. On condition that he forthwith trans- 
ported himself to France, he promised Porter 
three hundred guineas down, a handsome 
annuity, and a free pardon from James. The 
negotiations were conducted through a bar- 
ber named Clancy. Porter reported the in- 
trigue to the authorities at Whitehall. On 
the day proposed for his departure to France 

he met Clancy by arrangement at a tavern 
in Covent Garden. At a given signal Clancy 
was arrested, and subse^ue itly convicted ancL 
pilloried. Later in the month Porter gave 
evidence against Fenwick (LTJTTBELL, iv. 
140 sq.) He probably retired at the end of 
the year upon substantial earnings. In June 
1697 a woman was suborned to bring a scan- 
dalous charge against him. His successes 
doubtless excited the envy of the confra- 
ternity of professional scoundrels to which 
he belonged. 

[LuttrelTs Diary, vols. i. ii. iii. and iv. passim ; 
Macaulay's Hist, of England, ehap. xxi. ; Beyer's 
William III, pp. 448-56 ; Burnet's Own Time, 
1766, iii. 232-6; Life of James II, ii. 548; 
Banke's Hist, of England, v. 125; Howell's 
State Trials, xiii. See also arts. BARCLAY, SIR 

(1822-1895), surgeon, born in Kid ire Street, 
Dublin, on 24 Nov. 1822, was the only son 
of WILLIAM HENRY POKTBK (1790-1861), 
by his wife Jane (Hornidge) of Blessington, 
co. Wicklow. The father, son of William 
Porter of Rathfarnhain, co. Dublin, was pre- 
sident of the Irish College of Surgeons in 
1838, and professor of surgery in the College 
of Surgeons school of medicine in Dublin. 
He was a very popular teacher in the times 
when the old system was in vogue by which 
apprenticeship to a well-known surgeon was 
one of the portals to the profession of sur- 
gery. He was also a good anatomist, and 
made occasional contributions to surgical 
literature, some of which were of distinct 
merit. An operation on the femoral artery 
called Porter's, now, however, rarely prac- 
tised, owes its name to him. A brother, 
Frank Thorpe Porter, stipendiary magistrate 
at Dublin and raconteur, wrote 'Grand Juries 
in Ireland/ Dublin, 1840, and a well-known 
book of anecdotes, ' The Recollections of an 
Irish Police Magistrate ' (2nd edit. 1875). 

George Hornidge Porter studied at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he graduated M.D. 
at the College of Surgeons, Ireland. In 1844 
he became a fellow of the latter body, and in 
1849 was elected surgeon to the Meath Hos- 
pital, Dublin, to which institution his father 
was attached in the same capacity. He early 
attained the reputation of a bold and success- 
ful operator. Hie contributed to the medical 
papers, chiefly to the Dublin * Journal of 
Medical Science,' many records of surgical 
cases and operations. He was a man of popu- 
lar manner, and ambitious of social distinc- 
tion, and was for many years one of the best 
known men in his native city. He was pre- 
sident of the College of Surgeons of Ireland 





during 1868-9, and for a long* time a mem- 
ber of the council of that college, where he 
exercised great personal influence. In 1869 
he was appointed surgeon-in-ordinary to the 
queen in Ireland. He was knighted in 1883, 
and received a baronetcy in 1889 in recog- 
nition of his distinguished professional posi- 
tion. The university of Dublin conferred 
upon him in 1873 the honorary degree of 
master of surgery, and in 1891 the post of 
regius professor of surgery. The university 
of Glasgow gave him in 1888 the honorary 
degree of LL.D. In his earlier years he fre- 
quently gave expert evidence in the coroner's 
court, and in 1882 he was one of those who 
were called upon to examine the bodies of 
Lord Frederick Cavendish andThomas Henry 
Burke, who were murdered in the Phoenix 
Park. Sir George Porter was attached to 
many of the Dublin hospitals in an honorary 
or consulting capacity, and was an active 
member of numerous charitable and other 
boards. He acquired by purchase landed 
property in co. Wexford, and was proud of 
his position as a country gentleman, and 
especially of being high sheriff of the county. 
He died of heart-disease at his residence, 
Merrion Square, Dublin, on 15 June 1895. 

He married Julia, daughter of Isaac Bond 
of Flimby, Cumberland, by whom he had 
one son. 

[Cameron's Hist, of the College of Surgeons 
5n Ireland ; Orrasby's Hist, of the Meath Hos- 
pital ; obituary notices in British Medical Jour- 
nal and Lancet, June 1895.] C. N. 

(179:2-185:2), statistician, the son of a London 
merchant, was born in London in 1792. Fail- 
ing in business as a sugar-broker, he devoted 
himself to economics and statistics, and in 
1831 contributed an essay on life assurance 
to Charles Knight's * Companion to the Al- 
manac.' "When, in 1832, Knight declined 
Lord Auckland's invitation to digest for the 
board of trade the information contained in 
the parliamentary reports and papers, he 
recommended Porter for the task. Porter 
now had scope for the exercise of his powers 
as a statistician, and in 1834 the statistical 
department of the board of trade was per- 
manently established under his supervision. 
In 1840 he was appointed senior member of 
the railway department of the same board, 
and in 1841 Lord Clarendon obtained for 
him the position of joint secretary of the 
board in succession to John MacGregor [q. y.] 
Porter's remuneration was at first inadequate, 
but he ultimately received 1,QOOZ. a year as 
chief of the statistical department, 1,200 as 
senior member of the railway department, 
and 1,5007. as joint secretary of the board of 

trade. He was one of the promoters, in 1 83 1 
of the Statistical Society, of which he be- 
came vice-president and treasurer in 1841- 
and he took an active interest in the pro- 
ceedings of section F of the British Asso- 
ciation. He was also an honorary member 
of the Statistical Society of Ulster, corre- 
sponding member of the institute of France, 
and fellow of the Royal Society. He died 
on 3 Sept. 1852 at tunbridge Wells, and 
was buried there. The immediate cause of 
his ^ death was a gnat's sting on the knee, 
which caused mortification. There is an en- 
graved portrait of him in the rooms of the 
Statistical Society, Adelphi Terrace, Lon- 
don, W.C. 

Porter was a liberal in politics, a zealous 
free-trader, and an able official. His best- 
known work, ' The Progress of the Nation in 
its various Social and Economical Relations, 
from the beginning of the Nineteenth Century 
to the present time' (3 vols. London, 1836-43, 
cr. 8vo ; 1 vol. London, 1838, 8vo ; 1847, 8vo; 
1851, 8vo), is an invaluable record of the first 
half of the nineteenth century. It is remark- 
able for the accuracy and the variety of its 
information, and for the skill with which the 
results of statistical inquiry are presented. 
Besides tracts and papers on statistical sub- 
jects in Lardner's ' Cabinet Cyclopaedia/ the 

* Journal of the Statistical Society,' and the 

* Proceedings of the British Association/ 
Porter published: 1. * The Effect of Restric- 
tions on the Importation of Corn, considered 
with reference to Landowners, Farmers, and 
Labourers/ London, 1839, 8vo. 2. 'The 
Nature and Properties of the Sugar Cane . . .' 
2nd edition, with an additional chapter on 
the manufacture of sugar from beetroot, Lon- 
don, 1843, 8vo. 3. 'The Tropical Agricul- 
turist : a Practical Treatise on the Cultiva- 
tion and Management of various Productions 
suited to Tropical Climates.' 4. 'Popular 
Fallacies regarding General Interests :^ being 
a Translation of the "Sophismes ficono- 
miques"' [of F. Bastiat], &c., 1846, 16mo; 
1849, 16mo. 5. 'A Manual of Statistics' 
(Section 15 of the 'Admiralty Manual of 
Scientific Inquiry/ edited by Sir John Frede- 
rick William Herschel, 1849, 12mo; 1851, 
8vo) ; another edition, revised by William 
Newmarch, 1 859, 8vo. 

POETEK, SARA.H (1791-1862), writer on 
education, wife of the above, was the daugh- 
ter of Abraham Ricardo, and sister of David 
Ricardo [q. vj She died on 13 Sept. 1862 at 
West Hill, Wandsworth, aged 71. She pub- 
lished : 1. ' Conversations on Arithmetic/ 
London, 1835, 12mo ; new edition, with the 
title 'Rational Arithmetic/ &c., London, 
1852, 12mo. 2, * On Infant Schools for the 




Upper and Middle Classes ' (Central Society 
of Education, second publication, 1838, 
12mo). 3. ' The Expediency and the Means 
of elevating the Profession of the Educator 
in public estimation,' 1839, 12mo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1852 ii. 427-9, 1862 ii. 509; 
Annual Register, 1852, p. 305 ; Journal of the 
Statistical Society, 1853, pp. 97, 38 ; Athenseum ; 
Waller's Imperial Dictionary, iii. 59; M'Cul- 
loch's Literature of Political Economy, pp. 80, 
220, 222.1 W. A. S. H. 

PORTER, HENRY (f. 1599), dramatist, 
is frequently referred to in Henslowe's ' Diary* 
between 16 Dec. 1596 and 26 May 1599. 
On 30 May 1598 Henslowe paid 4 to Thomas 
Dowton and Mr. Porter for the play called 
' Love Prevented.' On 18 Aug. 1598 Hens- 
lowe bought the play called l Hot Anger soon 
Cold,' by Porter, Chettle, and Jonson. On 
22 Dec. 1598 he bought the second part of 
Porter's ' Two Angry Women of Abington.' 
On 28 Feb. 1599 Porter promised Henslowe 
all his compositions, whether written alone 
or in collaboration, for a loan of 40s., being 
earnest-money for his * Two Merry "Women 
of Abington. 1 On 4 March 1599 Henslowe 
paid for ' The Spencers ' by Porter and Chettle. 
Many small money advances followed. Fran- 
cis Meres, in his 'Palladia Tamia'^1598), 
mentions Porter as a leading dramatist. One 
of Weever's epigrams (1598), addressed ' ad 
Henricum Porter,' describes a man of mature 
age, but he is probably addressing another 
Henry Porter who graduated bachelor of 
music from Christ Church, Oxford, in July 
1600, and was father of Walter Porter [q, v.] 
Of the five plays mentioned above, the only 
one extant is * The Pleasant Historie of the 
two Angrie Women of Abington. With the 
humorous mirth of Dick Coomes and Nicholas 
Proverbes, two Serving men. As it was 
lately playde by the Right Honorable the 
Earle of Nottingham, Lord High Admirall, 
his servants. By Henry Porter, Gent./ Lon- 
don, 1599, 4to. A second edition, in quarto, 
was issued in the same year. The play 
has been edited by Alexander Dyce for the 
Percy Society in 1841, by William Carew 
Hazlitt, in vol. vii. of Dodsley's ' Old Plays ' 
4th edit. 1874), and by Mr. Havelpck Ellis 
in * Nero and other Plays/ Mermaid Series, 
1888. Charles Lamb gave extracts from it 
among his selections from the 'Garrick Plays' 
(Bohn's edit. 1854, y. 432), and judged it 
' no whit inferior to either the " Comedy of 
Errors" or the " Taming of the Shrew." . . . 
Its night scenes are peculiarly sprightly and 
wakeful, the versification unencumbered, and 
rich with compound epithets.' 

[Hunter's Chorus Vatum, ii. 302 (Addit. W$. 
24488) ; Fleay's Biographical Chron. of the Eng- 

lish Drama, 1559-1642, ii. 162; Fleay's Hist, of 
the Stage, p. 107 ; and editions of Dyce, Eazlirt, 
and Ellis quoted above.] R. B 

PORTER, SIB JAMES (1710-1786), 
diplomatist, was born in Dublin in 1710. 
His father, whose original name was La 
Roche, was captain of a troop of horse 
under James H. His mother was the eldest 
daughter of Isaye d'Aubus or Daubuz, a 
French protestant refugee, and sister of the 
Rev. Charles Daubuz, vicar of Brotherton 
in the West Riding of Yorkshire. She died 
on 7 Jan. 1753. On the failure of James IFs 
campaign in Ireland La Roche assumed the 
name of Porter. After a slight education 
young Porter was placed in a house of busi- 
ness in the city of London. During his leisure 
hours he 'assiduously studied mathematics, 
and to a moderate knowledge of Latin added 
a perfect acquaintance with the French and 
Italian languages ' (Memoir, p. 4). He also 
joined a debating society, called the t Robin 
"Hood/ where he distinguished himself as a 
speaker. Through his friend Richard Adams, 
who afterwards became recorder of the city 
of London and a baron of the exchequer, 
Porter was introduced to Lord Carteret, by 
whom he was employed on several con- 
fidential missions in matters connected with 
.continental commerce. While in Germany 
in 1736 Porter paid a visit to Count Zinzen- 
dorfFs Moravian settlement near Leipzig, of 
which he has left an interesting account 
( Turkey, its History and Progress, vol. i. App. 
pp. 365-71). In 1741 he was employed at 
the court of Vienna, and assisted Sir Thomas 
Robinson (1693-1770) [q.v.] in the negotia- 
tions between Austria and Prussia, In the fol- 
lowing year he was again sent out to Vienna 
on a special mission to Maria Theresa (id. 
vol. i. App. pp. 406-97). On 22 Sept. 1746 he 
was appointed ambassador at Constantinople 
(London Gazette, 1746, No. 8573), where he 
remained until May 1762. On 7 May 1763 
he was appointed minister-plenipotentiary 
at the court of Brussels (ib. 1763, No. 10310). 
He was knighted on 21 Sept. following (ib. 
1763, No. 10350), having refused, it is said, 
the offer of a baronetcy. Finding the ex- 
penses of his position at Brussels beyond his 
means, he resigned his post in 1765 and re- 
turned to England, where he divided his 
time between London and Ham, and devoted 
himself to the cultivation of science and 
literature. Porter, who was a fellow of the 
Royal Society, declined to be nominated 
president in 1768, 'not feeling himself of 
sufficient consequence or rich enough to live 
in such a style as he conceived that the 
president of such a society should maintain ' 
(Memoir, p. 11). In the same year he pub- 

s 2 


1 80 


lished anonymously his ' Observations on 
the Religion, Law, Government,and Manners 
of the I'urks/ London, 8vo, 2 vols. (' Second 
Edition ... To which is added the State 
of the Turkish Trade from its Origin to the 
Present Time/ London, 1771, Bvo). Porter 
died in Great Marlborough Street, London, 
on 9 Dec. 1776, aged 66, 

He married, in 1755, Clarissa Catherine, 
eldest daughter of Elbert, second baron de 
Hochepied (of the kingdom of Hungary), the 
Dutch ambassador at Constantinople, by 
whom he had five children, viz. : (1) John 
Elbert, who died an infant at Pera in 1756. 

(2) Anna Margaretta, bora at Pera on 4 April 
1758, -who became the second wife of John 
Larpent [q. v.], and died on 4 March 1832. 

(3) George, born at Pera on 23 April 1760, a 
lieutenant-general in the army, who suc- 
ceeded as sixth Baron de Hochepied in 
February 1819, and by royal license dated 
the 6th day of May following assumed the 
surname and arms of De Hochepied in lieu 
of Porter (London Gazette, 1819, pt, L 
p. 842) ; by a further license, dated 5 Oct. 
1819, he obtained permission for himself and 
his two nephews, John James and George 
Gerard, sons of his sister Anna Margaretta, 
to bear the title in England (ib. 1819, pt. ii. 
p. 1766). He represented Stockbridge mthe 
House of Commons from February 1793 to 
February 1820. He married, on 1 Sept. 
1802, Henrietta, widow of Richard, first earl 
Grosvenor, and daughter of Henry Vernon of 
Hilton Park, Staffordshire, and died on 
25 March 1828, without leaving issue. 
(4J Sophia Albertini, who died unmarried. 
(5) Clarissa Catherine, born at Brussels in 
December 1764; she married, on 15 Jan. 
1798, the Right Hon. James Trail, secretary 
of state for Ireland, and died at Clifton on 
7 April 1833. 

Sir William Jones speaks of Porter in the 
highest terms, and asserts that during his 
embassy at Constantinople ' the interests of 
our mercantile body were never better 
secured, nor the honour of our nation better 
supported* ( Works, 1799, 4to, iv, 5). Three 
of Porter's letter-books are in the possession 
of Mr, George A. Aitken (Hist. M&S. Comm. 
12th Rep. App. pt. ix. pp. 334-42), and a 
number of his despatches are preserved in the 
B-ecord Office (State Papers, Turkey, Bundles 
35 to 43). He is said to have written a pam- 
phlet against the partition of Poland, which 
was suppressed at the request of the govern- 
ment (Memoir, p. 11). He was the author 
of the following thre^e papers, which were 
printed in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' 
of the Royal Society : 1. ( On the several 
Earthquakes felt at Constantinople' (xiix. 

115). 2. 'New Astronomical and Physical 
Observations made in Asia,' &c. (xlix. 2ol). 
3. ' Observations on the Transit of Venus 
made at Constantinople' (Hi. 226). His 
grandson, Sir George Gerard de Hochepied 
Larpent [<j. vj, published in 1854 (2 vols.) 
' Turkey : its History and Progress, from the 
Journals and Correspondence of Sir James 
Porter . . . continued to the present time, with 
a Memoir.' A portrait of Porter forms the 
frontispiece to the first volume. 

[Authorities quoted in the text ; Athenaeum, 
21 Oct. 1854, pp. 1259-60 ; Agnew'a Protestant 
Exiles from France, 1886, i. 339-40, 394-5; 
Burke's Peerage, &c., 1894, pp. 830, 1558; 
Poster's Baron etnge, 1881, p. 374; G-ent. Mag, 
1776 p. 579, 1798 pt. i. p. 83, 1802 pt. H.p. 876, 
1828 pt. i. pp. 188-9, 364, 1832 pt. i. p. 286, 
1833, pt. i. p. 380 j Ann. Beg. 1776, p. 230; 
Notes and Queries, 5th ser. ii. 67, 114, vii. 128, 
313, 8th ser. v. 387 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

a. P. B. B. 

POKTER, JAMES (1753-1798), author 
of 'Billy Bluff,' son of Alexander Porter, was 
"born in 1753 at Tamna Wood, near Ballin- 
drait, co. Donegal. His father was a farmer 
and owner of a flax-scutching mill. James 
was the eldest of eight children. On his 
father's death (about 1773) he gave up the 
farm and mill to a younger brother, and 
engaged himself as a schoolmaster at Dromore, 
co. Down. In 1780 he married, and removed 
to a school at Drogheda. Designing to enter 
the preshyterian ministry, he went to Glas- 
gow as a divinity student (apparently in 
1784); and, having finished a two years' 
course, was licensed, in 1786 or 1787, by 
Bangor presbytery. After being an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for the presbyterian congre- 
gation of Ballindrait, he received, through 
the good offices of Robert Black, D.D. [q. v.], 
a call to Greyabbey (local pronunciation, 
Gryba), co. Down, where he was ordained by 
Bangor presbytery on 31 July 1787. No sub- 
scription was required of him, and the test 
questions, drawn up by Andrew Craig, were 
Arian in complexion. His professional in- 
come did not exceed 60/.; hence he supple- 
mented his resources by farming. Having 
mechanical tastes, he fitted up a workshop, 
and constructed models of improved farming 
implements. By this and other means he did 
much to promote the physical wellbeing of 
his flock, to whom he was in all respects an 
assiduous pastor. He is said to have been an 
Arian, but there seems no evidence of his 
attachment to a special school of theology. 

Porter had joined the volunteer movement 
which began m 1778, but took no prominent 
part in connection with it. He was not a 
United Irishman, nor was he publicly known 




as a politician till after the suppression of the 
volunteer movement by the Convention Act 
of 1793. One effect of this arbitrary measure 
was to throw into alliance with the secret 
society of United Irishmen those who, like 
Porter, were in favour of parliamentary re- 
form and catholic emancipation, but were 
now debarred from the holding of open meet- 
ings for the agitation of constitutional re- 
forms. Porter in 1794 became a contributor 
to the ' Northern Star/ founded in 1792 by 
Samuel Neilson [q. v.] For this paper he 
wrote anonymously a number of patriotic 
songs, which were afterwards reprinted in 
* Paddy's Resource.' In 1796 he contributed 
a famous series of seven letters by * A Pres^ 
byterian.' The first, dated 21 May, was 
published in the number for 27-30 May, 
They were at once reprinted, with the title 
1 Billy Bluff and Squire Firebrand/ Belfast, 
1796, 8vo (of numerous later editions the 
best is Belfast, 1816, 12mo, containing also 
the songs). This admirable satire deserves 
the popularity which it still enjoys in Ulster. 
The characters are broadly olrawn, with a 
rollicking humour which is exceedingly 
effective without being malicious j the system 
of feudal tyranny and local espionage is 
drawn from the life, Witherow well says 
that * in these pages of a small pamphlet there 
is, on the whole, a truer picture of country 
life in Ireland in the last decade of the 
eighteenth century than in many volumes, 
each ten times its size/ The good Witherow 
laments that the exigencies of realism com- 
pelled a divine to represent a County Down 
dialogue (of that date) as l interlarded with 
oaths,' which fail to please * a grave and sober 
reader.' The original of i Billy Bluff' was 
William Lowry, bailiff on the Greyabbey 
estate; 'Lord Mountmumble' was .Robert 
Stewart,then baron Stewart of Mountstewart, 
afterwards first marquis of Londonderry 
[q, v.] ; ' Squire Firebrand ' was Hugh Mont- 
gomery of Kosemount, proprietor of the Grey- 
abbey estate (so, correctly, Classon Porter 
and Killen ; Madden and Witherow erro- 
neously identify 'Squire Firebrand' with 
John Cleland, rector (1789-1809) of New- 
townards, co. Down, and agent of the Mount- 
Stewart estate). 

Later in 1796 Porter, whose name was 
now ahousehold word in Ulster, went through 
the province on a lecturing tour. His subject 
was natural philosophy ; he showed expert 
ments with an electric battery and model 
balloons. He had previously given similar 
lectures in his own neighbourhood, and there 
is no reason for supposing that lie now had 
any object in view apart from the advance- 
ment of popular culture, though the authori- 

ties suspected that his lectures were the 
pretext for a political mission. He had 
written for the ' Northern Star J with the 
signature * A Man of Ulster/ and he began 
another series of letters on 23 Dec. 1796, 
addressed, with the signature of ' Sydney/ 
to Arthur Hill, second marquis of Down- 
shire. In these he attacked the policy of 
Pitt with extraordinary vehemence, and the 
publication of the paper was for some time 
suspended by the authorities. Meanwhile, 
on Thursday, 16 Feb., the government fast- 
day of thanksgiving for* the late providential 
storm which dispersed the French fleet off 
Bantry Bay/ Porter preached at Greyabbey 
a sermon, which was published with the title 
< Wind and Weather/ Belfast, 1797, 8vo. 
This, which was perhaps the most remark- 
able discourse ever printed by an Irish 
divine, is a sustained effort of irony, sug- 
gested by the text, 'Ye walked according 
to ... the prince of the power of the air ' 
(Eph. ii. 2), Its literary merit is consider- 

On the outbreak of the rebeUion of 1798 
Porter was a marked man ; a large reward 
was offered for his apprehension. There is 
no evidence of any knowledge on his part of 
the plans of the insurgents ; it is certain that 
he committed no overt act of rebellion, and 
all his published counsels were for peaceable 
measures of constitutional redress. He with- 
drew for safety to the house of Johnson of 
Ballydoonan, two miles from Greyabbey, and 
afterwards sought concealment hi a cottage 
among the Mourne mountains, on the verge 
of his parish. Here he was arrested in June 
1798, and taken to Belfast, but removed to 
Newtownards for trial by court-martial. The 
charge against hint was that he had been 
present with a party of insurgents who, be- 
tween 9 and 11 June, having intercepted 
the mail between Belfast and Saintfield, co. 
Down, had read a despatch from the com- 
manding officer at Belfast to a subordinate 
at Portaferry, co. Down. The postboy from, 
whom the despatch had been taken could 
not identity him; but a United Irishman, who 
had turned informer, swore to his guilt. 
Porter's cross-examination of this infamous 
witness was interrupted. He made an im- 
pressive appeal to the court, afiirming his 
innocence, and referring to his own character 
as that of a man * who, in the course of a 
laborious and active life, never concealed his 
sentiments/ He was sentenced to be hanged 
' and quartered. His wife was told by the 
military authorities that Londonderry could 
suspend the execution. With her seven chil- 
dren, the youngest eight months old, she 
made her way to MQ ants te wart. London- 




derry's daughters had attended Porter's scien- 
tific lectures ; and one of them, Lady Eliza- 
beth Mary (d. 1798), an invalid, who was 
expecting her own death, undertook to inter- 
cede with her father. Londonderry could not 
forgive the satire of * Lord Mountmumble.' 
Tradition has it that Mrs. Porter waylaid his 
lordship's carriage, in a vain hope of prevail- 
ing by personal entreaty, but Londonderry 
bade the coachman * drive on.' The sentence, 
however, was mitigated by remission of the 
order for quartering. ' Then/ said Porter to 
his wife, ' I shall lie at home to-night.' He 
was executed on 2 July 1798, on a green 
knoll, close to the road which led from his 
meeting-house to his dwelling, and in full 
view of both. At the gallows he sang the 
35th Psalm and prayed ; his wife was with 
Mm to the last. He was buried in the abbey 
churchyard at Greyabbey ; a flat tombstone 
gives his age ( 45 years.' He is described as 
one of the handsomest men of his time. 
Henry Montgomery, LL.D. [q.Y.], who as a 
boy had seen him, speaks of him as * distin- 
guished for an agreeable address.' He was a 
collector of books, and his scientific apparatus 
was unrivalled in the north of Ireland in his 
day. He married, in 1780, Anna Knox of 
Dromore, who died in Belfast on 3 Nov. 1823. 
Her right to an annuity from the widows' 
fund was for some time in doubt ; it was 
paid (with arrears) from 1800. Of his five 
daughters, the eldest, Ellen Anne, married 
John Cochrane Wiglitman, presbyterian 
minister of Holy wood, co. Down ; the second, 
Matilda, married Andrew Goudy,presby terian 
minister of Bally waiter, co. Down, and was 
the mother of Alexander Porter Goudy,D,D. 
[q. v.] ; the fourth, Isabella, married James 
Templeton, presbyterian minister of Bally- 
waiter ; the fifth, Sophia, married William 
D. Henderson, esq., Belfast. 

Porter's eldest son, Alexander, is stated 
by a questionable local tradition to have 
carried a stand of colours at the battle of 
Ballynahinch (12 June 1798), being then 
fourteen years of age ; and the story runs 
that he fled to Tamna Wood, and was there 
recognised (but not betrayed) by a soldier of 
the Armagh militia. He migrated to Loui- 
siana, of which state he became a senator, 
and he died there on 18 Jan. 1844. Another 
son, James, became attorneys-general of Loui- 
siana (see APPLETON, Cyclop, of Amer. Biogr.) 

[The best account of Porter is to be found in 
Classon Porter's Irish Presbyterian Biographical 
Sketches, 1883, pp. 16 et seq. See also Mont- 
gomery's Outlines of the History of Presby- 
teriamsm in Ireland, in the Irish Unitarian 
Hagazine, 1847, pp. 331 et seq.; Madden's 
United Irishmen, 3rd ser. i. 360 et se^., 4th ser. 

I860, p. 20; Beid's Hist. Presb. Church in 
1886, Ireland (Killen), 1867, iii. 396; Webb's 
Compendium of Irish Biography, 1878, p. 443 j 
Witherow's Hist and Lit. Mem. of Presby- 
terianism in Ireland, 1880, ii. 293 et seq.; 
Killer's Hist. Congr. Presb. Church in Ireland', 
1886, p. 157 ; Appleton's Cyclopaedia of Ameri- 
can Biography, 1888, v. 71 ; file of the Northern 
Star in Linenhall Library, Belfast ; manuscript 
ordination service for Porter, in Craig's auto- 
graph, in the possession of Miss M'Alester, 
Holywood, co.' Down; information from Miss 
Matilda Goudy, per Henry Herdman, esq.] 

A. GK 

PORTER, JANE (1776-1850), novelist, 
was sister of Anna Maria Porter [q. v.Tand 
of Sir Robert Ker Porter [q. v.] Their 
mother, left a widow in 1779, removed with 
her children from Durham to Edinburgh. The 
little girls were sent to a school there kept by 
George Fulton. Their progress was rapid. 
Walter Scott, then a boy, was a frequent 
visitor at their house, and he and a poor wo- 
man of unusual intelligence, named Luclde 
Forbes, delighted them with fairy tales or 
stories of the borders. Jane's love of study 
often led her to rise at 4 A.M., and, while 
still a girl, she read the ' Faerie Queene,' 
Sidney's ' Arcadia/ and many tales of chi- 
valry. Northcote made a sketch of her, her 
sister, and brother Robert, while children, 
reading and drawing in a Gothic chamber 
(cf, Gent. Maff. No. 102, pt. ii. p. 578). In 
1797 she and Anna Maria aided Thomas 
Frognall Dibdin in the conduct of a short- 
lived periodical called ' The Quiz/ 

Before 1803 the family removed to Lon- 
don, where they occupied a house, 16 Great 
Newport Street, once tenanted by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds. They came to know, through 
their brother Robert, the artists West, Flax- 
man, and Northcote, Hannah More, and Mrs. 
Barbauld, besides many naval and military 
veterans, friends of their father. In London 
Jane wtote her first romance, an exciting but 
carefully written story of a Polish exile, t 

* Thaddeus of Warsaw.' In it she incorporated 
some reminiscences of the early struggles of 
John Sell Cotman [q. v.], to whom her bro- 
ther Robert had introduced her (ROGBT, 

* Old Water-colour* So&ety, L 101), and free 
use was made of the characters of others of 
their friends. When the manuscript was 
shown to an old acquaintance, Owen Rees 
(of the firm of Longman & Co.), he at 
once offered to publish it. It appeared in 
four volumes in 1803, with a dedication to 
Sir Sidney Smith, and had a rapid success. 
While it was winning its reputation, Jane 
Porter and her sister were invited to visit 
the eccentric John James Hamilton, first 
marquis of Abercorn ; and, when Jane re* 




plied that she could not afford the expense 
of travelling, a cheque was sent. Although 
Miss Porter was of prepossessing appear- 
ance, Lord Abercorn had anticipated greater 
personal charms in his visitors, and being 
disappointed by a secret view he took of 
them on their arrival, he ungallantly left 
his wife to receive them without his aid 
(TA.YLOB, Haydon, iii. 17-18). Maginn con- 
sidered * Thaddeus ' the best and most endur- 
ing of Miss Porter's works. By 1810 it had 
reached a ninth edition. Translated into 
German, it fell into the hands of Kosciusko, 
the Polish patriot, who sent Miss Porter ex- 
pressions of approval. A relative of Kos- 
ciusko presented her with a gold ring con- 
taining the general's portrait ; and the tenth 
edition, 1819, was inscribed to his memory. 
In recognition of her literary power Miss 
Porter was made a lady of the chapter of St. 
Joachim by the king of Wiirtemberg. Later 
editions appeared in 1831 (with a new and 
valuable preface), 1840, 1860, and 1868. 

Jane Porter's second and most notable 
novel, * The Scottish Chiefs/ was composed 
within a year, and was published in five 
volumes in 1810. Its subject is the fortunes 
of William Wallace, the Scottish patriot,, of 
whom she had heard stories in her childhood 
from Luckie Forbes. In preparing the 
romance she sought information in all direc- 
tions. The old poem on the subject, by 
Henry the Minstrel (Blind Harry), was 
doubtless known to her. Campbell the poet 
sent her a sketch of Wallace's life, and re- 
commended books for her to read. Miss 
Porter dedicated to him the third edition 
(1816), He first met her in 1833, and spoke 
of her as ' a pleasing woman ' (BEA.TTIE, Life 
of Campbell, iii. 146). * The Scottish Chiefs ' 
had an immense success in Scotland. Trans- 
lated into German and Russian, it won Euro- 
pean fame, was proscribed by Napoleon (post- 
script to 3rd edit. 1816), and penetrated to 
India. Maginn considered the hero, Wal- 
lace * a sort of sentimental dandy who faints 
upon occasion, and is revived by lavender- 
water, and throughout the book is tenderly 
in love ; ' but Miss Mitford, who commended 
Miss Porter's * brilliant colouring/ declared 
that she scarcely knew ' one heros de roman 
whom it is possible to admire, except Wal- 
lace* in Miss Porter's story (L'EsTiiAffGB, 
ISfe of Miss Mitford, i. 217). Joanna Bail- 
lie acknowledged her indebtedness to Miss 
Porter, ' the able and popular writer/ when 
writing her poem on Wallace in * Metrical 
Legends ' (3821), and quoted in a note a pas- 
sage of * terrific sublimity ' from * The Scot- 
tish Chiefs/ The tradition that Scott ac- 
knowledged in conversation with George IV 

that this book was the begetter of the Waver- 
ley novels must be regarded as apocryphal. 
The book has retained its popularity (it was 
reprinted nine times between 1816 and 
1882), and is one of the few historical novels 
prior to 'Waverley 9 that have lived. 

In 1815 appeared, in three volumes, * The 
Pastor's Fireside/ a novel dealing with the 
later Stuarts ; a second edition was published 
in 1817, and later ones in 1832 (2 vols.), 
1856, and 1880. 

Miss Porter now turned to the stage and 
wrote a play, ' Egmont, or the Eve of St. 
Alyne.' It was submitted to Kean, who 
praised it, but his fellow-actors thought less 
well of it ; and it seems never to have beeu 
either acted or printed. On 5 Feb. 1819 a 
tragedy by her called ' Switzerland' was acted 
at Drury Lane with Kean in the principal, 
and Henry Kemble in a subordinate, part. It 
was so heartily condemned that the manager 
had to come forward and announce its with- 
drawal (Blackwootfs Mag. iv. 714 ; GENEST, 
Hist, of the Stage, viii. 683). 'Miss Porter 
is sick too/ wrote Miss Mitford on 5 July 
1820, ' of her condemned play. I have not 
much pity for her. Her disease is wounded 
vanity.' Macready mentions a new tragedy 
in which Kean played at Drury Lane on 
28 Jan. 1822, * Owen, Prince of Powys/ 
'written, I believe, by Miss Jane Porter a 
sad failure ' (Reminiscences, i. 233), 

Through Dr. Adam Clarke [q. y.], the 
king's librarian, who was among Miss Por- 
ter's acquaintances, George IV suggested the 
subject of her next work, * Duke Christian of 
Luneburg, or Traditions of the Harz.' Clarke 
supplied Miss Porter with authorities ; it was 
published in three volumes in 1824, and de- 
dicated to the king, who expressed satis- 
faction with it. 

In 1831 was published, in three volumes, 
'Sir Edward Seaward's Narrative of his 
Shipwreck and consequent Discovery of cer- 
tain Islands in the Caribbean Sea: with a 
detail of many extraordinary and highly 
interesting Events of his Life from 1733 to 
1749 as written in his own Diary, edited by 
Jane Porter.' The book made a great sen- 
sation, but is doubtless largely, if not wholly, 
fictitious. Miss Porter asserted that the diary 
was genuine, and had been placed in her 
hands by the writer's family (Notes and 
Queries, 1st ser. v. 10, 185,352}. When pressed 
on the matter, she said, * Sir Walter Scott 
had Ms great secret : I must be allowed to 
keej my little one.' In the preface to the 
edition of 1841 she refers to a report of the 
Royal Geographical Society to prove that 
the islands were not imaginary. Many ac- 
cepted her statements literally (cf. HALL, Re- 




irospect of a Long Life). But the * Quarterly ' 
(No. 48, pp. 501 et seq.), while commending 
the literary ability of the work, characterised 
it as unmingled fiction. According to an 
inscription in Bristol Cathedral to the me- 
mory of her eldest brother, Dr. William 
Ogilvie Porter, he was the real author ; but 
the inscription, doubtless written by Jane, is 
not to be wholly trusted (Notes and Queries, 
ib.) The book was reissued in 1832, 185:2, 
1856, 1878, 1879, and 1883. 

After the publication of 'Thaddeus' in 
1803, and until her mother's death on 21 June 
1831, Miss Porter resided chiefly at Thames 
Ditton and Esher in Surrey. In May 1812 
Orabb Robinson met her, noted her fine 
figure and interesting- face, and was pleased 
by her conversation (Diary, i. 200, 201). In 
March 1832 she and her sister settled in Lon- 
don, frequently visiting Bristol, where their 
eldest brother, William Ogilvie Porter, was 
in medical practice. While living in London, 
Miss Porter went much into society, and met 
or corresponded with most of the literary and 
artistic celebrities of her day. Maginn notes 
her fondness for evening parties, ' where she 
generally contrives to be seen patronising 
some sucking lion or lioness/ In 1835 Lady 
Morgan met her at Lady Stepney's, and de- 
scribes her as ' tall, lank, lean, and lackadai- 
sical . . , and an air of a regular Melpomene ' 
(Memoirs, ii. 396), In the same year N. P. 
Willis visited Kenil worth in Miss Porter's 
company, and wrote to Miss Mitford of * her 
tall and striking figure, her noble face . , . still 
possessing the remains of uncommon beauty' 
(L'EsTKiFGE, Friendships of M. . Mitford, 
i 295). In 1842 Miss Porter went to St. 
Petersburg to visit her brother Robert, who 
died suddenly very shortly after her arrival. 
She returned to London, and the business of 
her brother's estate, of which she was execu- 
trix, occupied her until 1844. Judging from 
-unpublished diaries, she seems to have suf- 
fered great pecuniary difficulty. At the be- 
ginning of 1842, however, she received from 
Mr.Yirtue 210Z, for The Scottish Chiefs/ and 
in November 1842 50 was granted to her 
from the Literary Fund. Her books' had 
a, wide circulation iji America, In 1844 a 
number of authors, publishers, and book- 
sellers of the United States sent her a rose- 
wood armchair, as a token of their admira- 
tion (Gent* Maa. 1845,, i, 173). 

She retained her intellectual faculties 
and serene disposition, and died on 24 May 
1850 at the house of her eldest brother, Dr, 
Porter, in Portland. Square, Bristol. In the 
cathedral is a tablet to her memory, and to 
that of her brothers and sister. 
Jane Porter, like her sister, regarded her 

work very seriously, and believed the exer- 
cise of her literary gifts to be a religious duty. 
She was of somewhat sombre temperament, 
and S. 0. Hall called her *I1 Penseroso.' She 
was generally admitted to be very handsome. 
Miss Mitford considered her the only lite- 
rary lady she had seen who was not fit 
' for a scarecrow * (L'EsTEANGB, Life of Miss 
Mitford, ii. 152). A fine portrait of her as a 
canoness was painted by Harlowe, and was 
engraved by Thomson ; it is reproduced in 
Jerdan's ' National Portrait Gallery ' (vol. v.) 
Another portrait by the same painter and 
the same engraver appears in Burke's ' Por- 
trait Gallery of Distinguished Females ' (ii. 
71). West painted her as Jephthah's daugh- 
ter in a picture that was at Frogmore in 
1834. Maclise drew her in outline for 
* Eraser's Magazine/ and she there appears 
amon^ Retina's maids of honour, stirring a 
cup of colree cf. MACLISE, Portrait Gallery, 
p. 355). Dibdin mentions a portrait by Kears- 
ley (Reminiscences, pt. i. p. 175). In an 
altar-piece presented by R. K. Porter to St. 
John's College, Cambridge, Jane is painted 
as Faith. 

Besides the works noticed, Miss Porter 
published ' Sketch of the Campaign of Count 
A. Suwarrow Ryminski/ 1804, and a pre- 
face to 'Young Hearts, by a Recluse/ 
1834. She also took part with her sister 
Anna Maria in ' Tales round a Winter 
Hearth/ 2 vols., 1826, and <The Field of 
Forty Footsteps/ 3 vols., 1828, and contri- 
buted to the * Gentleman's Magazine/ Mr. 
S. C. Hall's * Amulet/ and other periodicals. 
Several unpublished works by both the sis- 
ters were sold in 1852, and cannot now be 

[No satisfactory biography of Jane Porter 
exists. Brief accounts occur in Elwood's Literary 
Ladies of England, vol. ii, ; AUibone's Diet of 
Engl. Lit, ii. J645; Hall's Book of Memories. 
The Ker Porter Correspondence, sold by Sotheby 
in 1852 (cf. Catalogue in the British Museum), 
contained materials for a biography, and was pur- 
chased by Si? Thomas PhiUipps of Middle Hill.] 

E. L. 

PORTER or NELSON, JEROME (d. 1632), 
Benedictine monk, was professed at Paris 
for St. Gregory's, Douay, on 8 Dec. 1622, 
and died at Douay on 17 Nov, 1682 (Ssrow, 
Necrology, p. 39). 

He wrote : 1. * The Flowers of the Lives 
of the most renowned Saincts of the Three 
Kingdoms, England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
Written and co-llected out of the best 
Axithours and Manuscripts of our Nation, 
and distributed according to their Feasts in 
the Calendar/ vol. i. containing the calendar 
to the end of June, Douay, 1632, 4to. Pedi* 




cated to Thomas, second and last lord 
Windsor. The second volume, prepared for 
the press by Francis Hull, O.S.B., seems 
never to have been published. 2. ' The Life 
of St. Edward, King and Confessor/ sine 
loco, 1710, 8vo. A new edition, 'revised 
and corrected by a priest ' (i.e. 0. J. Bowen), 
appeared at London, 1868, 12mo. 

[Downside Review, iii. 252, vi. 133; Oliver's 
Cornwall, p. 521 ; Weldon's Chronological Notes, 
p. 168.] T. C. 

PORTER, JOHN SCOTT (1801-1880), 
Irish biblical scholar and Unitarian divine, 
eldest son of William Porter (1774-1843), 
by his first wife, Mary, daughter of Charles 
Scott, was born at Newtownlimavady, co. 
Deny, on 31 Dec. 1801 . His father, who 
was presbyterian minister of Newtown- 
limavady from 1799 till his death, held the 
clerkship of the general svnod of Ulster from 
6 Nov. 1816 to 29 June 1830; he joined the 
remonstrants under Henry Montgomery, 
LL.D. [q. v.], was elected the first moderator 
of the remonstrant synod of Ulster on 25 May 
1830, and held its clerkship from 6 Sept. 1831 
till his death. Scott Porter, after passing 
through schools at Dirtagh and Londonderry, 
was admitted as a student for the ministry 
under the care of Strabane presbytery. He 
took his arts course at the Belfast ' academical 
institution 7 in 1817-19 and 1821-3, acting 
in the interim as tutor in a private family 
in co, Kilkenny. He received silver medals 
for mathematics, natural philosophy, and for 
* speaking Greek extempore/ In 1823-5 he 
studied Hebrew and divinity under Thomas 
Dix Hincks, LL.D. [q. v.], and SamuelHanna, 
D.D. .[q. v.] He was licensed in October 
1825 by Bangor presbytery without sub- 
scription. On 1 Jan. 1826 he received a 
unanimous call from the presbyterian con- 
gregation in Carter Lane, Doctors' Commons, 
London, and was ordained there on 2 March, 
in succession to John Hoppus [q. v,} His 
views were Arian, and he became the editor 
(1826-8) of an Arian monthly, the ' Christian 
Moderator; 7 but he was in friendly relations 
with Thomas Belsham [q. y.}, the leader of 
the Priestley school of opinion, and acted as 
a pall-bearer at Belsham's funeral in 1829. 
He kept a school at Rosornan House > Isling- 
ton, in conjunction with David Davidson, 
minister at the Old Jewry ; his scholars called 
him * the lion ; ' among his pupils was Dion. 
Boucicault the dramatist (who then spelled 
his name Boursiquot). In January 1829 he 
declined a call to the second presbyterian 
church of Belfast, to which his cousin, John. 
Porter (1800-1874), was appointed. He ac- 
cepted a caU (11 Sept. 1831) to the first 

presbyterian church of Belfast, and was in- 
stalled on